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the church of England had used for a thousand years.

The table given above, full as it is and much more so than of the later editions, is not to be understood as exactly corresponding to the contents of all the early manuals. It omits for example one very important part which is seldom however to be found in them after 1520. I mean the Greater form of excommunication. As I propose to give this form entire in the present work I think it unnecessary to do more here than notice the cir


The book of occasional offices was, if I mistake not, always known in England by the name of manual but abroad there were other names given to it, which require a brief mention.

The most usual of these was Ritual; rituale or liber ritualis; and with this was sometimes joined the manuale, as for example: "Rituale seu manuale ecclesiæ Catalaunensis" (Chalons), 1649. And it is this title which the Roman catholic church has adopted of late years rituale sacramentorum Romanum.37

37"Rituale Romanum a ritibus in eo descriptis, nomen desumpsisse concordant omnes DD. et ipsamet etymologia satis docet, eo pacto, quo missale a missa, sacramentarium a sacramentis, processionale a processionibus, et alia hujusmodi volumina derivationem traxere a rebus in iisdem descriptis et explicatis. . . . In ecclesia Catholica nomen hoc Rituale præcipue invaluit tempore Pauli V.

tunc quando (anno sc. 1614) jussit ex antiquis præscriptis cæremoniis ab ecclesia apostolica non discrepantibus volumen unum confici, in quo sacri ejusdem ecclesiæ ritus in sacramentorum administratione, aliisque ecclesiasticis functionibus servandi comprehenderentur, illudque Rituale Romanum appellari mandavit." Baruffaldus, ad rit. Rom. comm. tit. 1. cap. I.

Sometimes the book was called Agenda; and this of course in quite a different meaning from that in which the term was (very anciently) applied to the holy communion: 38 thus we have, "Agenda parochialium ecclesiarum Argentinensis diœcesis" (Strasburg). Again and further explained in the title: Agenda, seu rituale Osnabrugense, 1653." Again, a book of which there is a copy in the Cambridge university library: "Agenda S. Coloniensis ecclesiæ: hoc est, liber pastoralis, in quo continentur omnia quæ in sacramentis administrandis-officium spectant," 4to. Colon. 1637.

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Another title was Sacramentale; of which Zaccaria gives three examples, all of churches in Italy: and one of Sacramentarium.39 Much more usual was Pastorale: as, "Pastorale ecclesiæ sive diœcesis Gandavensis" (Ghent), 1640. Or more fully, of


Ducange, Glossarium. The Agenda mortuorum occurs repeatedly in the antiphoner of St. Gregory; and compare the ninth canon of the council of Carthage, A.D. 397: "Ab universis episcopis dictum est: quisquis presbyter inconsulto episcopo agenda in quolibet loco voluerit celebrare, ipse honori suo contrarius existit." Labbe et Cossart, tom. 2. col. 1162. See also Bona, rer. liturg. lib. 1. cap. iij. The notes to the folio edition cite an important place out of Bede, Vita S. Augustini Cantuar. episc.: "Per omne sabbatum a presbytero loci illius agendæ eorum solemniter cele

brantur." Those who remember
how much hangs upon the full
meaning of τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν
μ àváμvnow will not regret
ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν
having their attention turned to
this extract. "Facere," I need
scarcely add, also signifies to
offer, as in the famous place of
Tertullian, de corona, "pro
natalitiis annua die facimus."
Opera, p. 102.

Agenda seems to be a title used frequently on the continent for "ritual" or "manual," since 1500. See Daniel, Codex liturg. pp. 155, 158.

39 Bibl. ritualis, tom I. p. 156.

Mechlin, in a copy before me: "Pastorale, sive canones et ritus ecclesiastici, qui ad sacramentorum administrationem aliaque pastoralia officia rite obeunda pertinent," 1589. In the ancient catalogue of the Durham books we find "Pastoralis, eximius liber." But this could not have been a manual, for it is among books headed, "Hii sunt libri qui leguntur ad collationem." 40 So there is a "Liber pastoralis" among the books which William bishop of Durham gave to St. Cuthbert's church. We know nothing which will enable us to decide what this particular book was.

Once more; another title was Obsequiale: of which I remember only one example; printed in 1487 at Augsburg for the use of the church of that diocese. This contains the usual offices which are

in the manuals and rituals.

The manual cited above, printed at Douay 1604, has a name in its colophon which was also occasionally in use by itself as a title, namely, Institutio: "Hæc sacra institutio baptizandi, et alia quædam sacramenta et ritus ecclesiasticos administrandi," &c. With the same meaning we have "Institutio parochorum, recognita et edita jussu D. Petri, arch. Viennensis," 1586: and again; "Institutio catholica, quam manuale vocant, edita auctoritate D. Eustachii Parisiensis episcopi," 1552.

Lastly, besides all these which contain under such various titles the same offices there is one other book, which seems to be that which Lyndwood explains (though I cannot but think erroneously) to be the manual intended in the archbishop's constitution.

40 Catalogi veteres librorum, Surtees society, p. 9.

Whether parishes were bound under that statute to furnish also the processional which is not specifically named, either in the same volume with the manual or separately in another, is not the point I am enquiring into and admits of dispute: for it certainly was not necessarily nor usually included in it. Lyndwood says, after the word "Benedicendorum" in the passage cited p. lxxxvij, "et hic, in hoc loco, manualis nuncupatione, puto etiam contineri ea quæ sunt usitata in processionibus ecclesiasticis quandocunque fiendis; ut sic etiam liber processionalis dicatur manuale, licet hic de eo non fiat mentio specialis."

But the Sacerdotale does answer to these requisitions; in it are not only the contents of the manual or ritual but also of the processional, and some other books besides. A copy is now lying before me, "Sacerdotale secundum usum S. R. ecclesiæ," Venetiis, 1558. This contains (the full table would occupy many pages) several treatises and prefaces at the beginning, followed by the offices of the sacraments and occasional rites, with disquisitions and rules and resolutions of difficult cases; then the various benedictions; a full processional; a calendar and computus and explanations; a treatise on the chanting and church-music; and lastly, exorcisms and popular sermons on the great festivals. In short, the contents fully bear out the promise of the title of the book, a title very different from the manual: "in quo non solum omnium sacramentorum quæ a sacerdotibus fieri possunt, officia: verum etiam resolutiones omnium dubiorum ad ea pertinentium, et excommunicationum canones, cum brevi illarum et absoluta declaratione ex sacris doctoribus

collecta, multaque alia sacerdotibus valde utilia atque necessaria continentur." 41



AVING now gone through and attempted to explain the list of service books ordered in the constitution of archbishop Winchelsey, our next step is to notice those which are mentioned in the other statutes which I cited. And among these the Breviarium claims the first place. 42

I am called upon to make some remarks upon the breviary in another part of these volumes: here I shall repeat that the word itself occurs for the first time in Micrologus, an author of about A. D. 1080. Some say that it was so called as containing not merely an arrangement but an abbreviation of the Divine offices; probably both reasons may have had their influence on the name. However this may be, the breviary in its full and settled state, say from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, contained the whole offices of the canonical hours throughout the year; of the great festivals, the saints' days, the sundays, and the week-days. These were arranged under their respective days, with rubrics directing to certain prayers, hymns, or

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