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FRAGMENTS OF THE CATHOLIC EPISTLES: :
(1 St. Peter iv. 17-2 St. Peter ii. 7.
I St. John i. 8-iii. 20)
ALSO FRAGMENTS OF THE APOCALYPSE AND OF THE
ACTS FROM THE FLEURY PALIMPSEST (h)
THESE precious Palimpsest Fragments of the Catholic Epistles are now preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris, where they form four leaves (Foll. 122, 123, 128 and 129) of a large volume numbered 6400 G. Together with fourteen other leaves—ten of the Acts and four of the Apocalypse--they represent all that survives of a MS. that contained an Old Latin form of text, and is now known as h. The fragments extend in all from Fol. 113 to Fol. 130.
Sabatier copied out three of the easiest pages, and published them in 1743 in his Bibl. Sacr. Lat. Vers. Ant., tom. iii, p. 507 ff.
A. Vansittart of Cambridge published some further portions in the Journal of Philology in 1869 and 1872.
H. Omont gave the text of four pages of the Apocalypse in the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes in 1883.
J. Belsheim in 1887 published about two-thirds of the MS. in an edition which would have been more accurate had he consulted the readings given by other scholars before him.
Finally Berger in 1889 (Le Palimpseste de Fleury. Paris. Fishbacher) issued a wellnigh complete edition of the whole eighteen leaves. Berger's edition is a monument of patient and accurate research. I gladly acknowledge that I have been but a gleaner in a field from which he has gathered the harvest. To complete Berger's work and to leave no point unresolved, I have spent two whole years in ascertaining and verifying the small part of the text-about one-fiftieth of the whole—that he left unascertained or doubtful. Many pages will be found to be practically a reprint of his edition. These have been added from a wish to provide those who do not possess Berger's work with a complete edition of the Palimpsest.
In the present edition of the four leaves of the MS. that contain the Fragments of the Catholic Epistles, I owe much to the excellence of the photographs taken for me by MM. Berthaud Frères. I am deeply indebted to Mr. Valentine Richards who lent me Berger's photographs.
The Fragments appear to have been written in the fifth century. Subsequently three correctors at different periods corrected the text, which was finally washed and scraped with pumice in the late seventh or early eighth century to receive part of the De Mundo of St. Isidore.
The text of the Catholic Epistles preserved in h is unique among extant Latin MSS., and as such is worthy of the patience required to decipher the more difficult pages of the MS.
The ligatures I have noted are unc, unt, ua, ur, us, ut, ae, re, ns, and nt.
ha much resembles in writing the original scribe, and is of the same century. The Vulgate is unknown to him.
hb, a most prolific corrector, inserts on Fol. 128 alone forty-three corrections, all of which are Vulgate readings. His corrections, except in a few instances, have been neglected. He is of the
late sixth or early seventh century. The work of the corrector is sometimes a clue to the reading of the first hand : viz., the discovery of adulescentes in the large letters of hb above the line in i St. Peter v. 5 led to the search for and discovery of the reading underneath-et uos minores natu.
The Fragments contain twenty-three lines on a page, and are headed EPISTOLA PETRI PRIMA (uel SECUNDA), and EPISTOLA IOHANNIS PRIMA. The titles are in uncials which are only slightly larger than the average size of those used in the text. The size of individual letters varies considerably in different lines in the MS. Sometimes the scribe contracts and sometimes he expands the size and interspaces of his letters. On the same page he will write fifty letters in one line and but forty in a subsequent line, his usual number being about forty-eight, of which forty on an average now survive. A remarkable unfixedness in the spelling of proper names is noticeable in the Acts, where Paulus is variously spelt paulus, laulus, paus, and even populus; whilst Moses appears as moyses, monses and mosses. A similar unfixedness of spelling occurs in ff. The form anim, which regularly replaces enim in the Epistles of St. Peter, is a peculiarity of h that also deserves attention. Of the punctuation that I have discovered not more than five (or six) points, if we except numerals, can be ascribed to h*: the rest is due to hn and hb.
AFTER revising the Catholic Epistles I set myself to decipher the few lines in the Apocalypse and Acts which that eminent scholar the late Samuel Berger had not fully deciphered. Berger accomplished more than any other one man could have done; but he himself did not regard his work as final. By persistent study I have been able to discover some new readings.
Many pages in the MS. must be read upside down in respect of the superposed writing. In the few instances where I differ from Berger it is only after a thrice-repeated examination both of the MS, and of photographs that I secured in Paris of the more difficult pages. I was happy enough in the end to decipher every word undeciphered by Berger. In Acts xiv. 6 the interpolation sicut iħs dixerat eis LX[XII] is, I believe, peculiar to hacts
. It is doubly interesting because St. Luke is the only one who mentions the LXX [LXXII) in his Gospel. It is almost certain, from considerations of space, that our MS. read LXXII and not LXX. The use of fidelitas = plotis (iii. 16) and languidus = ådúvatos (xiv. 7) is also noteworthy. The words of St. Paul in xiv. 9, tibi dico in nomine iħu nostri dni fili dēi, are also read in this form only by h, though both d and e have a somewhat similar text, but omit fili dei.
The heading of the Acts is : ACTUS APOSTOLORUM SANTORUM (sic). Similarly santorum occurs for sanctorum in iii. 21. The Apocalypse has the title : APOCALYPSIS IOHANNIS APOSTOLI.
There is a striking resemblance in the Acts between these fragments and the Latin Irenaeus.
The correctors who corrected the Catholic Epistles corrected also the Acts and the Apocalypse. hb constantly corrects to the norm of the Vulgate. In Acts iii. 13 a new corrector (hc), later than hb, added high above the line an s to tradidisti
. The copyist of the De Mundo clipped away as a rule three inches from one side of each leaf before using it.Had he clipped equally from both sides, but few (if any) letters would have perished. As it is, the average loss from each line is about eight letters. In addition the lines found at the foot of a few of the pages, as in the case of Folios 120 and 127, have lost some additional letters owing to the vellum having become slightly worn on the right-hand margin. Missing letters have in every case been restored in brackets. Ínasmuch as the vellum is normally shorn vertically, it is possible to make this restoration with great precision at the beginning of a line," by calculating from the space of known missing letters the space that must have been
1 One page of the Acts (Fol. 125) by an error contains only twenty-two lines in Berger's edition.
? I have placed the Folio numbers of such pages on the left hand above the text—in the MS. they are on the left hand below the text and inverted.
: The vellum having text on both sides, the clipping away of the first letters of the lines on one side of a leaf would involve the loss of the last letters of the lines on the other side and vice versa.
* It is obvious from the fact that at the end of a line the scribe not infrequently writes two or three letters in the margin, or in ligature, that such precision is only attainable at the beginning of a line.
occupied by missing letters as yet unknown. Thus on Folio 119, from the space of the known missing word uerba in l. 11, we deduce plebe]m (not populu]m) in l. 12, and quies]cit (not defi]cit) in l. 15. In not more than five or six instances is there any uncertainty in this restoration'.
One-fifth of the pages of the original MS. was all that the copyist preserved.
EPISTOLA PETRI PRIMA
Folio 129 uerso
(1 St. Peter iv. 17-v. 10)
dum đm non in turpi lucro sed promticordes: (neque do
erit princeps pastorum rationem redditis d[e grege et
coronam similiter et uos minores natu subiecti estote
de uobis sobrii estote uigilategilate autem quia aduersarius
transuoret 'cui resistite fortes in fide scientes (has passio
1. 3. parabunt : correxit h*.
11. apparuerit ha. correxit h* uel ha.
13. et uos minores natu : adulescentes hb. 18. saper ha. gilate autem : gilate antem improbauit ho. 22. fratermitate : correxit h* uel ha.
redditis : 19. uigilate
EPISTOLA PETRI PRIMA ET SECUND[A]
(1 St. Peter v. 10-2 St. Peter i. 6)
12 Per siluandum fratrem fidelem uobis ut arbitror brebi 1 One such instance is Apoc. xii. 11, where it is impossible to say whether the scribe wrote amau Jerunt or dilex }erunt. In the Acts misnistris (v. 34) and (armatis (xxiii. 23) have no MS. authority.