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the proper covering of vessels, receptacles,
For the prevention of danger from steam whirli-
For the regulation of overhead wires, telegraph,
The following is a list of the chief regulations Regulations as local authorities are empowered to make :—
to communication between sewers and
Under Section 21, P.H., 1875, a local authority drains. may make regulations with respect to the mode in which communications between sewers and drains are to be made.
Under Section 125 of the same Act alocal authority Removal to may make regulations (to be approved by the Local Government Board) as to the removal of patients to hospitals. Penalties for breach may be inflicted up
Under Section 143, P.H., 1875, any local authority Post-mortem may make regulations as to the management of places provided for post-mortem examination.
1 See previous footnote, p. 78.
the transaction of business.
Management of Sanitary Conveniences.
Regulations as to cabmen's shelters.
Local Board regulations as to cholera.
Under the Dairies, Cowshed, and Milk-shops Order, art. 13, local authorities may make regulations.
Under Section 189, P.H., 1875, an urban authority may make regulations with regard to the duties and conduct of their officers and servants. (N.B.A Rural Sanitary Authority has not this power.) Under Schedule I., P.H., 1875,
Every Local Board 1 shall make regulations with respect to the summoning, notice, place, management, and adjournment of their meetings, and generally with respect to the transaction and management of their business under this Act.'
Under Section 20, P.H. Acts Amendment Act, an urban authority which has adopted the section, and has provided sanitary conveniences for public use, may make regulations for the management of the same.
Under Section 20 (2) of the same Act an urban authority may make regulations for prescribing the terms, conditions, and fees, if any, to be charged for cabmen's shelters.
Lastly may be mentioned the regulations which the Local Government Board has power to make under Sections 130 and 134 of the Public Health Act, 1875, in relation to cholera and other dangerous infectious disease.
1 This duty only applies to Local Boards, and not to Urban Sanitary Authorities generally.
STATUTORY PROVISIONS WITH REGARD TO THE
PREVENTION OF DISEASE
visions as to
tion are different in different localities, some
THE statutory provisions with regard to the pre- Statutory provention of disease differ somewhat in different Disease Prevenlocalities. There are three distinct cases(1) Districts in which neither the Notification nor Prevention of Infectious Diseases Acts are in Disease Prevenforce.
(2) Districts in which one or both those Acts have been adopted.
(3) The Metropolis, in which practically both Acts are in force, for the provisions have been consolidated into, and form a part of, the new Public Health (London) Act.
The sanitary laws relative to the Metropolis will receive separate consideration, so also will matters relating to sanitary affairs in our ports.
tion and Notification Acts-others
deal with the
under the Public
First, we will take the case of sanitary districts in The powers to which the Infectious Diseases Notification and Pre- prevention of Disease simply vention Acts are not in force. The provisions more particularly bearing upon disease prevention may be grouped under the following heads :
(1) Simple cleansing.
(2) Disinfection of matters exposed to infection.
(3) Provisions against exposure of the living infectious person.
(4) Provisions for the purpose of ensuring that rooms let for hire are first made safe and free from infection.
(5) Special powers to cope with unusual or extraordinary epidemics possessed by the Local Government Board.
(6) Special regulations with regard to milk and
(7) The establishment of hospitals.
It is a distinct duty laid upon the authority, both under Sections 46 and 120, P.H., 1875, that when they have received a certificate from either their medical officer of health, or any legally-qualified practitioner, that any house within their district, or part of a house (e.g., a single room), requires cleansing and disinfecting with a view to the prevention of disease, to give notice in writing to the owner or occupier to cleanse and disinfect. A money penalty not exceeding 10s. per day is provided for default.
Tenement houses, that is, houses let in lodgings, can be compelled to be kept clean and sweet by washing, limewashing, and the like, by bye-laws under Section 90, and common lodging-houses by bye-laws under Section 80 (see also Section 82 as to limewashing at stated intervals). Canal boats can be
compelled under the regulations of the Local Government Board to be cleansed (Canal Boats Act, 1877, Section 2); factories and bakehouses under the 3rd, 33rd, and 34th Sections of the Factory and Workshop Act, 1878, and Section 3 of the Factory and Workshop Act, 1891.
The above-mentioned 120th Section of the Public Disinfection. Health Act, 1875, is the chief working section which a sanitary officer depends upon to enforce disinfection. When a notice is served for articles or rooms, etc., to be disinfected, and the notice is not complied with, besides enforcing the penalty of 10s. per day, it becomes the duty of the local authority to cleanse and disinfect, and the expenses of such cleansing and disinfecting may be recovered from the owner or occupier in a summary manner.
'Where the owner or occupier is from poverty or otherwise unable, in the opinion of the authority to effectually carry'
out the requirements, the authority may, with the consent of the owner or occupier, do the work themselves.
There are thus several distinct cases in which a Cases in which local authority can legally disinfect
Firstly. A notice has been served and not obeyed. In this case the authority has power to disinfect.
Secondly. Owner unable from poverty or otherwise and gives his consent. Then authority can do it.
a local authority can legally disinfect.