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METROPOLITAN SANITARY LAW
THE subject of this lecture is the sanitary government so far as relates to the public health of the greatest city of modern times, viz., London.
By the term 'London' is meant the Administrative What is meant County of London which consists of the following:
by the term London.'
(1) The City of London (Public Health (London) Act, sect. 99 [a]).
(2) Districts defined in Schedule A of the Metropolis Management Act, 1855, as amended by subsequent Acts.
(3) Districts defined by Schedule B of the same Act as amended.
(5) A number of small districts, such as Lincoln's Inn and others, which were formerly not specially provided for enumerated in Schedule C of the beforementioned Local Management Act.1
The City of London,
1 The following is a list of the districts comprising the administrative County, with the population according to the census 1891 :—
St. George, Hanover Square,
St. John, Hampstead,
St. Paul, Fulham,
St. Mary, Battersea,
St. Margaret and St. John the Evangelist, Westminster,
The Charter House, Gray's Inn, the Close of the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, Staple Inn, and Furnival's Inn,
The total population of the Administrative County of London, on the 6th of April 1891, is returned as
4,231,431, a total which, from circumstances which it is unnecessary now to enter upon, is more likely to be under than over stated.
The authorities having sanitary jurisdiction in the Metropolis are
(1) The County Council.
Authorities having sanitary
(2) The Vestries and District Boards (Metropolis jurisdiction in Management Act, 1855, and Public Health London Act, 1891, sect. 99).
(3) And, in the case of the small districts mentioned in Schedule C of the Local Management Act, the Boards of Guardians.
(4) The Police in the carrying out of the provisions of the Common Lodging-House Acts.
(6) Besides which the Local Government Board have the same powers of general supervision that they have over the rest of the country.
(7) The Secretary of State has also some few duties in relation to the Public Health.
The City has been left for the most part with its privileges and powers unimpaired, it is therefore still governed by the Commissioners of Sewers.
The special laws governing the City will not form part of the subject-matter of this lecture.
The chief Sanitary Acts in force in the County of Sanitary Acts
in force in London.
London (omitting the City) are as follows:
The Metropolis Local Management Acts of 1855,
General powers of the County Council.
Executive functions of County Council.
General Paving Metropolis Act, 1817, 57
Metropolitan Building Act, 1855, with various
Metropolis Water Acts of 1852 and 1871.
Sale of Food and Drugs Acts of 1875 and 1879.
Customs and Inland Revenue Act.
Local Government Act.
The Factory and Workshops Acts.
Housing of the Working-Classes Act, 1890.
powers and duties of the County Council are of a varied and wide character. Those that relate to the Public Health admit of the following classification :
THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNTY COUNCIL.
The County Council stands in the shoes of the old Metropolitan Board of Works which was established by the Metropolis Local Management Act of 1855, a Board the main object and duties of which were to perfect the main sewerage of London, to deal with the sewage, to supervise the paving, lighting, and to improve the place generally. These duties now descend to the County Council. By Section 135, Metropolis Local Management Act, 1855, the
main sewers (of which a list is given in the schedules to the Act), vest in the County Council, they are Vesting and repairable by them, and have to be maintained and of sewers. cleansed by them. The County Council have also power to make new main sewers, and to carry such sewers through private lands.
By a series of statutes such as 25 and 26 Vict. c. 102; 21 and 22 Vict. c. 104; 33 and 34 Vict. c. 140 (Thames Navigation Act, 1870), 25 and 26 Vict. c. 93 (Thames Embankment Act, 1862), some of which have been repealed, and others having answered their purpose, are now but of historic interest, the Council have extensive borrowing Sewage powers in relation to sewage disposal, they have to keep the Thames as free from sewage as practicable within the Metropolis.
The County Council have also extensive powers Powers as to with regard to the making of new streets or widen- buildings. ing of existing thoroughfares (18 and 19 Vict. c. 120, sect. 144). They have to see to the line of frontage (ibid. sect. 143), and to the naming and numbering of the houses (ibid. 141). The height of buildings, the width of roads (25 and 26 Vict. c. 102, sects. 85, 98), the supervision of dangerous structures, the building of houses so as to minimise the danger from fire (18 and 19 Vict. c. 122; 32 and 33 Vict. c. 82); the erection of new houses at a prescribed distance from the centre of the roadway (Metropolis Management and Building Acts, Amendment Act, 41 and 42 Vict. c. 32), the maintenance and preservation of open spaces (Metropolis