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parochial relief.

Parochial relief, save relief on

account of accident or temporary illness, disqualifies

a tenant, and it would seem to be the duty of the authority to get rid of such tenant.

Condition implied on Letting Houses to the
Working Classes.

Common Law

dition with

In the letting of a furnished house there is an Under the implied condition that it is, in all respects, reason- implied conably fit for occupation, if it is not, he may quit, and respect to an action will not lie for use and occupation.

letting fur

This nished houses.

has been decided even in a case in which a house was infested with bugs. (Smith v. Marrable, 2 M. and W. 5; Campbell v. Lord Wenlock, 4 F. and F. 717.) The law reports abound with cases relating to furnished apartments having been let, and successful actions brought on the ground of bad drainage, or other defects.

On the other hand this has never been the case with unfurnished houses, the motto has been caveat emptor; the landlord, unless he gave a warranty, could let his house unfurnished although it possessed serious sanitary defects, and yet run no exceptional risk. The 75th Section of the Housing Implied conof the Working-Classes Act alters the law in unfurnished respect to a certain class of property, for the effect certain low of the 75th Section is, that if a room or rooms be let in the Metropolis, the aggregate rent of which does not exceed £20 per annum-in Liverpool £13, in Manchester and Birmingham £10,

dition as to

rooms of a


and elsewhere £8-'there shall be implied a condition that the house is, at the commencement of the holding, in all respects reasonably fit for human habitation.'

In the case of weekly lettings, the commencement of the holding is the commencement of every seven days from the first letting, hence the weekly tenant, if he chooses to exert it, has a very effectual remedy against his landlord for bad sanitary condition.



In England and Wales there are about seven thousand families living in boats on canals. The sanitation of these floating houses is controlled by the Canal Boats Acts of 1877 and 1884.

Canal Boats.

Under these Acts the supervision of the canal Supervision of boats is placed under every sanitary authority through the district of which a canal takes its course, or which has a piece of water coming under the comprehensive definition of the word 'canal,' and which has floating structures coming under the definition of 'canal boats' (see ante, p. 10) according to the Act.

Directly a canal boat ceases to be inhabited it is no longer subject to the Canal Boats Acts; so, again, Exemptions. all vessels registered as ships under the Merchant Shipping Act are exempt from their operation, unless indeed the Local Government Board exercise the power conferred on them by the amending Act of 1884, section 10, and declare that a particular vessel, or class of vessels, shall notwithstanding being registered under the Merchant Shipping Acts come within the Canal Boats Acts.

Although the Acts are in force in every district which possesses a 'canal' as above defined, in some cases it has been found convenient to make


do the bulk of the work.

'informal' arrangements under which the work of enforcing the Acts and regulations are mainly left in the hands of particular authorities possessing special Certain districts facilities for the purpose. Hence it is that, in districts through which a canal simply passes, but which has no basins and no particular resting or stopping places, the authorities of those districts have not appointed any special inspectors; nor is there any work done. It would be manifestly inconvenient, and probably a hindrance to commerce, if canal boats actually moving were interfered with. Under the Canal Boats Acts the Local Government Board is required to make regulations

Local Government Board Regulations.

When a boat

is to be considered registered.

(1) For the registration of Canal Boats;
(2) For the lettering and marking (the marking
to be either on both sides or on the stern, so
that the lettering can be seen from either
side of the canal-Canal Boats Act, 1884);
(3) For fixing the number, age, and sex of the

(4) For promoting cleanliness in and providing
for the habitable condition of canal boats.
(5) For preventing the spread of infectious disease
(Canal Boats Acts, 1877, section 2).

A boat is considered unregistered if the boat is not marked with (a) the name of the place to which the boat belongs; (b) the number; (c) the word 'registered,' e.g., 'No. 327, Liverpool, Registered.'

Under the 1884 Act the Local Government Board was compelled to appoint an inspector or inspectors to supervise the subject generally and

the reports of that Board contain year by year a summary of the effect of the work done in different districts. It may be stated generally that the evidence proves that the operation of the Acts has been of service in raising the sanitary and moral state of the canal population.

The more important regulations of the Canal Boats Acts are as follows:


The following conditions shall be complied with before a canal boat is registered :

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(a) The boat shall contain a cabin or cabins, clean, in good repair, and so constructed as to be capable of being maintained at all times weatherproof, dry, and clean.

(b) The interior of any after-cabin, intended to be used as a dwelling, shall contain not less than 180 cubic feet of free-air space, and the interior of any fore-cabin, if intended to be so used, shall contain not less than 80 cubic feet of free-air space.

(c) 'Every cabin, if intended to be used as a dwelling, shall be provided with sufficient means for the removal of foul and the admission of fresh air, exclusive of the door or doors, or of any opening therein.

(d) 'Every cabin, if intended to be used as a dwelling, shall be so constructed or fitted as to provide adequate and convenient sleeping accommodation for the persons allowed by these regulations to dwell in the boat.

(e) If the boat be a 'narrow' boat (i.e. a boat of less than 7 feet 6 inches beam) every cabin, intended to be used as a dwelling, shall be so constructed or fitted that there shall be no locker or cupboard obstructing the free passage from the door to the bulkhead, and no shut-up cupboard above the cross-bed or on more than one side of the cabin.

(f) 'One cabin at least in the boat shall be furnished with a suitable stove and chimney in a safe and convenient situation, and

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