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To all Officers of Customs ;

To all Medical Officers of Health of the Sanitary Authorities aforesaid ;

To all Masters of Ships ;

And to all others whom it may concern.

'WHEREAS cholera is now prevalent in certain parts of Spain, and it is expedient that regulations should be made, as hereinafter mentioned, with reference to ships having on board bales of rags from that country;

'And whereas the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Customs have signified their consent to the regulations herein contained so far as the same apply to the officers of customs:

'Now therefore we, the Local Government Board, do, by this our Order, and in exercise of the power conferred upon us by Section 130 of the Public Health Act, 1875, and by the Public Health Act, 1889, and every other power enabling us in this behalf, make the following regulations, and declare that they shall be enforced and executed by the authority or authorities hereinafter specified :

'Art. 1. In this Order

The term 'sanitary authority' means port sanitary authority, urban sanitary authority, or rural sanitary authority.

The term 'ship' includes vessel or boat.

The term 'officer of customs' includes any person acting under the authority of the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Customs.

The term 'master' includes the officer, pilot, or other person for the time being in charge or command of a ship.

Art. 2. From and after the twelfth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and ninety, and until the thirty-first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety, no rags from Spain shall be delivered overside, except for the purpose of export, nor landed in any port or place in England or Wales.

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Art. 3. If any rags shall be delivered overside or landed in contravention of this Order, they shall, unless forthwith exported, be destroyed by the person having control over the

same, with such precautions as may be directed by the medical officer of health of the sanitary authority within whose jurisdiction or district the same may be found.

Art. 4. All masters of vessels, consignees, and other persons having control of any rags prohibited under this Order from being delivered overside, except for the purpose of export, or landed, are required to obey these regulations.

Art. 5. All officers of customs are empowered to prevent the delivery overside or landing of rags in contravention of this Order.

Art. 6. It shall be the duty of the sanitary authority to take proceedings against masters of ships, consignees, or other persons having control over any rags, who shall wilfully neglect or refuse to obey or carry out, or shall obstruct the execution of any of these regulations.

'Given under the seal of office of the Local Government
Board this fourth day of September, in the year one
thousand eight hundred and ninety.

(L.S.)

'CHAS. T. RITCHIE, President.

'S. B. PROVIS, Assistant Secretary.

NOTICE.

'Date of publication in the London Gazette,

5th day of September 1890.

The Public Health Act, 1875, provides by Section 130 that any person wilfully neglecting, or refusing to obey or carry out, or obstructing the execution of any regulation made under that section, shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding fifty pounds.'

Duties of Port Sanitary Officers.

Sanitary

The duties of port sanitary officers, in reference to Duties of Port a port sanitary district, are detailed in a general Officers. order of the Local Government Board, issued in 1883. Those duties are very similar to the duties of ordinary sanitary officers; thus, the health officer has to inform himself of all influences affecting the

Duties of inspectors of nuisances.

health of persons on shipboard, to inquire into the etiology of disease and its distribution; to act as the adviser of the port sanitary authority; to visit ships having any dangerous or infectious disease on board; to take steps to abate nuisances and overcrowding; to perform any duties which may be laid upon him by regulation or bye-law; to attend at an office; to make written, special, and also annual reports; to inform the Local Government Board immediately of any outbreak of dangerous or infectious disease, and to give notice to the medical officer of health of any port to which any vessel is sailing, which vessel, when within his district, had dangerous or infectious disease on board.

The duties of an inspector of nuisances in a port are mainly inspection of vessels, the detection of nuisances, the making of reports for his superior officer, the keeping of proper records, and obedience to general or special instructions.

LECTURE IX.

THE HOUSING OF THE WORKING-CLASSES ACT, 1890

THE Housing of the Working-Classes Act, 1890, repealed and consolidated no less than fourteen Acts dealing with the large subject of dwellings for the labouring classes.

is divided into

based respectively on

Cross's,

the Shaftesbury

The Act is divided into seven parts, but the first Act practically three are the essential portions, and the latter four three parts, may be considered as supplemental, hence I may say that the Act naturally divides itself into three parts Torren's, and only; the first of these parts being an amendment Acts. and consolidation of the Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings Acts, which used to be familiarly known by the name of Cross's Act; a second part, the basis of which is the Act formerly known as Torren's Act; while the third part is a consolidation of the Shaftesbury Acts. The main difference between Part I. and Part II. is as follows:-Part I. deals with areas of some size, areas including many houses. Part II. deals with the individual house, or small groups of houses.

PART I.

Part I. is headed unhealthy areas;' it is applicable to the Metropolis, England, Scotland, and Ireland.

Leading idea

of Part I.

First step,
'the official

The leading idea of this portion of the Act is to give sufficient power to the local authority to clear some well-defined unhealthy area in a city, and having removed the unwholesome dwellings, narrow courts, and so forth, and to replace the dwellings so removed by healthy structures in all respects fit for human habitation, and to rearrange the streets on a plan admitting of plenty of air and light.

The first step to put the Act in motion is a representation.' representation by the medical officer of health, and this is called 'the official representation.' In the Metropolis the representation may be made by the local medical officer of health, or by any medical officer of health in London' (Section 5). The officer make this representation of his own free will, or he may be compelled to inspect and report by complaint lodged by two or more Justices, or by twelve or more of the ratepayers, that an area in his district is unhealthy (ibid.).

List of defects in the 4th

Section which will justify a representation -they must be of such a

may

The kind of defects which are supposed to support a representation are set forth in the 4th Section, which states that when an official representation is made to the local authority that within a certain area within the district of such authority either

(a) Any houses, courts, or alleys are unfit for human. habitation, or (b) the narrowness, closeness, and bad arrangement, or the bad condition of the streets and houses or groups of houses within such area, or the want of light, air, ventilation, or proper conveniences, or any other sanitary defects, or one or more of such causes, are dangerous or injurious to the health of remedy, save a the inhabitants either of the building in the said area or of neighbouring buildings, and that the evils connected with such

kind that there

is no other effectual

scheme under

Part I.

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