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In the same weight prudence and innocence take,
MARTIAL, Lib. X. Epigr. xcvi. Saepe loquar mimium gentes, &c.
ME, who have liv'd so long among the great, You wonder to hear talk of a retreat: And a retreat so distant as may show Nothoughts of a return, when once I go. Give me a country, how remote so’er, Where happiness a moderate rate does bear, Where poverty itself in plenty flows, And all the solid use of riches knows. [there;
The ground about the house maintains it, The house maintains the ground about it, here; Here even hunger's dear; and a full board Devours the vital substance of the lord. The land itself does there the feast bestow, The land itself must here to market go. Three or four suits one winter here does waste, One suit does there three or four winters last, Here every frugal man must oft be cold, And little luke-warm fires are to you sold. There fire's an element, as cheap and free, Almost, as any of the other three. Stay you then here, and live among the great, Attend their sports and at their tables eat. When all the bounties here of men you score,
. The place's bounty there shall give me more.
That the philosophical college be situated within one, two, or (at farthest) three miles of London; and, if it be possible to find that convenience upon the side of the river, or very near it. That the revenue of this college amount to four thousand pounds a year. That the company received into it be as follows: 1. Twenty philosophers or professors. 2. Sixteen young scholars, servants to the professors. 3. A chaplain. 4. A bailiff for the revenue. 5. A manciple or purveyor for the provisions of the house. 6. Two gardeners. 7. A master-cook. 8. An under-cook. 9. A butler, 10. An underbutler. 11. A surgeon. 12. Two lungs, or chymical servants. 13. A library-keeper, who is likewise to be apothecary, druggist, and keeper of instruments, engines, &c. 14. An officer to feed and take care of all beasts, fowl, &c. kept by the college. 15. A groom of the stable. 16. A messenger, to send up and down for all uses of the college. 17. Four old women, to tend the chambers, keep the house clean, and such-like services. That the annual allowance for this company be as follows: 1. To every professor, and to the chaplain, one hundred and twenty pounds. 2. To the sixteen scholars, twenty pounds apiece; ten pounds for their diet, and ten pounds for their entertainment. 3. To the bailiff, thirty pounds, besides allowance for his journies. 4. To the purveyor, or manciple, thirty pounds. 5. To each of the gardeners, twenty pounds. 6. To the master-cook, twenty pounds. 7. To the under-cook, four pounds. 8. To the butler, ten pounds. 9. To the under-butler, four pounds. 10. To the surgeon, thirty pounds. 11. To the library-keeper, thirty pounds. 12. To each of the lungs, twelve pounds. 13. To the keeper
* Ingenious men delight in dreams of reformation.—In comparing this Proposition of Cowley, with that of Milton, addressed to Mr. Hartlib, we find that these great poets had amused themselves with some exalted, and, in the main, congenial fancies, on the subject of education: that, of the two plans proposed, this of Mr. Cowley was better digested, and is the less fanciful; if a preference, in this respect, can be given to either, when both are manifestly Utopian: and that our universities, in their presentform, are well enough calculated to answer all the reasonable ends of such institutions; provided we allow for the unavoidable defects of them, when drawn out into practice. Huap.
of the beasts, six pounds, 14. To the groom, five pounds. 15. To the messenger, twelve pounds. 16. To the four necessary women, ten pounds. For the manciple's table, at which all the servants of the house are to eat, exccpt the scholars, one hundred and sixty pounds. For three horses for the service of the college, thirty unds. All which amounts to three thousand two hundred eighty-five pounds. So that there remains for keeping of the house and gardens, and operatories, and instruments, and animals, and experiments of all sorts, and all other expenses, seven hundred and fifteen pounds. Which were a very inconsiderable sum for the great uses to which it is designed, but that I conceive the industry of the college will in a short time so enrich itself, as to get a far better stock for the advance and enlargement of the work when it is once begun: neither is the continuance of particular men's liberality to be despaired of, when it shall be encouraged by the sight of that public benefit which will accrue to all mankind, and chiefly to our nation, by this foundation. Something likewise will arise from leases and other casualties; that nothing of which may be diverted to the private gain of the professors, or any other use besides that of the search of nature, and by it the general good of the world; and that care may be taken for the certain performance of all things ordained by the institution, as likewise for the protection and encouragement of the company, it is proposed: That some person, of eminent quality, a lover of solid learning, and no stranger in it, be chosen chancellor or president of the college, and that eight governors more, men qualified in the like manner, be joined with him, two of which shall yearly be appointed visitors of the college,and receive an exact account of all expenses, even to the smallest, and of the true estate of their public treasure, under the hands and oaths of the professors resident. That the choice of professors in any vacancy belong to the chancellor and the governors; but that the professors (who are likeliest to know what men of the nation are most proper for the duties of their society) direct their choice, by recommending two or three persons to them at every election: and that, if any learned person within his majesty's dominions discover, or emineutly improve, any useful kind of knowledge, he may upon that ground, for his reward and the encouragement of others, be preferred, if he pretend to the place before anybody else. That the governors have power to turn out any professor, who shall be proved to be either scandalous or unprofitable to the society. That the college be built after this, or some such manner: That it consist of three fair quadrangular courts, and three large grounds, enclosed with good walls behind them. That the first court be built with a fair cloister; and the professors' lodgings, or rather little houses, four on each side, at some distance from one another, and with little gardens behind them, just after the manner of the Chartreux beyond sea. That the inside of the cloister be lined with a gravelwalk, and that walk with a row of trees; and
that in the middle there be a parterre of flowers and a fountain. That the second quadrangle, just behind the first, be so contrived, as to contain these parts: 1. A chapel. 2. A hall, with two long tables on each side,for the scholars and officers of the house to eat at, and with a pulpit and forms at the end for the public lectures. 3. A large and pleasant dining-room within the hall, for the professors to eat in, and to hold their assemblies and conferences. 4. A public school-house. 5. A library. 6. A gallery to walk-in, adorned with the pictures or statues of all the inventors of anything useful to human life; as printing, guns, America, &c. and of late in anatomy, the circulation of the blood, the milky veins, and such like discoveries in any art,with short elogies, under the portraitures: as likewise the figures of all sorts of creatures, and the stuft skins of as many strange animals as can be gotten. 7. An anatomy-chamber adorned with skeletons and anatomical pictures, and prepared with all conveniences for dissection. 8. A chamber for all manner of drugs, and apothecaries' materials. 9. A mathematical chamber, furnished with all sorts of mathematical instruments, being an appendix to the library. 10. Lodgings for the chaplain, surgeon, library-keeper, and purveyor, near the chapel, anatomy-chamber, library, and hall. That the third court be on one side of these, very large but meanly built, being designed only for use, and not for beauty too, as the others. That it contain the kitchen,butteries,brew-house, bake-house, dairy, lardry, stables, &c. and especially great laboratories for chymical operations and lodgings for the under servants. That behind the second court be placed the garden, containing all sorts of plants that our soil will bear; and at the end a little house of pleasure, a lodge for the gardener, and a grove of trees cutout into walks. That the second enclosed ground be a garden, destined only to the trial of all manner of experiments concerning plants,as their melioration, acceleration, retardation, conservation, composition, transmutation, coloration, or whatsoever else can be produced by art, either for use or curiosity, with a lodge in it for the gardener. That the third ground be employed in convenient receptacles for all sorts of creatures which the professors shall judge necessary for their more exact search into the nature of animals, and the improvement of their uses to us. That there be likewise built, in some place of the college where it may serve most for ornament of the whole, a very high tower for observation of celestial bodies, adorned with all sorts of dials, and such like curiosities ; and that there be very deep vaults made under ground, for experiments most proper to such places, which will be undoubtedly very many. Much might be added, but truly I am afraid this is too much already for the charity or generosity of this age to extend to ; and we do not design this after the model of Solomon's house in my lord Bacon, (which is a project for experiments that can never be experimented), but propose it within such bounds of expense as have
ofton been exccoded by the buildings of private an extraordinary), after consent of the other citizens.
That all the professors shall sup togetber in
the parlour within the hall every night, and shall OF THE PROFESSORS, SCHOLARS, CHAPLAIN, dine there twice a week (to wit, Sandays and AND OTHER OFFICERS,
| Thursdays) at two round tables, for the conveni
ence of discourse; which shall be for the most THAT of the twenty professors four be al part of such matters as may improve their stuways travelling beyond seas, and sixteen always dies and professions; and to keep them from falresident, unless by permission upon extraordi- ling into loose or unprofitable talk, shall be the nary occasions; and every one so absent, leaving duty of the two arbitri mensarum, whu may likea deputy behind him to supply bis duties. wise command any of the servant-scholars to read
That the four professors itinerant be assigned them what he shall think fit, whilst they are at to the four parts of the world, Europe, Asia, table; that it shall belong likewise to the said Africa, and America, there to reside three years arbitri mensarum only, to invite strangers, which at least; and to give a constant account of all they shall rarely do, unless they be men of learthings that belong to the learning, and especially ing or great parts, and shall not invite above two natural experimental philosophy, of those parts. at a time to one table, nothing being more vain
That the expense of all dispatches, and all and unfruitful than numerous meetings of acbooks, simples, animals, stones, metals, mine- quaintance. rals, &c. and all curiosities whatsoever, natu That the professors resident sball allow the ral or artificial, sent by them to the college, shall college twenty pounds a year for their diet, be defrayedout of the treasury, and an addition whether they continue there all the time or not. al allowance (above the 1201.) made to them as That they shall have once a week an assembly, soon as the college's revenue shall be improved. or conference, concerning the affairs of the col
That at their going abroad, they shall take a lege, and the progress of their experimental phisolemn oath, never to write any thing to the col- losophy lege, but what, after rery diligent examination, That, if any one find out any thing which he they shall fully believe to be true, and to confess conceives to be of consequence, he shall cummu. and recant it as soon as they find theinselves in nicate it to the assembly, to be examined, expean errour.
rimented, approved, or rejected. That the sixteen professors resident shall be That, if any one be author of an invention that bound to study and teach all sorts of natural may bring in profit, the third part of it shall experimental philosophy, to consist of the ma belong to the inventor, and the two other to the thematics, mechanics, medicine, anatomy, chy society; and besides, if the thing be very coninistry, the history of animals, plants, minerals, siderable, bis statue or picture, with an elogy elements, &c.; agriculture, architecture,art mili under it, shall be placed in the gallery, and tary, navigation, gardening ; the mysteries of made a denison of that corporation of famous all trades, and improvement of them; the fac men. ture of all merchandizes; all natural magic on That all the professors shall be always assigned divination; and briefly all things t intained in the to some particular inquisition (besides the orcatalogue of natural histories annexed to my dinary course of their studies), of which they Hall lord Bacon's Organon.
give an account to the assembly: su that by this That once a day, froin Easter till Michaelmas, means there may be every day some operation and twice a week, from Michaelmas to Easter, or other made in all the arts, as chymistry, anaat the hours in the afternoon most convenient for tomy, mechanics, and the like; and that the auditors from London, according to the time of college shall furnish for the charge of the opethe year, there shall be a lecture read in the hall, ration. upon such parts of natural experimental pbi That there shall be kept a register under lock losophy, as the professors shall agree on amoug and key, and not to be seen but by the profes. themselves, and as each of them shall be able sors, of all the experiments that succeed, signto perform usefully and honourably.
ed by the persons who made the trial. That two of the professors, by daily, weekly, That the popular and received errours in expeor monthly turns, shall teach the public schools, rimental philosophy (with which, like weeds in a according to the rules hereafter prescribed. neglected garden, it is now almost all over-grown)
That all the professors shall be equal in all shall be evinced by trial and taken notice of respects (except precedency, choice of lodging, in the public lectures, that they may no lonand such-like privileges, which shall belong to ger abuse the credulous, and beget new ones by seniority in the college); and that all shall be consequence or similitude. masters and treasurers by annual turns ; which That every third year (after the full settletwo officers, for the time being, shall take placement of the foundation) the college shall give an of all the rest, and shall be arbitri duarum account in print, in proper and ancient Latin of mensarum.
the fruits of their triennial industry. That the master shall command all the offi That every professor resident shall have his cers of the college, appoint assemblies or confer- scholar to wait upon him in his chamber and at ences upon occasion, and preside in them with table ; whom he should be obliged to breed up in a double voice; and in his absence the treasurer, natural pbilosophy, and render an account of his whose business is to receive and disburse all mo- progress to the assembly, from whose election he wics by the master's order in writing (if it be received him, and therefore is responsible to it,
both for the care of his education and the just | schools, employing or rather casting awny and civil usage of him.
six or seven years in the learning of words only, That the scholar shall understand Latin very and that too very imperfectly : vell, and be inoderately initiated in the Greek, That a method be here established, for the before he be capable of being choseu into the ser infusing knowledge and language at the same sice; and that he shall not remain in it above time into them; and that this may be their seven years.
apprenticeship in natural philosophy. This, That his lodging shall be with the professor | we conceive, may be done, by breeding them whom he serres.
up in authors, or pieces of authors, who treat That no professor shall be a maried man, or of some parts of nature, and who may be una divine, or lawyer in practice; only physic be derstood with as much ease and pleasure, as may be allowed to prescribe, because the study those which are commonly taught; such are, of that art is a great part of the duty of his place, I in Latin, Varro, Cato, Columella, Pliny, part and the duty of that is so great, that it will not of Celsus and of Seneca, Cicero de Divinatione, suffer him to luse much time in mercenary | de Naturâ Deorum,and several scattered pieces, practice,
Virgil's Georgics, Grotius, Nemesianus, ManiThat the professors shall, in the college, lius : And the truth is, because we want good poets wear the habit of ordinary masters of art in the (I mean we have but few), who have purposely universities, or of doctors, if any of them be so. treated of solid and learned, that is, natural
That they shall all keep an inviolable and ex matters (the most part indulging to the weakemplary friendship with one another; and that ness of the world, and feeding it either with the assembly shall lay a considerable pecuniary the follies of love or with the fables of gods and mulct upon any one who shall be prored to have herves), we conccive that one buok ought to entered so far into a quarrel as to give uncivil be compiled of all the scattered little parcels language to his brother-professor; and that the among the ancient poets that might serve for perseverance in any enmity shall be punished by the advancement of natural science, and which the governors with expulsion.
would make no small or unuseful or uneasant That the chaplain shall eat at the master's volume. To this we would bave added the table (paying his twenty pounds a year as the morals and rhetorics of Cicero, and the inothers do); and that he shall read prayers once a stitutions of Quinctilian; and for the comedians, day at least, a little before supper-time; that he froin whom almost all that necessary part of shall preach in the chapel every Sunday morn common discourse, and all the most intimate ins, and catechize in the afternoon the scholars proprieties of the langnage, are drawn, we conand the school-boys: that he shall every month ceive, the boys may be made masters of them, administer the holy sacrament; that he shall as a part of their recreation, and not of their not trouble himself and his auditors with the task, if once a month, or at least once in two, controversies of divinity, but only teach God in they act one of Terence's Comedies, and afterhis just commandments, and in his wonderful wards (the most advanced) some of Plautus's; works.
and this is for many reasons one of the best
exercises they can be enjoined, and most innoTHE SCHOOL.
cent pleasures they can be allowed. As for the
Greek anthors, they may study Nicandır, OpiTHAT the school may be built so as to contain anus, (whom Scaliger does not doubt to prehr about two hundred boys.
above Homer himself, and place next to his That it be divided into four classes, not as adored Virgil) Aristotle's history of animals, and others are ordinarily into six or seven ; because | other parts, Theophrastus and Dioscorides of we suppose that the children sent hither, to be plants, and a collection made out of several of initiated in things as well as words, ought to have both poets and other Grecian writers. For the past the two or three first, and to have attained morals and rhetoric, Aristo'le may suflice, or the age of about thirteen years, being already | Hermogenes and Longinus be added for the lat. well advanced in the Latin grammar, and some l ter. With the history of animals they should be authors.
showed anatomy as a divertisement, and made That none, though never so rich, shall pay any to know the figures and natures of those creathing for their teaching ; and that, if any pru- tures which are not common among us, disfessor shall be convicted to hare taken any inoney abusing them at the same tiine of those errours in cunsideration of his pains in the school, he shall which are universally admitted concerning inany. be expelled with ignominy by the governors ; but the saine method should be used to make them if any persons of great estate and quality, finding acquainted with all plants; and to this must their sons much better proficients in learning be added a little of the ancient and modern here, than boys of the same age commonly are geography, the understanding of the globes, and at other schools, shall not think fit to receive the principles of geometry and astronomy. They an obligation of so near concernment without should likewise use to declaim in Latin, and returning some marks of acknowledgment, English, as the Romans did in Greek and Latin, they may, if they please, (for nothing is to and in all this travail be rather led on by familia. be demanded) bestow some little rarity or rity, encouragement, and emulation, than driven curiosity upon the society, ia recompense of by severity, punishment, and terrour. Upon their trouble.
festivals and play-times, they should exercise And, because it is deplorable to consider the themselves in the fields, braiding, leaping, feneboss which children make of their time at most | ing, mustering, and training, afies the manner
of soldiers, &c. And, to preventall dangers and all disorder, there should always be two of the scholars with them, to be as witnesses and directors of their actions; in foul weather, it would not be amiss for them to learn to dance, that is, to learn just so much (for all beyond is superfluous, if not worse) as may give them a graceful comportment of their bodies.
Upon Sundays, and all days of devotion, they are to be a part of the chaplain's province.
That, for all these ends, the college so order it, as that there may be some convenient and pleasant houses thereabouts, kept by religious, discreet, and careful persons, for the lodging and boarding of young scholars; that they have a constant eye over them, to see that they be bred up there piously, cleanly, and plentifully, according to the proportion of the parents' ex
And that the college, when it shall please God, either by their own industry and success, or by the benevolence of patrons, to enrich them so far, as that it may come to their turn and duty to be charitable to others, shall, at their own charges, erect and maintain some house or houses for the entertainment of such poor men's sons, whose good natural parts may promise either use or ornament to the commonwealth, during the time of their abode at school ; and shall take care that it shall he done with the same conveniences as are enjoyed even by rich men's children (though they maintain the fewer for that cause), there being nothing of eminent and illustrious to be expected from a low, sordid, and hospital-like education.
IF I be not much abused by a natural fondness to my own conceptions (that regyi, of the Greeks, which no other language has a proper word for), there was never any project thought upon, which
deserves to meet with so few adversaries as this; for who can without impudent folly oppose the establishment of twenty well-selected persons in such a condition of life, that their whole business and sole profession may be to study the improvement and advantage of all other professions, from that of the highest general even to the lowest artisan who shall be obliged to employ their whole time, wit, learning, and industry, to these four, the most useful that can be imagined, and to no other ends; first, to weigh, examine, and prove, all things of nature delivered to us by former ages; to detect, explode, and strike a censure through, all false monies with which the world has been paid and cheated so long; and (as I may say) to set the mark of the college upon all true coins, that they may pass hereafter without any farther trial: secendly, to recover the lost inventions, and, as it were, drowned lands of the ancients: thirdly, to improve all arts which we now have ; and lastly, to discover others which we have not: and who shall besides all this (as a benefit by the by), give the best education in the world (purely gratis) to as many men's children as shall think fit to make use of the obligation? Neither does it at all check or interfere with any parties in a state or religion; but is indifferently to be embraced by all differences in opinion, and can hardly be conceived capable (as many good institutions have done) even of degeneration into anything harmful. So that, all things considered, I will suppose this Proposition shall encounter with no enemies : the only question is, whether it will find friends enough to carry it on from discourse and design to reality and effect; thenecessary expenses of the beginning (for it will maintain itself well enough afterwards) being so great (though I have set them as low as is possible, in order to so vast a work), that it may seem hopeless to raise such a sum out of those few dead relics of human charity and public generosity which are yet remaining in the world.