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In the same weight prudence and innocence take, Hic sparge flores, sparge breves rosas
Vatis adhuc cinerem calentem.
A PROPOSITION FOR THE
VANCEMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL
That the philosophical college be situated within one, two, or (at farthest) three miles of Lon
don; and, if it be possible to find that convenience MARTIAL, Lib. X. Epigr. xcvi. upon the side of the river, or very near it.
That the revenue of this college amount to four Sæpe loquar nimium gentes, &c. thousand pounds a year.
That the company received into it be as follows: ME, who have liv'd so long among the great, 1. Twenty philosopbers or professors. 2. SixYou wonder to bear talk of a retreat :
teen young scholars, servants to the professors. And a retreat so distant as may show
3. A chaplain. 4. A bailiff for the revenue. 5. A No thoughts of a return, when once I go. manciple or purveyor for the provisions of the Give me a country, how remote so'er,
house. 6. Two gardeners. 7. A master-cook Where happiness a moderate rate does bear, 8. An under-cook. 9. A butler. 10. An underWhere poverty itself in plenty flows,
butler. 11. A surgeon. 12. Two lungs, or chyAnd all the solid use of riches knows. [there; mical servants. 13. A library-keeper, who is
The ground about the house maintains it, likewise to be apothecary, druggist, and keeper The house maintains the ground about it, here; of instruments, engines, &c. 14. An officer to Here even hunger's dear; and a full board feed and take care of all beasts, fowl, &c. kept Devours the vital substance of the lord.
by the college. 15. A groom of the stable. 16. The land itself does there the feast bestow, A messenger, to send up and down for all uses The land itself must here to market go.
of the college. 17. Four old women, to tend the
That the annual allowance for this company be
To the sixteen scholars, twenty pounds apiece; Stay you then here, and live among the great, ten pounds for their diet, and ten pounds for their Attend their sports and at their tables eat. entertainment. 3. To the bailiff, thirty pounds, When all the bounties here of men you score, besides allowance for his journies. 4. To the The place's bounty there shall give me more. purveyor, or manciple, thirty pounds. 5. To
each of the gardeners, twenty pounds. 6. To the master-cook, twenty pounds. 7. To the
under-cook, four pounds. 8. To the butler, ten EPITAPHIUM VIŅI AUCTORIS.
pounds. 9. To the under-butler, four pounds.
10. To the surgeon, thirty pounds. 11. To the Hic, o viator, sub lare parvulo
library-keeper, thirty pounds. 12. To each of Couleius hic est conditus, hic jacet;
the lungs, twelve pounds. 13. To the keeper Defunctis humani laboris
Ingenious men delight in dreams of reformaSorte, supervacuâqe vitâ.
tion.-In comparing this Proposition of Cowley, Non indecorâ pauperie nitens,
with that of Mi ton, addressed to Mr. Hartlib, Et non inerti nobilis otio,
we find that these great poets had amused them
selves with some exalted, and, in the main, conVanoque dilectis popello Divitiis animosus hostis.
genial fancies, on the subject of education: that,
of the two plans proposed, this of Mr. Cowley Possis ut illum dicere mortuum ;
was better digested, and is the less fanciful; if a En terra jam nunc quantula sufficit !
preference, in this respect, can be given to either, Exempta sit curis, viator.
when both are manifestly Utopian: and that our Terra sit illa levis, precare.
universities, in their present form, are well enough calculated to answer all the reasonable ends of
such institutions; provided we allow for the un* See a translation of this Epitaph among the avoidable defects of them, when drawn out into poems of Mr. Addison.
of the beasts, six pounds, 14. To the groom, that in the middle there be a parterre of flowfive pounds. 15. To the messenger, twelve ers and a fountain. pounds. 16. To the four necessary women, ten That the second quadrangle, just behind the pounds. For the manciple's table, at which all first, be so contrived, as to contain these parts : the servants of the house are to eat, except the 1. A chapel. 2. A hall, with two long tables on scholars, one hundred and sixty pounds. For each side, for the scholars and officers of the house three horses for the service of the college, thirty to eat at, and with a pulpit and forms at the pounds.
end for the public lectures. 3. A large and pleaAll which amounts to three thousand two sant dining-room within the hall, for the profeshundred eighty-five pounds. So that there re sors to eat in, and to hold their assemblies and mains for keeping of the house and gardens, and conferences. 4. A public school-house. 5. A operatories, and instruments, and animals, and library. 6. A gallery to walk in, adorned experiments of all sorts, and all other expenses, with the pictures or statues of all the inventors seven hundred and fifteen pounds.
of any thing useful to human life; as printing, Which were a very inconsiderable sum for guns, America, &c. and of late in anatomy, the the great uses to which it is designed, but that circulation of the blood, the milky veins, and I conceive the industry of the college will in such like discoveries in any art, with short elogies, a short time so enrich itself, as to get a far bet- under the portraitures : as likewise the figures ter stock for the advance and enlargement of of all sorts of creatures, and the stuft skins of the work when it is once begun: neither is the as many strange animals as can be gotten. 7. continuance of particular men's liberality to be an anatomy-chamber adorned with skeletons despaired of, when it shall be encouraged by the and anatomical pictures, and prepared with all sight of that public benefit which will accrue to conveniences for dissection. 8. À chamber for all mankind, and chiefly to our nation, by this all manner of drugs, and apothecaries' materifoundation. Something likewise will arise from als. 9. A mathematical chamber, furnished with leases and other casualties; that nothing of all sorts of mathematical instruments, being an which may be diverted to the private gain of appendix to the library. 10. Lodgings for the the professors, or any other use besides that of chaplain, surgeon, library-keeper, and purveythe search of nature, and by it the general good or, near the chapel, anatomy-chamber, library, of the world, and that care may be taken for the and hall. certain performance of all things ordained by That the third court be on one side of these, the institution, as likewise for the protection and very large but meanly built, being designed onencouragement of the company, it is proposed : ly for use, and not for beauty too, as the others.
That some person, of eminent quality, a lover That it contain the kitchen, butteries,brew-house, of solid learning, and no stranger in it, be chosen bake-house, dairy, lardry, stables, &c. and eschancellor or president of the college, and that pecially great laboratories for chymical operaeight governors more, men qualified in the like tions and lodgings for the ander servants. manner, be joined with him, two of which shall That behind the second court be placed the yearly be appointed visitors of the college and re- garden, containing all sorts of plants that our ceive an exact account of all expenses, even to soil will bear; and at the end a little house of the smallest, and of the true estate of their pub- pleasure, a lodge for the gardener, and a grove of lic treasure, under the hands and oaths of the trees cut out into walks. professors resident.
That the second enclosed ground be a garden, That the choice of professors in any vacancy destined only to the trial of all manner of exbelong to the chancellor and the governors;periments concerning plants,as their melioration, but that the professors (who are likeliest to know acceleration, retardation, conservation, compowhat men of the na:ion are most proper for the sition, transmutation, coloration, or whatsoever duties of their society) direct their choice, by re- else can be produced by art, either for use or commending two or three persons to them at curiosity, with a lodge in it for the gardener. every election: and that, if any learned person That the third ground be employed in convewithin his majesty's dominions discover, or emi- nient receptacles for all sorts of creatures which nently improve, any useful kind of knowledge, the professors shall judge necessary for their he may upon that ground, for his reward and more exact search into the nature of animals, the encouragement of others, be preferred, if he and the improvement of their uses to us. pretend to the place before any body else. That there be likewise built, in some place of
That the governors have power to turn out the college where it may serve most for ornaany professor, who shall be proved to be either ment of the whole, a very high tower for obserscandalons or unprofitable to the society. vation of celestial bodies, adorned with all sorts
That the college be built after this, or some of dials, and such like curiosities ; and that such manner: That it consist of three fair qua- there be very deep vaults made under ground, drangular courts, and three large grounds, en-for experiments most proper to such places, closed with good walls behind them. That the which will be undoubtedly very many. first court be built with a fair cloister; and the Much might be added, but truly I am afraid professors' lodgings, or rather little houses, four this is too much already for the charity or geon each side, at :ome distance from one another, nerosity of this age to extend to ; and we do not and with little gardens behind them, just after design this after the model of Solomon's house the manner of the Chartreux beyond sea. That in my lord Bacon, (which is a project for expethe inside of the cloister be lined with a gravel-riments that can never be experimented), but walk, and that walk with a row of trees; and propose it within such bounds of expense as bave
ofton been exccoded by the buildings of private an extraordinary), after consent of the other citizens.
That all the professors shall sup togetber in
the parlour within the hall every night, and shall OF THE PROFESSORS, SCHOLARS, CHAPLAIN, dine there twice a week (to wit, Sandays and AND OTHER OFFICERS,
| Thursdays) at two round tables, for the conveni
ence of discourse; which shall be for the most THAT of the twenty professors four be al part of such matters as may improve their stuways travelling beyond seas, and sixteen always dies and professions; and to keep them from falresident, unless by permission upon extraordi- ling into loose or unprofitable talk, shall be the nary occasions; and every one so absent, leaving duty of the two arbitri mensarum, whu may likea deputy behind him to supply bis duties. wise command any of the servant-scholars to read
That the four professors itinerant be assigned them what he shall think fit, whilst they are at to the four parts of the world, Europe, Asia, table; that it shall belong likewise to the said Africa, and America, there to reside three years arbitri mensarum only, to invite strangers, which at least; and to give a constant account of all they shall rarely do, unless they be men of learthings that belong to the learning, and especially ing or great parts, and shall not invite above two natural experimental philosophy, of those parts. at a time to one table, nothing being more vain
That the expense of all dispatches, and all and unfruitful than numerous meetings of acbooks, simples, animals, stones, metals, mine- quaintance. rals, &c. and all curiosities whatsoever, natu That the professors resident sball allow the ral or artificial, sent by them to the college, shall college twenty pounds a year for their diet, be defrayedout of the treasury, and an addition whether they continue there all the time or not. al allowance (above the 1201.) made to them as That they shall have once a week an assembly, soon as the college's revenue shall be improved. or conference, concerning the affairs of the col
That at their going abroad, they shall take a lege, and the progress of their experimental phisolemn oath, never to write any thing to the col- losophy lege, but what, after rery diligent examination, That, if any one find out any thing which he they shall fully believe to be true, and to confess conceives to be of consequence, he shall cummu. and recant it as soon as they find theinselves in nicate it to the assembly, to be examined, expean errour.
rimented, approved, or rejected. That the sixteen professors resident shall be That, if any one be author of an invention that bound to study and teach all sorts of natural may bring in profit, the third part of it shall experimental philosophy, to consist of the ma belong to the inventor, and the two other to the thematics, mechanics, medicine, anatomy, chy society; and besides, if the thing be very coninistry, the history of animals, plants, minerals, siderable, bis statue or picture, with an elogy elements, &c.; agriculture, architecture,art mili under it, shall be placed in the gallery, and tary, navigation, gardening ; the mysteries of made a denison of that corporation of famous all trades, and improvement of them; the fac men. ture of all merchandizes; all natural magic on That all the professors shall be always assigned divination; and briefly all things t intained in the to some particular inquisition (besides the orcatalogue of natural histories annexed to my dinary course of their studies), of which they Hall lord Bacon's Organon.
give an account to the assembly: su that by this That once a day, froin Easter till Michaelmas, means there may be every day some operation and twice a week, from Michaelmas to Easter, or other made in all the arts, as chymistry, anaat the hours in the afternoon most convenient for tomy, mechanics, and the like; and that the auditors from London, according to the time of college shall furnish for the charge of the opethe year, there shall be a lecture read in the hall, ration. upon such parts of natural experimental pbi That there shall be kept a register under lock losophy, as the professors shall agree on amoug and key, and not to be seen but by the profes. themselves, and as each of them shall be able sors, of all the experiments that succeed, signto perform usefully and honourably.
ed by the persons who made the trial. That two of the professors, by daily, weekly, That the popular and received errours in expeor monthly turns, shall teach the public schools, rimental philosophy (with which, like weeds in a according to the rules hereafter prescribed. neglected garden, it is now almost all over-grown)
That all the professors shall be equal in all shall be evinced by trial and taken notice of respects (except precedency, choice of lodging, in the public lectures, that they may no lonand such-like privileges, which shall belong to ger abuse the credulous, and beget new ones by seniority in the college); and that all shall be consequence or similitude. masters and treasurers by annual turns ; which That every third year (after the full settletwo officers, for the time being, shall take placement of the foundation) the college shall give an of all the rest, and shall be arbitri duarum account in print, in proper and ancient Latin of mensarum.
the fruits of their triennial industry. That the master shall command all the offi That every professor resident shall have his cers of the college, appoint assemblies or confer- scholar to wait upon him in his chamber and at ences upon occasion, and preside in them with table ; whom he should be obliged to breed up in a double voice; and in his absence the treasurer, natural pbilosophy, and render an account of his whose business is to receive and disburse all mo- progress to the assembly, from whose election he wics by the master's order in writing (if it be received him, and therefore is responsible to it,
both for the care of his education and the just | schools, employing or rather casting awny and civil usage of him.
six or seven years in the learning of words only, That the scholar shall understand Latin very and that too very imperfectly : vell, and be inoderately initiated in the Greek, That a method be here established, for the before he be capable of being choseu into the ser infusing knowledge and language at the same sice; and that he shall not remain in it above time into them; and that this may be their seven years.
apprenticeship in natural philosophy. This, That his lodging shall be with the professor | we conceive, may be done, by breeding them whom he serres.
up in authors, or pieces of authors, who treat That no professor shall be a maried man, or of some parts of nature, and who may be una divine, or lawyer in practice; only physic be derstood with as much ease and pleasure, as may be allowed to prescribe, because the study those which are commonly taught; such are, of that art is a great part of the duty of his place, I in Latin, Varro, Cato, Columella, Pliny, part and the duty of that is so great, that it will not of Celsus and of Seneca, Cicero de Divinatione, suffer him to luse much time in mercenary | de Naturâ Deorum,and several scattered pieces, practice,
Virgil's Georgics, Grotius, Nemesianus, ManiThat the professors shall, in the college, lius : And the truth is, because we want good poets wear the habit of ordinary masters of art in the (I mean we have but few), who have purposely universities, or of doctors, if any of them be so. treated of solid and learned, that is, natural
That they shall all keep an inviolable and ex matters (the most part indulging to the weakemplary friendship with one another; and that ness of the world, and feeding it either with the assembly shall lay a considerable pecuniary the follies of love or with the fables of gods and mulct upon any one who shall be prored to have herves), we conccive that one buok ought to entered so far into a quarrel as to give uncivil be compiled of all the scattered little parcels language to his brother-professor; and that the among the ancient poets that might serve for perseverance in any enmity shall be punished by the advancement of natural science, and which the governors with expulsion.
would make no small or unuseful or uneasant That the chaplain shall eat at the master's volume. To this we would bave added the table (paying his twenty pounds a year as the morals and rhetorics of Cicero, and the inothers do); and that he shall read prayers once a stitutions of Quinctilian; and for the comedians, day at least, a little before supper-time; that he froin whom almost all that necessary part of shall preach in the chapel every Sunday morn common discourse, and all the most intimate ins, and catechize in the afternoon the scholars proprieties of the langnage, are drawn, we conand the school-boys: that he shall every month ceive, the boys may be made masters of them, administer the holy sacrament; that he shall as a part of their recreation, and not of their not trouble himself and his auditors with the task, if once a month, or at least once in two, controversies of divinity, but only teach God in they act one of Terence's Comedies, and afterhis just commandments, and in his wonderful wards (the most advanced) some of Plautus's; works.
and this is for many reasons one of the best
exercises they can be enjoined, and most innoTHE SCHOOL.
cent pleasures they can be allowed. As for the
Greek anthors, they may study Nicandır, OpiTHAT the school may be built so as to contain anus, (whom Scaliger does not doubt to prehr about two hundred boys.
above Homer himself, and place next to his That it be divided into four classes, not as adored Virgil) Aristotle's history of animals, and others are ordinarily into six or seven ; because | other parts, Theophrastus and Dioscorides of we suppose that the children sent hither, to be plants, and a collection made out of several of initiated in things as well as words, ought to have both poets and other Grecian writers. For the past the two or three first, and to have attained morals and rhetoric, Aristo'le may suflice, or the age of about thirteen years, being already | Hermogenes and Longinus be added for the lat. well advanced in the Latin grammar, and some l ter. With the history of animals they should be authors.
showed anatomy as a divertisement, and made That none, though never so rich, shall pay any to know the figures and natures of those creathing for their teaching ; and that, if any pru- tures which are not common among us, disfessor shall be convicted to hare taken any inoney abusing them at the same tiine of those errours in cunsideration of his pains in the school, he shall which are universally admitted concerning inany. be expelled with ignominy by the governors ; but the saine method should be used to make them if any persons of great estate and quality, finding acquainted with all plants; and to this must their sons much better proficients in learning be added a little of the ancient and modern here, than boys of the same age commonly are geography, the understanding of the globes, and at other schools, shall not think fit to receive the principles of geometry and astronomy. They an obligation of so near concernment without should likewise use to declaim in Latin, and returning some marks of acknowledgment, English, as the Romans did in Greek and Latin, they may, if they please, (for nothing is to and in all this travail be rather led on by familia. be demanded) bestow some little rarity or rity, encouragement, and emulation, than driven curiosity upon the society, ia recompense of by severity, punishment, and terrour. Upon their trouble.
festivals and play-times, they should exercise And, because it is deplorable to consider the themselves in the fields, braiding, leaping, feneboss which children make of their time at most | ing, mustering, and training, afies the manner
of soldiers, &c. And, to prevent all dangers and deserves to meet with so few adversaries as this; all disorder, there should always be two of the for who can without impudent folly oppose the esscholars with them, to be as witnesses and direc- tablishment of twenty well-selected persons in tors of their actions; in foul weather, it would such a condition of life, that their whole business not be amiss for them to learn to dance, that is, and sole profession may be to study the improve. to learn just so much (for all beyond is superflu- ment and advantage of all other professions, from ous, if not worse) as may give them a graceful that of the highest general even to the lowest arcomportment of their bodies.
tisan? who shall be obliged to employ their whole Upon Sundays, and all days of devotion, they time, wit, learning, and industry, to these four, are to be a part of the chaplain's province. the most useful that can be imagined, and to no
That, for all these ends, the college so order it, other ends; first, to weigh, examine, and prose, as that there may be some convenient and plea- all things of nature delivered to us by former sant houses thereabouts, kept by religious, dis- ages; to detect, explode, and strike a censure creet, and careful persons, for the lodging and through, all false monies with which the world has boarding of young scholars; that they have a been paid and cheated so long ; and (as I may constant eye over them, to see that they be say) to set the mark of the college upon all true bred up there piously, cleanly, and plentifully, coins, that they may pass hereafter without any according to the proportion of the parents' ex- farther trial : secendly, to recover the lost inrenpenses.
tions, and, as it were, drowned lands of the anAnd that the college, when it shall please cients : thirdly, to improve all arts which we now God, either by their own industry and success, or hare, and lastly, to discover others which we by the benevolence of patrons, to enrich them so have not : and who shall besides all this (as a befar, as that it may come to their turn and duty to nefit by the by), give the best educ ation in the be charitable to others, shall, at their own world (purely gratis) to as many men's children charges, erect and maintain some house or houses as shall think fit to make use of the obligation? for the entertainment of such poor men's sons, Neither does it at all check or interfere with any whose good natural parts may promise either use parties in a state or religion ; but is indifferently or ornament to the commonwealth, during the to be embraced by all differences in opinion, and time of their abode at school ; and shall take care can hardly be conceived capable (as many good that it shall be done with the same conveniences institutions have done) even of degeneration into as are enjoyed even by rich men's children (though any thing harmful. So that, all things considerthey maintain the fewer for that cause), there ed, I will suppose this Proposition shall encounbeing nothing of eminent and illustrious to be ter with no enemies : the only question is, wheexpected from a low, sordid, and hospital-like ther it will find friends enough to carry it on from education.
discourse and design to reality and effect; the necessary expenses of the begiuning (for it will
maintain itself well enough afterwards) being so CONCLUSIOy.
great (though I have set them as low as is possi
ble, in order to so vast a work), that it may seem IF I be not much abused by a natural fondness hopeless to raise such a sum out of those few dead to my own' conceptions (that cogg of the Greeks, relics of human charity and public generosity which no other language has a proper word for), which are yet remaining in the world. there was never any project thought upon, which