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I hope, I may afërm (witnout any offence to the they were made, and to which they must re. great) that sheep and kine are very useful, and turn, and pay at last for their sustenance. that wolves and foxes are pernicious creatures. Behold ihe original and primitive nobility of They are, without dispute, of all men the most all those great persons, who are too proud vow, quiet, and least apt to be inflamed to the dis- not only to till the ground, but almost to tread turbance of the commonwealth; their manner upon it. We may talk what we please of lilies, of life inclines them, and interest binds them, to and lions rampant, and spread eagles, in fields Jove peace ; in our late mad and miserable d'or or d'argent ; but, if heraldry were guided eivil wars, all other trades, even to the meanest, by reason, a plough in a field arable would be set forth whole troops, and raised up some great the most noble and ancient arms. commanders, who became famous and mighty All these considerations make me fall into the for the mischiefs they had done : but I do not wonder and complaint of Columella, how it remember the name of any one husbandman, should come to pass that all arts or sciences who had so considerable a share in the twenty (for the dispute, which is an art, and which a years ruin of his country, as to deserve the science, does not belong to the curiosity of us curses of his countrymen.
husbandmen), metapbysic, physic, morality, And if great delights be joined with so much | mathematics, logic, rhetoric, &c. which are innocence, I think it is ill done of men, not to all, I grant, good and useful faculties, (except take them here, where they are so tame, and only metaphysic, which I do not know whether ready at hand, rather than hunt for them in it be any thing or no) but even vaulting, fenccourts and cities, where they are so wild, and the ing, dancing, attiring, cookery, carviog, and chase so troublesome and dangerous.
such-like vanities, should all have public schools We are here among the vast and noble scenes and masters; and yet that we should never see of nature; we are there among the pitiful shifts or hear of any man, who took upon him the of policy, we walk here in the light and open profession of teaching this so pleasant, so virtuways of the divine bounty; we grope there in ous, so profitable, so hunourable, so necessary the dark and confused labyrinths of human ma- art. lice: our senses are here feasted with the clear! A man would think, when he is in serious huand genuine taste of their objects; which are all mour, that it were but a vain, irrational, and sophisticated there, and for the most part over- ridiculous thing for a great company of men whelmed with their contraries. Here pleasure and women to run up and down in a room tolooks, methinks, like a beautiful, constant, and gether, in a hundred several postures and figures, modest wife; it is there an impudent, fickle, to no purpose, and with no design; and thereand painted harlot. Here is harmless and fore dancing was invented first, and only pracheap plenty; there guilty and expenceful lux-tised anciently, in the ceremonies of the heaury.
then religion, which consisted all in mommery I shall only instance in one delight more, the and madness: the latter being the chief g'ory most natural and best-natured of all others, a of the worship, and accounted dirine inspiration: perpetual companion of the husbandman; and this, I say, a severe man would think; thougti that is, the satisfaction of looking round about I dare not determine so far against so customhim, and seeing nothing but the effects and im- | ary a part, now, of good-breeding. And yet, provements of his own art and diligence; to be who is there among our gentry, that does not always gathering of some fruits of it, and at the entertain a dancing-master for uis children, as same time to behold others ripening, and others soon as they are abie to walk. But, did ever budding: to see all his fields and gardens co- any father provide a tutor for his son, to invered with the beauteous creatures of his own struct him betimes in the nature and improreindustry; and to see, like God, that all his ments of that land which he intended to leave works are good :
him? That is at least a superfinity, and this a
defect, in our manner of education: and thereHinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades ; fore I could wish (but cannot in these times much ipsi
hope to see it) that one college in each unirerAgricolæ tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus 4. sity were erected, and appropriated to this
study, as well as there are tu medicine and the On his heart-strings a secret joy does strike. civil law: there would be no nced of making a
| bucly of scholars and fello.s, with ceitain (1)The antiquity of his art is certainly not to be dowments, as in other colleges; it would sufcontested by any other. The thiee first men infice, if, after the manner of halls in Cxford, the world, were a gardener, a ploughman, and there were only four professors constituted (fur a grazier; and if any man object that the second it would be too much work for only one master, of these was a murtherer, I desire he would con- | or principal, as they call him there) to teach sider, that as soon as he was so, he quited our these four parts of it: First, Aration, and all profession, anci turned builder. It is for this things relating to it. Secondly, Pasturage. reason, I suppose, that Ecclesiasticus 5 forbids | Thirdly, Gardens, Orchards, Vineyards, and us to hate husbandry; .“ because,” says be, Woods. Fourthly, all parts of Rural Oeco“ the Most High has created it." We are all nomy; which would contain the government born to this art, and taught by nature to nou of Bees, Swine, Poultry, Decoys, Ponds, &c. rish our bodies by the same earth out of which and all that which Varro calls villaticas pas
tiones, together with the sports of the field Virg. Æn. i. 504, &c. ? Chap. vii. 15. (which ought to be looked upon not only as
pleasures, but as parts of house-keeping), and extant (if Homer, as some think, preceded him, the domestical conservation and uses of all that but I rather believe they were contemporaries) ; is bronght in by industry abroad. The business and he is the first writer too of the art of husof these professors should not be, as is com- bandry: “ he has contributed (says Columella) monly practised in other arts, only to read not a little to our profession;" I suppose, he pompous and superficial lectures, out of Virgil's means not a little honour, for the matter of his Georgies, Pliny, Varro, or Columella; but to instructions is not very important; his great aninstruct their pupils in the whole method and tiquity is visible through the gravity and simplicourse of this study, which might be run through city of his stile. The most acute of all his sayperhaps with diligence in a year or two; and the ings concerns our purpose very much, and is continual succession of scholars, upon a moderate couched in the reverend obscurity of an oracle taxation for their diet, lodging, and learning, IXbor hulov Wavlès, The half is more than the would be a sufficient constant revenue for main- whole. The occasion of the speech is this; his tenance of the house and the professors, who brother Perseus had, by corrupting some great should be men not chosen for the ostentation of men, (Bassbaç dogopéyes, great bribe-eaters he critical literature, but for solid and experimental calls them) gotten from him the half of his knowledge of the things they teach; such men, estate. It is no matter (says he); they have so industrious and public-spirited, as I conceive not done me so much prejudice as they imagine : Mr. Hartlib6 to be, if the gentleman be yet alive: but it is needless to speak further of my
Νήπιοι, εδ' ήσασιν, κ. τ. λ. thoughts of this design, unless the present disprsition of the age allowed more probability of Unhappy they, to whom God has not reveal'd, bringing it into execution. What I have further By a strong light which must their sense con to say of the country life, shall be borrowed from trole, the poets, who were always the most faithful That half a great estate's more than the whole : and affectionate friends to it. Poetry was born Ur happy, from whom still conceald does lie among the shepherds.
Of roots and herbs the wholesome luxury. Nescio qnâ natale solum dulcedine Musas
This I conceive to have been honest Hesiod's Ducit & immemores non finit esse sui 7. meaning. From Homer we must not expect
much concerning our affairs. He was blind, and The Muses still love their own native place; could neither work in the country, nor enjoy the T has secret charms, which nothing can deface. pleasures of it ; his helpless poverty was likeliest
to be sustained in the richest places; he was to The truth is, no other place is proper for their delight the Grecians with fine tales of the wars, work; one might as well undertake to dance in and adventures of their ancestors; his subject a crowd, as to make good verses in the midst of removed him from all commerce with us, and Duise and tumult.
yet, methinks, he made a shift to show his good
will a little. For, though he could do us no hoAs well might corn, as verse, in cities grow; nour in the person of his hero Ulysses (much less In vain the thankless glebe we plough and sow: of Achilles), because his whole time was conAgainst th' unnatural soil in vain we strive ; sumed in wars and voyages ; yet he makes his *Tis not a ground, in which these plants will fatber Laertes a gardener all that while, and seekthrive.
ing his consolation for the absence of his son in
the pleasure of planting and even dunging his It will bear nothing but the nettles or thorns own grounds. Ye see he did not contemn us of satire, which grow most naturally in the worst peasants ; nay, so far was he from that insolence, earth; and therefore almost all poets, except that he always styles Eumæus, who kept the those wbo were not able to eat bread without the hogs, with wonderful respect, 07.x üçázbov, the bonnty of great men, that is, without what they divine swineherd: he could have done no more could get by flattering of them, have not only for Menelaus or Agamemnon. And Theocritus withdrawn themselves from the vices and vani-(a very ancient poet, but he was one of our own ties of the grand world,
tribe, for he wrote nothing but pastorals) gave
the same epithet to an husbandman,
-αμείβελο δίoς άγρώτης και,
", into the innocent happiness of a retired life; but the divine husbandman replied to Hercules, who have commended and adorned nothing so much was but fios himself. These were civil Greeks, by their ever-living poems. Hesiod was the first and who understood the dignity of our calling; or second poet in the world that remains yet Among the Romans we have, in the first place,
our truly-divine Virgil, who, though by the fa6 A gentleman, of whom it may be enough to your of Mæcenas and Augustus he might have say, that he had the honour to live in the friend been one of the cbief men of Rome, yet chose ship of Mede and Milton. The former of these rather to employ much of his time in the exgreat men addressed some letters to him, and ercise, and much of his immortal wit in the praise ibe latter, his “Tractate on Education." HORD. and instructions, of a rustic life; who, though he
i Ovid. 1 Ep. ex Pont. iii. 35. * Ovid. Fast, i. 500.
Idyll. xxv. ver. 51.
had written before whole books of pastorals and | Latin verses (though of another kind), and have
A Translation out of VIRGIL.
Georg. Lib. 11. 458.
At home all riches, that wise nature needs;
Whom the just earth with easy plenty feeds. Hæc (inquit) limina victor
'Tis true, no morning tide of clients comes, Alcides subiit, hæc illum regia cepit:
And fills the painted channels of his rooms, Aude, hospes,contemnere opes : & te quoque Adoring the rich figures, as they pass, dignum
In tapestry wrought, or cut in living brass ;
With the dear poison of Assyrian pride:
The native use and sweetness of his oil,
Does with substantial blessedness abound,
What makes the sea retreat, and what advance
“ (Varieties too regular for chance);"
And stops the lazy waggon of the night.
To send forth spirits, that raise a soul so high,
Happy! but, next such conquerors, happy they, 'Virg. An. viii. 365. !1Ep. ii. 3.
Whose humble life lies not in fortune's way.
They unconcern'd, from their safe distant seat,
HOR. EPOD. ODE 11.
Il appy the man, whom bounteous gods allow
Like the first golden mortals happy, he, Them never get did strife or avarice draw
From business and the cares of money free! Into the noisy markets of the law,
No human storms break off at land bis sleep ; The camps of gowned war; nor do they live No loud alarms of nature, on the deep: By rules or forms, that many madmen give: From all the cheats of law he lives secure, Duty for Nature's bounty they repay,
Vor does th' affronts of palaces endure. And her sole laws religiously obey. [main, Sometimes, the beauteous, marriageable vine
Some with bold labour plough the faithless He to the lusty bridegroom elm does join : Some roagher storms in prince's courts sustain : Sometimes he lops the barren trees around, Some swell up their slight sails with popular fame And grafts new life into the fruitful wound; Charmd with the foolish whistlings of a name: Sometimes he shears his flock, and sometimes he Some their vain wealth to earth again commit: Stores up the golden treasures of the bee. With endless cares some bruóding o'er it sit: He sees his lowing herds walk o'er the plain, Country and friends are by some wretches sold, Whilst neighbouring hills lowe back to them To lie on Tyrian beds, and drink in gold;
again; No price too high for profit can be shown ; And, when the season, rich as well as gay, Not brother's blood, nor hazards of their own : All her autumnal bounty does display, Around the world in search of it they roam, How is he pleas'd th' increasing use to see It makes ev'n their antipodes their home; Of his well-trusted labours bend the tree! Meanwhile, the prudent husbandman is found, Of which large shares, on the glad sacred days, In mutual duties striving with his ground, He gives to friends, and to the gods repays. And half the year he care of that does take, With how much joy does hé, beneath some shade That half the year grateful returns does make. By aged trees' reverend embraces made, Each fertile month does some new gifts present, His careless head on the fresh green recline, And with new work his industry content. His head uncharg'd with fear or with design. This the young lamb, that the soft fleece, doth By him a river constantly complains, yield;
The birds above rejoice with various strains, This loads with hay, and that with corn, the field : And in the solemn scene their orgies keep, All sorts of fruit crown the rich autumn's pride: Like dreams, mix'd with the gravity of sleep! And on a swelling hill's warm stony side, Sleep, which does always there for entrance wait, The powerful princely purple of the vine, And nought within against it shuts the gate. Twice dy'd with the redoubled Sun, does shine. Nor does the roughest scason of the sky, In th' evening to a fair ensuing day,
Or sullen Jove, all sports to him deny. With joy he sees his flocks and kids to play: He runs the mazes of the nimble hare, And loaded kine about his cottage stand, His well-mouth'd dogs glad conccrt rends the Inviting with known sound the milker's hand; Or with game bolder, and rewarded more, [air; And when from wholesome labour he doth come, He drives into a toil the foaming boar; With wishes to be there, and wish'd-for home, Here flies the hawk t' assault, and there the net He meets at door the softest human blisses, To inter cept, the travailing fowl, is set; His chaste wife's welcome, and dear children's and all his malice, all his craft, is shown kisses.
In innocent wars on beasts and birds alone. When aný rural holidays invite
This is the life from all misfortunes free, His genius forth to innocent delight,
From thee, the great one, tyrant Love, from On earth's fair bed, beneath some sacred shade,
thee; Amidst his equal friends carelessly laid, And, if a chaste and clean, though homery wife, He sings thee, Bacchus, patron of the vine; Be added to the blessings of this life.The beecon bowl foams with a flood of wine, Such as the ancient Sun-burnt Sabins were, Not to the loss of reason, or of strength: Such as Apulia, frugal still, dues bear,To active games and manly sport, at length, Who makes her children and the house her care, Their mirth ascends, and with bli'd veins they see And joyfully the work of life does share, Who can the best at better trials be.
Northinks herself too noble or too fine From such the old Hetrurian virtue rose; To pin the sheepfold or to milch the kine; Sach was the life the prudent Sabins chose : Who waits at door against her husband come Such, Remus, and the god, his brother, led; From rural duties, late and wearied, home, From such firm-footing Rome grew (he world's Where she receives him with a kind embrace, head.
A cheerful fire, and a more cheerful fare; Such' was the life that, ev'n till now, does raise And fills the bowl up to her homely lord, The honour of poor Saturn's golden days : And with domestic plenty loads the board ; Before men, born of earth, and buried there, Not all the lustful shell-fish of the sea, Let-in the sea their mortal fate to share: Dress'd by the wanton hand of Luxury, Before new ways of perishing were sought; Not ortolans, nor godwits, nor the rest Before unskilful death on anvils wrought; Of costly names that glorify a feast, Before those beasts, which human life sustain, Are at the princely tables better cheer, By men, uuless to the gods use, were slain. Than lamb and kid, lettuce and olives, here
THE COUNTRY MOUSE.
Behind a hanging, in a spacious room
(The richest work of Mortelake's noble loom) A Paraphrase upon Horace, Book II. Sat. vi. They wait a while, their wearied limbs to resto
Till silence should invite them to their feast. At the largest foot of a fair hollow tree,
“ About the hour that Cynthia's silver light Close to plough'd ground, seated commodiously, Had touch'd the pale meridies of the night ;** His ancient and hereditary house,
At last, the various supper being done, There dwelt a good substantial country mouse;
It happen'd that the company was gone Frugal, and grave, and careful of the main,
Into a room remote, servants and all, Yet one who once did nobly entertain
To please their noble fancies with a ball. A city mouse, well-coated, sleek, and gay,
Our host leads forth his stranger, and does fint A mouse of high degree which lost his way,
All fitted to the bounties of his mind. Waptonly walking forth to take the air,
Still on the table half-fill'd dishes stood, And arriv'd early, and belighted, there,
And with delicious bits the floor was strew'd. For a day's lodging: the good hearty host
The courteous mouse presents him with the best, (The ancient plenty of his hall to boast)
And both with fat varieties are blest. Did all the stores produce, that might excite,
T'h'industrious peasant every where does range, With various tastes, the courtier's appetite.
And thanks the Gods for his life's happy changa Fitches and beans, peason and oats, and wheat,
Lo! in the midst of a well-freighted pye, And a large chesnut, the delicious meat [eat. They both at last glutted and wanton lie; Which Jove himself, were he a mouse, would When, see the sad reverse of prosperons fate, And, for a haut goust, there was mixt with these
And what fierce storms on mortal glories wait! The swerd of bacon, and the coat of cheese :
With hideous noise down the rude servants come The precious reliques which, at harvest, he
Six dogs before run barking into th' room; Had gather'd from the reaper's luxury.
The wretched gluttons fly with wild affright, “ Freely” (said he) “ fall on, and never spare,
And hate the fullness, which retards their flight. The bounteous gods will for to morrow care."
Our trembling peasant wishes now, in vain, And thus at ease, on beds of straw, they lay,
That rocks and mountains cover'd him again; And to their genius sacrific'd the day :
Oh, how the change of his poor life he curst! Yet the nice guest's Epicurean mind,
“ This, of all lives” (said he) “ is sure the worst (Though breeding made him civil seem and kind) Give me again, ye gods, my cave and wood! Despis’d this country feast; and still his thought with peace, let tares and acorns be my food!" Upon the cakes and pies of London wrought. “ Your bounty and civility” (said he), “ Which I'm surpris'd in these rude parts to see, A PARAPHRASE UPON The 10th Epistle OF THE Shows that the gods have given you a mind Too noble for the fate which here you find.
FIRST BOOK OF HORACE.
HORACE TO FUSCUS ARISTIUS.
Health, to the lover of the city, thee; And taste the generous luxury of the court,
A difference in our souls, this only proves; Where all the mice of quality resort;
In all things else, we agree like married doves. Where thousand beauteous shes about you move, But the warm nest and crowded dove house thua And, by high fare, are pliant made to love. Dost like; I loosely fly from bough to bough, We all, ere long, must render up our breath;
And rivers drink, and all the shining day No cave or hole can shelter us from death. Upon fair trees or mossy rocks I play; Since life is so uncertain, and so short,
In fine, I live and reign, when I retire Let's spend it all in feasting and in sport. From all that you equal with Heaven admirez Come, worthy sir, come with me and partake Like one at last from the priest's service fled, All the great things that mortals happy make.” Loathing the honied cakes, I long for bread.
Alas! what virtue hath sufficient arms Would I a house for happiness erect, T'oppose bright honour, and soft pleasure's Nature alone should be the architect, charms:
She'd build it more convenient than great, What wisdom can their magic force repel? And doubtless in the country choose her seat It draws this reverend hermit from his cell. Is there a place doth better helps supply It was the time, when witty poets tell,
Against the wounds of Winter's cruelty? “ That Phæbus into Thetis' bosom fell :
Is there an air, that gentlier does assuage She blush'd at first, and then put out the light, The mad celestial Dog's, or Lion's, rage? And drew the modest curtains of the night." Is it not there that sleep (and only there) Plainly the truth to tell, the Sun was set, Nor noise without, nor cares within, does fear! When to the town our wearied travellers get : Does art through pipes a purer water bring, To a lord's house, as lordly as can be,
Than that, which Nature strains into a spring? Made for the use of pride and luxury,
Can all your tap'stries, or your pictures show They come; the gentle courtier at the door More beauties, than in herbs and flowers do Stops, and will hardly enter in before :
grow? “ But 'tis, sir, your command, and being so, Fountains and trees our wearied pride do please, I'm sworn t'obedience; and so in they go." Ey'n in the inidst of gilded palaces,