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that you may see I know you too, I know you to Across his breast an azure ruban went, be an obstinate and inveterate malignant ; and for At which a medal hung, that did present, that reason I shall take you along with me to the In wondrous living figures, to the sight, next garrison of ours; from whence you shall go to The mystic champion's, and old dragon's fight; the Tower, and from thence to the court of justice, And from his mantle's side there shone afar, and from thence you know whither.” I was almost | A fix'd and, I believe, a real star. in the very pounces of the great bird of prey : In his fair

hand (what need was there of more :)

No arms, but th’ English bloody cross he bore, When, lo, ere the last words were fully spoke, Which when he tow'rds th’affrighted tyrant bent, From a fair cloud which rather op'd than broke, And some few words pronounc'd (but what they A flash of light, rather than lightning, came,

meant, So swift, and yet so gentle, was the flame. Or were, could not, alas ! by me be known, Upon it rode (and, in his full career,

Only, I well perceiv'd, Jesus was one) Seem'd to my eyes no sooner there than here) He trembled, and he roar'd, and fled away The comeliest youth of all th' angelic race; Mad to quit thus his more than hop'd-for prey. Lovely bis shape, ineffable his face.

Such rage inflames the wolf's wild heart and The frowns, with which he strook the trembling eyes fiend,

(Robb'd, as he thinks unjustly, of his prize) All smiles of human beauty did transcend ; Whom unawares the shepherd spies, and draws His beams of locks fell part dishevel I'd down, The bleating lamb from out his ravenous jaws: Part upwards curl'd, and form'd a natural crown, The shepherd fain himself would he assail, Such as the British monarchs us'd to wear; But fear above his hunger does prevail, If gold might be compar'd with angels' hair. He knows his foe too strong, and must be gone; His coat and flowing mantle were so bright, He grins, as he looks back, and howls as he goes They seem'd both made of woven silver light :

on.

SEVERAL DISCOURSES,

BY WAY OF ESSAYS,

IN

VERSE AND PROSE.

I.

too after a forfeiture made by the rebellion of

!

Adam. He takes so much care for the entire OF LIBERTY.

preservation of it, to us, that he suffers neither

his providence nor eternal decree to break or inThe liberty of a people consists in being govern- fringe it. Now for our time, the same God, to ed by laws which they have made themselves, whom we are but tenants at will for the whole, under whatsoever form it be of government: the requires but the seventh part to be paid to him, as liberty of a private man, in being master of his a small quit-rent, in acknowledgment of his own time and actions, as far as may consist with title. It is man only that has the impudence to the laws of God and of his country. Of this latter demand our whole time, though he never gave it, only we are here to discourse, and to enquire nor can restore it, nor is able to pay any consiwhat estate of life does best seat us in the posses- derable value for the least part of it. This birthsion of it. This liberty of our own actions, is such right of mankind above all other creatures, some a fundamental privilege of human nature, that are forced by hunger to sell, like Esau, for bread God himself, notwithstanding all his infinite power and broth : but the greatest part of men make and right over us, permits us to enjoy it, and that such a bargain for the delivery-up of themselves,

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as Thamar did with Judah ; instead of a kid, the scribe the character which Cicero 4 gives of this
necessary provisions for human life, they are con noble slave, because it is a general description of
tented to do it for rings and bracelets. The great all ambitious men, and which Machiavel perhaps
dealers in this world may be divided into the am- would say ought to be the rule of their life and ac-
bitious, the covetous, and the voluptuous; and tions :
that all these men sell themselves to be slaves “ This man (says he, as most of you may well
though to the vulgar it may seem a stoical para- remember) had many artificial touches and
dox, will appear to the wise so plain and obvious, strokes, that looked like the beauty of great vir-
that they will scarce think it deserves the labour tues; his intimate conversation was with the
of argumentation.

worst of men, and yet he seemed to be an adLet us first consider the ambitious; and those, mirer and lover of the best ; he was furnished with both in their progress to greatness, and after the all the nets of lust and luxury, and yet wanted not attaining of it. There is nothing truer than what the arms of labour and industry: neither do I beSallust ' says, Dominationis in alios servitium lieve that there was ever any monster of nature, suum mercedem dant ; they are content to pay composed out of so many different and disagreeing so great a price, as their own servitude, to pur-parts. Who more acceptable, sometimes, to the chase the domination over others. The first most honourable persons: who more a favourite thing they must resolve to sacrifice, is their whole to the most infamous ? who, sometimes,appeared time; they must never stop, nor ever turn aside a braver champion ; who; at other times, a bolder whilst they are in the race of glory, no not like enemy to his countrey? who more dissolute in Atalanta for golden apples. Neither indeed can his pleasures ? who more patient in his toils ? who a man stop himself if he would when he is in this more rapacious in robbing? who more profuse in career:

giving? Above all things, this was remarkable and

admirable in him, the arts he had to acquire the Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habe good opinion and kindness of all sorts of men, to nasa.

retain it with great complaisance, to communicate

all things to them, to watch and serve all the ocPray, let us but consider a little, what means casions of their fortune, both with his money, and servile things men do for this imaginary food. his interest, and his industry; and, if need were, We cannot fetch a greater example of it, than not by sticking at any wickedness whatsoever that from the chief men of that nation which boasted might be useful to them, to bend and turn about most of liberty. To what pitiful baseness did bis own nature and lareer with every wind : to the noblest Romans submit themselves, for the live severely with the melancholy, merrily with the obtaining of a pretorship, or the consular digni- pleasant, gravely with the aged, wantonly with ty! They put on the habit of suppliants, and ran the young, desperately with the bold, and de. about on foot, and in dirt, through a'l the tribes, bauchedly with the luxurious: with this variety to beg voices; they flattered the poorest arti- and multiplicity of his nature-as he had made sans; and carried a nomenclator with them, to a collection of friendships with all the most wickwhisper in their ear every man's name, lest they ed and restless of all nations ; so, by the artificial should mistake it in their salutations; they simulation of some virtues, he made a shift to enshook the hand and kissed the cheek of every share some honest and eminent persons into his popular tradesman ; they stood all day at every familiarity. Neither could so vast a design as market in the public places, to show and ingrati- the destruction of this empire have been underate themselves to the rout; they employed all taken by him, if the immanity of so many vices their friends to solicit for them; they kept open had not been covered and disguised by the aptables in every street ; they distributed wine,and pearances of some excellent qualities." bread, and money, even to the vilest of the peo I see, methinks, the character of an Antiple. En Romanos rerum dominos 3 ! Behold Paul, “who became all things to all men,” that the masters of the world begging from door to he might destroy all; who only wanted the asdoor! This particular humble way of greatness sistance of fortune, to have been as great as his is now out of fashion ; but yet every ambitious friend Cæsar was a little after him. And the person is still in some sort a Roman candidate ways of Cæsar to compass the same ends (I mean He must feast and bribe, and attend and flatter, till the civil war, which was but another manner and adore many beasts, though not the beast of setting his country on fire) were not unlike with many heads. Catiline, who was so proud that these, though he used afterwards his unjust do. he could not content himself with a less power minion with more moderation than I think the than Sylla's, was yet so humble, for the attaining other would have done. Sallust therefore, who of it, as to make himself the most contemptible of was well acquainted with them both, and with all servants; to be a public bawd, to provide many such like gentlemen of his time, sayss, whores,and something worse for all the young gen “ that it is the nature of ambition, to make men tlemen of Rome, whose hot lusts and courages, Iyars and cheaters; to hide the truth in their and heads, he thought he might make use of. breasts, and show, like jagglers, another thing in And since I happen here to propose Catiline for their mouths: to cut all friendships and enmi. my instance (though there be thousand of exam- ties to the measure of their own interest ; and to ples for the same thing) give me leave to tran- make a good countenance without the help of a

good will." And can there be freedom with this 1 Fragm. ed. Mattaire, p. 116.

perpetual constraint? what is it but a kind of * Virg. Georg. i. 514. 3 Virg. Æn. i. 282.

4 Orat. pro. M. Cælio. s De Bell. Catil. C. X.

rack, that forces men to say what they have notion.” This was spoken as became the bravest mind to!

man who was ever born in the bravest commouI have wondered at the extravagant and bar- wealth. But with us generally, no condition barous stratagem of Zopirus, and more at the passes for servitude, that is accompanied with praises which I find of so deformed an action; great riches, with honours, and with the service who, though he was one of the seven grandees of of many inferiors. This is but a deception of Persia, and the son of Megabıses, who had freed the sight through a false medium; for if a groon before his country from an ignoble servitude, slit serve a gentleman in his chamber, that gentle. bis owu nose and lips, cut off his own ears, scourg man a lord, and that lord a prince; the groum, ed and wounded his whole body, that he might, the gentleman, and the lord, are as much serunder pretence of having been mangled so inhu- vants one as the other; the circumstantial difmanly by Darius, be received into Babylon (then ference of the one's getting only his bread and besieged by the Persians) and get into the com- wages, the second a plentiful, and the third a sumand of it by the recommendation of so cruel a perfluous estate, is no more intrinsical to this sufferance, and their hopes of his endeavouring matter, than the difference between a plain, a to revenge it. It is great pity the Babylonians rich, and gaudy livery. I do not say, that he suspected not his falsehood, that they might who sells his whole time and his own will for have cut off his hands too, and whipt him back one hundred thousand is not a wiser mer. Again. But the design succeeded; he betrayed chant than he who does it for one hundred the city, and was made governor of it. What pounds; but I will swear they are both merbrutish master ever punished his offending slave chants, and that he is happier than both, who with so little mercy,as ambition did this Zopirus ? can live contentedly without selling that estato and yet how many are there in all nations, who to which he was bom. But this dependance imitate him, in some degree, for a less reward ; upon superiors is but une chain of the lovers of who, though they endure not so much corporal power: pain for a small prefermentor some honour (as

Amatorem trecentæ they call it), yet stiek not to commit actions, by

Pirithoum cohibent catepæl, which they are more shamefully and more lastingly stigmatised! But you may say, though Let us begin with him by break of day: for by these be the most ordinary and open ways to that time he is besieged by two or three hundred greatness, yet there are narrow, thorny, and suitors; and the hall and antichambers (all the Jittle-trodden paths too, through which, some out-works) possessed by the enemy: as soon as men find a passage by virtuous industry. This chamber opens, they are ready to break into grant, sometimes they may; but then that in- that, or to corrupt the guards, for entrance. dustry must be such as cannot consist with liber- This is so essential a part of greatness, that ty, though it may with honcsty.

whosoever is without it, looks like a fallen faThou art careful, frugal, painful; ve commend vourite, like a person disgraced, and condemned a servant so, but not a friend,

to do what he pleases all the morning. There - Well then, we must acknowledge the toil and are some who, rather than want this, are condrudgery which we are forced to endure in this tented to have their rooms filled up every day ascent, but we are epicures and lords when once with murmuring and cursing creditors, and to we are gotten up into the high places. This is charge bravely through a body of them to get to but a short apprenticeship, after which we are their coach. Now I would fain know which is the made free of a royal company. If we fall in love worst duty, that of any one particular person with any beauteous woman, we must be content who waits to speak with the great man, or the that they should be our mistresses whilst we wou great man's, who waits every day to speak with them : as soon as we are wedded and enjoy, it is all company, we shall be the masters. I am willing to stick to this similitude in the

Aliena negotia centum case of greatness: weenter into the bonds of it, like Per caput, & circa saliunt latus those of matrimony: we are bewitched with the a hundred businesses of other men (many unjust, outward and painted beauty, and take it for bet- and most impertinent) fly continually about his ter or worse, before we know its true nature and head and ears, and strike him in the face like interior inconveniences. A great fortune (says Dorres. Let us contemplate him a little at Seneca) is a great servitude; but many are of another special scene of glory, and that is his that opinion which Brutus imputes (I hope un table. Here he seems to be the lord of all nature: trulyoj even to that patron of liberty, his friend the earth affords him her best metals for his Cicero: “We fear (says he to Atticus) death, dishes, her best vegetables and animals for his and banishment, and poverty, a great deal too food; the air and sea supply him with their much. Cicero, I am afraid, thinks these to be the choicest birds and fishes; and a great many men, worst of evils; and, if he have but some persons, who look like masters, attend upon him; and from whom he can obtain what he has a mind to, yet, when all this is done, even all this is but and others who will flatter and worship him, seems

table d'hoste; it is crowded with people for whom to be well enough contented with an honourable he cares not, with many parasites and some servitude, if any thing indeed ought to be called spies, with the most burt hensome sort of guests, honourable in so base and contumelious a condi- the endeavourers to be witty. This parenthesis does honour to the writer's

7 Hor. 3 Od. iv. 79. sense, as well as candour, Hund.

8 Hor. . Sat, vi, 34

But every body pays him great respect; every | jealousy, fear, envy, grief, and all the et cetera boly coinmends his meat, that is, his money; of their passions, which are the secret, but conevery body admires the exquisite dressing and stant, tyrants and torturers of their life, I omit ordering of it, that is, his clerk of the kitchen, here, because, though they be symptoms most or his cook; every body loves his hospitality, frequent and violent in this disease, yet they are that is, his vanity. But I desire to know why common too in some degree to the epidemical the honest inn-keeper, who provides a public disease of life itself. table for his profit, should be but of a mean pro

But the ambitious man, thongh he be so many fession; and he, who does it for his honour, a ways a slave (o toties servus !) yet he bears it manificent prince. You will say, because one bravely and heroically; he struts and looks big sells, and the other gives: nay, both sell

, upon the stage; he thinks himself a real prince thongh for different things; the one for plain in his masking-habit

, and deceives too all the money, the other for I know not what jewels, foolish part of his spectators: he is a slave in whose value is in custom and in fancy. If then saturnalibus. The covetous man is a downright his table be made " a snare” (as the Scriptures servant, a draught-horse without bells or feaspeaks) " to his liberty," where can he hope for thers : ad metalla damnatus, a man condemned freedom? There is always, and every where to work in mines, which is the lowest and hardest some restraint upon him. He is guarded with condition of servitude; and, to increase his microwds, and shackled with formalities. The half sery, a worker there for he knows not whom : hat, the whole hat, the half smile, the whole "He heapeth up riches, and knows not who shalt sile, the ood, the embrace, the positire part- enjoy them 3;" it is only sure, that he himself ing with a little bow, the comparative at the mid- neither shall nor can enjoy them. He is an indidle of the mom, the superlative at the door; and, gent, needy slave; be will hardly allow himself if the person be pan huper sebastus, there is a hy- clothes and board-wages : persuperlative ceremony then of conducting him to the bottom of the stairs, or to the very gate :

Unciatim vix de demenso sito, as if there were such rules set to these Leviathans, Suum defraudans genium, comparsit iniser *; as are to the sea, “ Hitherto shalt thou go, and no further."

He defrauds not only other men, but his own Perditur hæc inter misero lux ?,

genius; he cheats himself for inoney. "But the

servile and miserable condition of this wretch is Thus wretchedly the precious day is lost. so apparent, that I leave it, as evident to etery

How many impertinent letters and visits must he man's sight, as well as judgment. tereive, and sometimes answer both too as imperti It seems a more difficult work to prove that nently! He never sets his foot beyond his threshold, the voluptuous man too is but a servant : what unless, like a funeral, he have a train to follow him; can be more the life of a freeman, or, as we say as if, like the dead corpse, he could not stir, till the ordinarily, of a gentleman, than to follow nothing bearers were all ready. “My life (says Horace, but his own pleasures? Why, I will tell you who speaking to one of these magnificos) is a great is that true freeman, and that true gentieman, deal more easy and commodious than thine, in not he who blindly follows all his pleasures (the that I can go into the market, and cheapen what very name of follower is servile); but he who raI please, without being wondered at; and take tionally guides them, and is not hindered by my horse and ride as far as Tarentum, without outward impediments in the conduct and enjoybeing missel.” It is an unpleasant constraint to ment of them. If I want skill or force to restrain be always under the sight and observation, and the beast that I ride upon, though I bought it, censure, of others; as there may be vanity in it, and call it my own, yet in the truth of the matter, somethinks there should be vexation, too, of spi- I am at that time rather his man, than he my rit: and I wonder how princes can endure to have horse. The voluptuous men (whom we have faltwo or three hundred men stand gazing upon them len upon) may be divided, I think, into the lustwhilst they are at dinner, and taking notice of ful and luxurious, who are both servants of the every bit they eat. Nothing seems greater and belly; the other, whom we spoke of before, the more lordly than the multitude of domestic ser-ambitious and the covetous, were xaxà Snipay, vants; but even this too, if weighed seriously, evil wild beasts: these are yacégns asyal, sluca is a piece of servitude; unless you will be a ser-bellies, as our translation renders it, but the word vant to them (as many men are) the trouble ayant (which is a fantastical word, with two diand care of yours in the government of them all, is rectly opposite significations) will bear as well much more than that of every one of them in their the translation of quick or diligent bellies; and observance of you. I take the profession of a both interpretations may be applied to these men. school-master to be one of the most useful, and Metrodorus said, “that he had learnt & Arom which ought to be of the most honourable in a yassi maalzerbai, to give his belly just thanks commonwealth; yet certainly all his fasces and for all his pleasures." This, by the calumniators tyrannical authority over so many boys takes of Epicurus's philosophy, was objected as one of away his own liberty more than theirs.

the most scandalous of all their sayings ; which, I do but slightly touch upon all these particu- according to my charitable understanding, may lars of the slavery of greatness: I shake but a admit a very virtuous sense, which is, that he few of their outward chains; their anger, hatred, thanked his own belly for that moderation, in the Ps. Ixix, 29.

Job xxxviii. 112 3 Ps. xxxxix. 6. : Hor. 2 Sat. vi. 59.

4 Phorm. Act I, Sc. i. ver. 43,

customary appetites of it, which can only give a rn beg no more : if more thou’rt please to give, man liberty and happiness in this world. Let I'll thankfully that overplus receive : this suffice at present to be spoken of those great if beyond this no more be freely sent, triumviri of the world; the covetous man, who I thank for this and go away content. is a mean villain, like Lepidus ; the ambitious, who is a brave one, like Octavius; and the voluptuous, who is a loose and debauched one, like

MARTIAL, Lib. I. Ep. lvi. Mark Antony:

Vota tui breviter, &c. Quisnam igitur liber? Sapiens, sibique imperiosus S :

Well then, sir, you shall know how far extend

The prayers and hopes of your poetic friend. Not Oenomaus 5, who commits himself wholly He does not palaces nor manors crave, to a charioteer, that may break his neck ; but would be no lord, but less a lord would have; the man,

The ground he holds, if he his own can call,

He quarrels not with Heaven because 'tis small : Who governs his own course with steady hand; Let gay and toilsome greatness others please, Who does himself with sovereign power com He loves of homely littleness the ease. mand;

Can any man in gilded rooms attend, Whom neither death nor poverty does fright; And his dear hours in humble visits spend, Who stands not aukwardly in his own light When in the fresh and beauteous fields he may Against the truth; who can, when pleasures with various healthful pleasures fill the day? knock

If there be man (ye gods!) I ought to hate, Loud at his door, keep firm the bolt and lock; Dependance and attendance be his fate: Who can, though Honour at his gate should stay still let him busy be, and in a crowd, In all her masking cloaths, send her away, And very much a slave, and very proud : And cry,“ Be gone, I have no mind to play.” Thus he perhaps powerful and rich may grow ;

No matter, O ye gods ! that I'll allow: This, I confess, is a freeman: but it may be said, But let him peace and freedom never see; that many persons are so shackled by their for- Let him not love this life, who loves not me! tune, that they are hindered from enjoyment of that manumission which they have obtained from virtue. I do both understand, and in part

MARTIAL, Lib. II. Ep. liii. fee!, the weight of this objection; all I can answer to it is, that we must get as much liberty as

Vis fieri liber? &c. we can, we must use our utmost endeavours, and, when all that is done, be contented with the Would you be free? 'Tis your chief wish you Jength of that line which is allowed us. If you say; ask me, in what condition of life I think the Come on; I'll show thee, friend, the certain way; most allowed; I should pitch upon that sort of If to no feasts abroad thou lov'st to go, people, whom King James was wont to call the While bounteous God does bread at home bestow; happiest of our nation, the men placed in the If thou the goodness of thy cloaths dost prize country by their fortune above an high constable, By thine own use, and not by others' eyes; and yet beneath the trouble of a justice of peace; if (only safe from weathers) thou canst dwell in a moderate plenty, without any just argument In a small house, but a convenient shell ; for the desire of increasing it by the care of If thou, without a sigh, or golden wish, many relations; and with so much knowledge and Canst look upon thy beechen bowl and dish; love of piety and philosophy (that is, of the If in thy mind such power and greatness be, study of God's laws, and of his creatures) as may The Persian king's a slave compar'd with thee. afford him matter enough never to be idle, though without business; and never to be melancholy, though without sin or vanity.

MARTIAL, Lib. II. Ep. Ixviii. I shall conclude this tedious discourse with a prayer of mine in a copy of Latin verses, of which

Quod te nomine &c. I remember no other part; and (pour faire bonne bouche) with some other verses upon the That I do you with humble bows no more, same subject :

And danger of my naked head, adore;

That I, who " Lord and master,” cry'd erewhile, Magne Deus, quod ad has vitae brevis attinet Salute you, in a new and different style, horas,

By your own name, a scandal to you now; Da mihi, da panem libertatemque, nec ultrà Think not that I forget myself or you : Sollicitas effundo preces : si quid datur ultrà, By loss of all things, by all others sought, Accipiam gratus ; si non, contentus abibo. This freedom, and the freeman's hat, is bought.

A lord and master no man wants, but he
For the few hours of life allotted me,

Who o'er himself has no authority;
Give me (great God!) but bread and liberty, Who does for honours and for riches strive,

And follies, without which lords cannot live. s Hor. 2 Sat. vii. 83.

If thou from fortune dost no servant crave, • Virg. Georg. üi. 7.

Believe it, thou no master need'st to have.

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