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79. The power which the bishop of Rome now challengeth, to be the supreme head of the universal church of Christ, and to be above all emperors, kings, and princes, is a usurped power, contrary to the Scriptures and word of God, and contrary to the example of the primitive church, and, therefore, is for most just causes taken away and abolished, within the king's majesty's realms and dominions.
80. The bishop of Rome is so far from being the supreme head of the universal church of Christ, that his works and doctrine do plainly discover him to be that man of sin foretold in the Holy Scriptures, "whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his truth, and abolish with the brightness of his coming."
OF THE STATE OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.
81. In the Old Testament the commandments of the law were more largely, and the promises of Christ more sparingly and darkly propounded; shadowed with a multitude of types and figures, and so much more generally and obscurely delivered, as the manifesting of them was farther off.
82. The Old Testament is not contrary to the New ; for both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life is offered to mankind by Christ, who is the only mediator between God and man, being both God and man; wherefore they are not to be heard, which feign that the old fathers did look only for transitory promises, for they looked for all the benefits of God the Father, through the merits of his son Jesus Christ, as
we now do; only they believed in Christ which should come, we in Christ already come.
83. The New Testament is full of grace and truth, bringing joyful tidings unto mankind, that whatsoever formerly was promised of Christ is now accomplished: and so instead of the ancient types and ceremonies exhibiteth the things themselves, with a large and clear declaration of all the benefits of the gospel. Neither is the ministry thereof restrained any longer to one circumcised nation, but is indifferently propounded unto all people, whether they be Jews or Gentiles; so that there is now no nation, which can truly complain that they be shut forth from the communion of saints, and the liberties of the people of God.
84. Although the law given from God, by Moses, as touching ceremonies and rites, be abolished, and the civil precepts thereof be not of necessity to be received in any commonwealth; yet, notwithstanding, no Christian man whatsoever is freed from the obedience of the commandments which are called moral.
OF THE SACRAMENTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
85. The sacraments ordained by Christ are not only badges or tokens of Christian men's profession, but rather certain sure witnesses, and effectual or powerful signs, of grace and God's good-will towards us, by. which he doth work invisibly in us, and not only quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith in him.
86. There be two sacraments ordained of Christ
our Lord in the gospel, that is to say, baptism and the Lord's supper.
87. Those five which by the church of Rome are called sacraments, to wit, confirmation, penance, orders, matrimony, and extreme unction, are not to be accounted sacraments of the gospel, being such as have partly grown from corrupt imitation of the apostles, partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures, but yet have not like nature of sacraments with baptism and the Lord's supper, for that they have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God, together with a promise of saving grace annexed thereunto.
88. The sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should duly use them. And in such only as worthily receive the same, they have a wholesome effect aud operation; but they that receive them unworthily, thereby draw judgment upon themselves.
89. Baptism is not only an outward sign of our profession, and a note of difference, whereby Christians are discerned from such as are no Christians; but much more, a sacrament of our admission into the church, sealing unto us our new birth (and consequently our justification, adoption, and sanctification) by the communion which we have with Jesus Christ.
90. The baptism of infants is to be retained in the church as agreeable to the word of God.
91. In the administration of baptism, exorcism, oil,
salt, spittle, and superstitious hallowing of the water, are for just causes abolished; and without them the sacrament is fully and perfectly administered to all intents and purposes, agreeable to the institution of our Saviour Christ.
OF THE LORD's Supper.
92. The Lord's supper is not only a sign of the mutual love which Christians ought to bear one towards another, but much more, a sacrament of our preservation in the church, sealing unto us our spiritual nourishment, and continual growth in Christ.
93. The change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of the body and blood of Christ, commonly called transubstantiation, cannot be proved by holy writ, but is repugnant to plain testimonies of the Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a sacrament, and hath given occasion to most gross idolatry and manifold superstitions.
94. In the outward part of the holy communion, the body and blood of Christ is in a most lively manner represented, being no otherwise present with the visible elements than things signified and sealed are present with the signs and seals; that is to say, symbolically and relatively. But in the inward and spiritual part, the same body and blood is really and substantially presented unto all those who have grace to receive the Son of God, even to all those that believe in his name. And unto such as in this manner do worthily and with faith repair unto the Lord's table, the body and blood
of Christ is not only signified and offered, but also truly exhibited and communicated.
95. The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in the Lord's supper, only after a heavenly and spiritual manner; and the mean whereby the body of Christ is thus received and eaten, is faith.
96. The wicked, and such as want a lively faith, although they do carnally and visibly, as St. Augustine speaketh, press with their teeth the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, yet in no wise are they made partakers of Christ, but rather to their condemnation do eat and drink the sign or sacrament of so great a thing.
97. Both the parts of the Lord's sacrament, according to Christ's institution, and the practice of the ancient church, ought to be ministered unto all God's people; and it is plain sacrilege to rob them of the mystical cup, for whom Christ hath shed his most precious blood.
98. The sacrament of the Lord's supper was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshipped.
99. The sacrifice of the mass, wherein the priest is said to offer up Christ for obtaining the remission of pain or guilt for the quick and the dead, is neither agreeable to Christ's ordinance nor grounded upon doctrine apostolic: but contrariwise most ungodly, and most injurious to that all-sufficient sacrifice of our Saviour Christ, offered once for ever upon the cross, which is the only propitiation and satisfaction for all