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54 Embassy to Massasoh, and

Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto for their guide, composed this embassy. This sachem lived about 40 miles southward of Plymouth. As they passed through the country, they observed the marks of the ravages, which the pestilence had made a few years before. They were received with friendship, and accomplished the business of their mission to the satisfaction of the governor.

The prudent and upright conduct of the Ply.* mouth colony toward the Indians, secured their friendship and alliance. Through theinfluence of Massasoit, nine of the petty sachems in his neighbourhood, who were jealous of the new colonists^ and disposed to give them trouble, came to Plymouth, and voluntarily subscribed the following instrument of submission to the king of England, viz. "Sept. 13th, A. D. 1621. Know all men by these presents, that we whose names are underwritten, do acknowledge ourselves to be the loyal subjects of King James, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. In witness whereof, and as a testimonial of the same, we have subscribed our names or marks as followeth:

Ohquamehud, Chickatabak3

Cawnacome, Quadeqn ina,

Obbatinua, Huttam oiden,

Nattawahunt, Apanno w.'y

Caunbatant, Hobbamack, another of these subordinate chiefs; submission of other Indians. 55

came and took up his residence at Plymouth, where he continued as a faithful guide and interpreter as long as he lived. The Indians of the island of Capawock, which had now obtained the name of Martha's or Martin's Vineyard, also sent messengers of peace. These transactions are so many proofs of the peaceful and benevolent disposition of the Plymouth settlers.

In September (1621) governor Bradford sent ten men, with Squanto, in a shallop to explore the bay, now called Massachusetts; they found that the islands in this bay had been cleared of wood, that they had been planted, but were now almost without inhabitants. The few who remained received them very hospitably, expressing great fears of the Tarateens, a people at the eastward, who often came and robbed them of their corn, and many times killed some of their people* The superior fertility of the islands in the bay, made them wish they had settled'there. Having] very happily recovered their health, they began toj repair their cottages before winter. They alsoj in Odlober, gathered in their harvest. Their English grain was poor, but their corn was verygood, and they had plenty of fish and fowl, aud were very happy,

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CHAP. V.

Increase of their number) sufferings, a massacre of Virginians*, duel, Squanto dies, lands purchased, 'visit to Massasozt, who is sicA> pat'ent obtained, first cattle in New England^ death and character of Mr. Robinson*.

iN November, a ship with thirty five passengers arrived from England.. Unfortunately for the little colony, the ship was short of provisions, and the colonists, out of their scanty pittance, were obliged to victual her home. In consequence,, before the next spring, they were reduced to great' straits, and obliged for some time to subsist on' fish and spring water, being for two or three months destitute of bread. To heighten theirdisBfcyresses the Narraganset chief, Canonicus,. tlireat^^Kpcd the peace of the colony by a message sent in ^^K* the emblematical style of the ancient Scythians,. ^^K*iz. a bundle of arrows bound with the skin of a ^^mserpent.53 The governor returned the skin filled' ^B witfrpowder and ball, which had the desired efHp k&c. Afraid of its contents, the chief returned it ^ unopened, and remained quiet.

About this time a part of the colony of Virginia was surprised, and massacred by the Indians, From this circumstance, and the hostile disposition of the Narragansets, the colonists, feeble as Duel, death and character of Squanto. 5T

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they were from famine, found it expedient to fortify their town; accordingly, they surrounded it with a stockade and four flankarts, divided their company into four squadrons, and alternately kept guard day and night. Their guns were mounted on akin$ of citadel erefted on the top of the town hill, with aflat roof; the lower story of which served them for a place of worship.

The practice of duelling, which has never prevailed in New England, was introduced by two servants, who quarrelled, and fought with sword and dagger. Both were wounded, neither of them mortally. For this disgraceful condufr, they were formally tried before the whole company, and sentenced to have "their heads and feet tied together, and so to remain twenty-four hours, without meat or drink." Inconsequence of their penitence, a part of their punishment was remitted.

The summer of 1622 being dry, and the harvest scanty, the colonists were obliged to seek a supply from the Indians. Governor Bradford, with the friendly and faithful Squanto for his guide and interpreter, made an excursion for this purpose 5 during which, Squanto fell sick and died. On his death bed he requested the governor to pray for hhn, that he might " go to the Englishman's God in heaven.55 This Indian deserves to have his name recorded with honour, in the history of New England. Forgetting the perfidy of those, who, by artifice, had made him a prisoner > and a slave, he became a hearty friend of the English,

58 The soil of Neiu England purchased.

and so continued till his death, rendering them m various ways, most essential services. Though faithful to the English, he had his share of art* cunning, and dishonesty. He would often send word privately to the Indians that the English were coming to kill them, but assuring them at the same time, that he had influence to persuade them to peace. By these means he not only obtained large presents, but raised himself to such importance in yiew of his countrymen, that they sought to him as a prote&or, and he became more respefted than their sachems. He also> to give consequence to the English and himself, informed the natives that the English kept the plague buried in a cellar, which was their magazine of powder,, which they could send forth to the destru£tion of any people^ while they remained at home themselves.

Governor Bradford was treated with great respefil by the several tribes which he visited, and the trade was conduced on both sides, with con* fidence and justice. He purchased in the whole,. 28 hogsheads of corn, for which he paid in goods received from England.*

The right to the lands settled by the English colonists, was early purchased from or given by the Indian proprietors. How great a part of New England was thus fairly obtained from the Indians* cannot be ascertained. There is evidence to believe, however, that a large proportion of the soil was purchased, at what was then considered an equitable price,

* Belkna*.

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