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334 Congress at Albany.

As the distresses of war ceased, the people were alarmed, in 1749, with the report of ail American episcopa-cy; but the design was not executed. Dr. Mayhew of Boston, distinguished himself in this controversy. This year, Benning Wentworth made a grant of Bennington.

In 1754, a congress met in Albany, consisting of delegates from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland; but the plan of government they proposed was rejected, both in England and America. Had this instrument been accepted, the mind is lost in conje6Uiring what might have been the consequences. Perhaps the revolution of 1776, had been postponed a long period; perhaps the millions and millions of the human race lately destroyed in Europe and Asia, by the demon of revolutionary madness, might have long survived, to swell the tide of human felicity.

Preparations were made in 1755, to dislodge the French from Nova Scotia. Colonel Winslow raised two thousand men, but the command of the expedition was given to colonel Monkton. The French were subdued. The inhabitants had taken the oath of allegiance to the British crown, but were accused of furnishing support and intelligence to Indians and French, in annoying the colonies, some of them were in arms. It was determined to remove them; about two thousand souls were accordingly transported to New England. Braddock's Defeat. 335

The cloud of their sorrows was never dispelled; in a land of strangers, most of them pined away and died. They were remarkable for the simplicity of their manners, the ardour of their piety, and the purity of their morals.

General Braddock, with 2200 regular and provincial troops, marched this year for Fort du Quesne, but fell into an ambuscade, and was fatally wounded, panic seized his regular troops, but colonel Washington, his aid-de-eamp, with his militia, covered their retreat, and saved the shattered army.

The 18th of November, this year, was a memo orable day on account of the earthquake. The wooden spindle of the vane on Faneuil Hall was broken, and an iron one which supported the vane on Springfield steeple was bent to a right angle; stone walls were thrown down, and the tops of chimnies shaken off.

•In 1758, Louisbourgh, Frontenac, and Fort du Quesne, submitted to the English, a small compensation for more than 2000 men killed and wounded in the rash and unsuccessful attack upon Ticonderoga. Splendid were the victories of the year 1759. Niagara, Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and Quebec submitted to the English. At the taking-of Quebec, Wolfe, the British commander, after being wounded in the wrist, received a fetal ball in his breast. Leaning on the shoulder of a lieutenaiit; sinking in the agonies of 336 Death of Wolfe. *

death, he heard a cry, " they run." For a moment reviving, he asked, who ran? It was answered, "the French." He replied, " I thank God, I die happy," and expired. Montcalm, the French commander, also the second in command, was killed. Quebec surrendered, and the whole province was>soon annexed to the British empire.

In 1762,Martinico; Grenada, St. Vincents, and Havanna submitted:; English valour was triumphant in every quarter of the globe ; peace followed.

CHAP. XXVI.

f Stamp Act, Dartmouth College founded, Lexington and Bunkerhill battles, expedition to Canada, Boston evacuted, Ticonderoga taken, descent on Rhode Island, Try oris expedition to Connecticut, American Academy incorporated, J^etv London burnt, Insurrection in Massachusetts, Federal Constitution, Colleges in Vermont and Maine.

IT was now thought a proper time to tax America. The stamp&£l, whiclvpassed in 1765, fotlsed New England. Every mea$ was used to inform the mind, and kindle the passions. Massachusetts maide thb proposal, and a cbiigress assembled* In Connecticut the people met; the Dartmouth College. 337

stamp master resigned. The first of November, when the stamp a<5t was to operate in Boston, the bells tolled, shops were shut, effigies of the royalists were carried about in derision, and torn in pieces. At Portsmouth, the bells tolled; a coffin was prepared; on the lid was inscribed "Liberty, aged 145;" a procession moved with unbraced drams; minute guns were fired; an oration was delivered at the grave. At the close, the coffin was taken up, signs of life appeared in the corpse; <c Liberty revived," was substituted ; the bells struck a cheerful key ; joy sparkled in every countenance. All was decency and order. At Rhode Island, the day passed in a similar manner. In March, 1766, the obnoxious aft was repealed; ships in the Thames displayed their colours; houses were illuminated through the city of London ; the colonies rejoiced in their deliverance.

In 1769, Dartmouth College was established by a royal charter, the pious and laborious Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, the founder, was appointed the first President, with power of appointing his suecessor. He removed Moor's Indian charity school from Lebanon, in Connecticut, to Hanover, in New Hampshire, where the college was established. A principal objedt with this good man was, to civilize and spread the gospel among the aboriginal natives of the country; persevering were his exertions, and indefatigable his labours, for the accomplishment of this benevolent and no

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ble design. Considerable numbers were taught in the grammar school, and made some advance in collegiate studies; only one or two, however, obtained the honours of college. Several missionaries were sent to different tribes with some success; but the revolutionary war cut off supplies from England, and, for a time, interrupted the good work.

The college stands on a beautiful and elevated plain, half a mile west from Connecticut river. The place is very healthy, and the prospe£t commanding. About 80,000 acres of land constitute the permament funds of the college. Their value is constantly increasing; in 1805, their income may be estimated at about 2000 dollars. The number of undergraduates is generally about 150. The students are under the immediate government and instruction of a president, three professors and one tutor. The professorships are, one of mathematics, natural and moral philosophy, one of Hebrew and the other oriental languages, and one of chymistry and medicine. The college building is 150 feet by 50, three stories high.

The same year that Dartmouth college was founded, 1769, the first commencement of Rhode Island college was attended. It was incorporated in 1764, and was organized at Warren, where it continued till 1770. It was then removed to Providence, where a handsome brick building had been erected for its accommodation. It stands on

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