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204. Immigration ceases.

but they have long since neglefted to do this, and the corporation of Harvard college, to whom the land was forfeited, made their rightful claim, and obtained it. So that Mr* Rogers is numbered among the distinguished benefa£lors of our university. Still in the first parish of Rowley the rent of the lands, left them by Mr. Rogers, has lately been more than the salary of their minister; and this, after the west parish of Rowley, and about half of Byefield, which belonged to Rowley, had received their proportion of the donation, when they were incorporated in separate societies.

C H A P. . XVI.

Immigration ceased, settlement of Woburn, Confederation of the colonies, Easihbm settled, char* acter of Mr. Treat, Gov. PFinthrop's speech, his character.

IN 1640, in consequence of a change, of affairs in the mother country, emigration to New England ceased. It was estimated at the time, that about 4000 families, consisting of 21,000 souls, had arrived in 298 ships, and settled in this new world. Since this period there can be no doubt, many more persons have migrated from, than to, New England. The expense of the removal of these 4000 families was estimated at

SeiMnent of Woburn. 205

£192,000 sterling, which, including what they paid to the council of Plymouth, and afterwards to the sachems of the country, was a clear purchase of their lands.

In 1642, the town of Woburn was settled-. As a specimen of the manner in which other towns were settled, we give a more particular account of this. The town was laid out four miles square, and granted to seven men, " of good and honest report," on condition that they, within two years, ereCted houses there, and proceeded to build a town. These seven men had power to give and grant lands unto persons desirous of sitting down with them. Each one had meadow and upland granted him, according to his stock of cattle, and capacity of cultivating the soiL The poorest marl had six or seven acres of meadow, and twenty five of upland; an eye being had to future settlers, for whom lands were reserved. No man was refused on account of his poverty, but after receiving his portion of land, had assistance in building a house* But such as were of a turbulent spirit, were not allowed to "enjoy a freehold, till they should mend their manners." The seven men, to whon* the town was granted, laid out the roads as might best accommodate the lands, as to civil and relig* ious privileges. Accordingly, those who received land nearest to the meeting house, had a less quantity at home, and more at a distance. In this manner about sixty families first settled in Wo* burn* s

206 Mode of settling Towns and forming

Equally circumspect and wise were their religious arrangments. As soon as they had a competent number to support a minister, they considered themselves as " surely seated, and not before, it being as unnatural for a right New England man to live without an able ministry, as for a blacksmith to work his iron without a fire." This people, therefore, like others, laid their "foundation stone" with earnestly seeking the blessing of heaven in several days of fasting and prayer. They then took the advice of the most orthodox and able christians, especially the ministers of the gospel,not rashly running into a church state before they had a prospedt of obtaining a pastor to feed them with the bread of life. They chose to continue as they were, in fellowship with other churches, enjoying their christian watch, till they had the ordinances administered among them. But they soon obtained " Mr. Thomas Carter of Watertown, a reverend, godly man, apt to teach the sound and wholesome truths of Christ," to preach for them. They then formed into a church, on the 24-th of the sixth month, after Mr. Symes of Charlestown "had continued in preaching and prayer about the space of four or five hours." The other ministers present were, Messrs. Cotton and Wilson of Boston, Mr. Allen of Charlestown, Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Dunster of Cambridge, 'Mr. Knowles of Watertown, Mr. Allen of DcdChurches in Ne%v England. 207

ham, Mr. Eliot of Roxbury, and Mr. Mather of Dorchester.*

After public worship, the persons intending to be formed into a church, stood forth, one by one, before the congregation and these ministers, " and confessed what the Lord had done for their souls, by his spirit, under the preaching of the gospel, and the events of his providence," that all for themselves might "know their faith in Christ;" the ministers or messengers present, asking such questions as they thought proper, and when satisfied, giving them the right hand of fellowship. Seven were thus formed into a church, who in ten years had increased to seventy four.

On the 22d of the ninth month, Mr. Carter was, by a council ordained their pastor, " after he had exercised in prayer and preaching the greater part of the day." When a person desired to join with the church, he visited his minister, "declaring how the Lord had been pleased to work his conversion;" if the minister found the smallest ground of hope, he propounded him to the church; after which, "some of the brethren, with the minister, examined him again, and reported their opinion to the church." After this, all the congregation "had public notice" of his design, and he " publicly declared to them the manner of his conversion." If any were, " through bashfulness, unable to speak for edification, less was required of them.\ 208 Colonies confederate.

* Mather..

Women were never called to speak publicly. All this was done " to prevent the polluting of the ordinance by such as walk scandalously, and to prevent men and women from eating and drinking their own condemnation." "After this, manner had the other churches of Christ their beginning and progress" in New England.

Exposed to foreign and domestic enemies, four of the New England colonies, vizu Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, confederated for mutual defence. Rhode Island, as we have before noticed, was denied the privilege of joining this confederacy. The articles of union were agreed on and ratified, May 19th> 1643, and were in substance as follows:

"The united colonies of New England, viz. Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, enter into a firm and perpetual league, offensive and defensive.

Each colony to retain a distinct and separate jurisdiction, no two colonies to join in one jurisdiction, without the consent of the whole ; and no other colony to be received into the confederacy without the like consent.

The charge of all wars, offensive and defensive, to be borne in proportion to the male inhabitants between sixteen and sixty years of age in each colony.

Upon notice from three magistrates, of any coU ony, of an invasion, the rest shall immediately

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