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His Death. 139

apoplexy, he was called from his labours in the 72d year of his age.

The following account of this plantation is from one of our early writers.* "The government of New Haven, although the younger sister of the. four, yet is sheas beautiful as any of this brood of travellers, and 7720s/ minding the end of her coming hither, to keep close to tl>e rule of Christ both in doflrine and discipline ; and it were to be wished her elder sister would follow her example to nurture up all her children accordingly.55

C H A P. XI

History of Connecticut continued, Character of Rev, Mr. Thomas Hooker.

1 HE first settlers in New Haven had all things common; all purchases were made in the name and for the use of the whole plantation, and the lands were apportioned out to each family, according to their number and original stock.

At their first ele&ion, in O&ober, 1639, Mr. Theophilus Eaton was chosen governor for the first year. Their ele&ions, by agreement, were to be annual, and the word of God their only rule in conducing the affairs of government in the plantation.

♦ Wonderworking Providence

140 Confederation of the Colonies.

The confederation of the New England colonies, formed and entered into by the four principal colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Conne&icut, and New Haven, in 1643, continued ip force till the time of Sir Edmund Andros, 1686, and were of great utility, both for defence against the aboriginals, and for harmonizing the public councils in church and state. At the time of this confederation the colonies of Conne£licut and New Haven consisted of only three towns each.

The general court of New Haven this year established it as a fundamental article, that none be admitted as free burgesses but church members, and that none but such should vote at elections. They also ordained, that each town choose from among themselves judges (church members) to be a court, to have cognizance cf all civil a£Vions not exceeding twenty pounds; and of criminal cases, where the punishment was, sitting in the stocks, whipping, and fining not exceeding five pounds. There was liberty of appeal from this court to the court of magistrates. The court of magistrates consisted of all the magistrates throughout the colony, who were to meet twice a year at New Haven, for the trial of all capital causes. Six made a quorum.

The general court was to consist of the governor, deputy governor, magistrates, and two representatives from each town. The annual election Laws of Connecticut. 141

of officers of government was at this time established, ami has ever since continued.

The unsettled state of the colony had hitherto prevented their establishing a code of laws. To supply this defect, the general court ordered, ** that the judicial laws of God, as they were delivered to Moses, and as they are a fence to the moral, being neither typical nor ceremonial, nor having any reference to Canaan, shall be accounted of moral equity and generally bind all offenders, and be a rule to all the courts in this jurisdiction in their proceedings against offenders, until they be branched out into particulars hereafter."

About this time a war broke out between the Mohegan and Narraganset Indians. A personal quarrel between Onkus, sachem of Mohegan, and Sequesson, sachem of Connecticut, was the foundation of the war.*

In consideration of the success and increase of the New England colonies, and that they had been of no charge to the nation, and in prospeCl of their being in future very serviceable to it, the English parliament, March 10, 1643, granted them an exemption from all customs, subsidies, and other duties, until further order.

In 1644, the Connecticut adventurers purchased of Mr. Fenwick, agent for Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brook, their right to the colony of Con. neCticut, for £1600.

* Wjnthrop.

142 Mr. Hooker's Life.

In 1647, died Mr. Thomas Hooker, a pillar of ConnefiHcut colony, and a great light of the churches in this western world. He was born atMarfield, in Leicestershire, 1586. He was educated at Emanuel college, Cambridge, in England, where he was afterwards promoted to a fellowship, in which office " he acquitted himself with such ability and faithfulness, as commanded universal admiration and applause." It was in this period of his life, that he had such deep convictions of his own lost state, and exposedness to the wrath of God, as filled his mind with anguish and horror. With the singer of Israel he was ready to exclaim, " While I suffer thy terrors, O Lord, I am distracted." Afterwards, speaking of these exercises, he said, that in the time of his distress he could reason himself to the rule of duty, and see there was no way of relief, but submission to God, and lying at the foot of mercy, waiting for the divine favour ; but when he applied the rule to practice he found his reasoning fail him.

After enduring this spirit of bondage for a considerable time, he received light and comfort, when his mind became powerfully and pleasantly attached to religious contemplations. It was now his custom, when retiring to rest at night, to select some particular promise of scripture, which he repeated and refie&ed upon in his waking hours. In this he found so much comfort and improvement, that he advised others to adopt the same. Life of Mr, Hooker, 143

course. He now determined to be a preacher of the gospel, and soon entered on the business, in the vicinity of London. He was immediately distinguished for his ministerial talents, especially for comforting persons under spiritual troubles. Being disappointed as to a desired settlement at Dedham, he became a le£turer at Chelmsford, and an assistant to Mn Mitchel, the incumbent of the place. This was in 1626. His le&ures were soon thronged, and remarkable success attended his preaching. A reformation followed, not only in the town, but in the adjacent country. By a multitude of inns in the town, which are the ruin of any place, the people of Chelmsford had become notorious for their intemperance, and profanation of the sabbath. By the influence of Mr. Hooker's ministry, these vices were banished, and the sabbath visibly sanctified by the people.

This great blessing was continued to them but a short time. In about four years his difficulties, on account of his nonconformity, were so great, that he gave up his pulpit, and retiree! to a school, which he kept in his own house. Though his best employment was gone, happily his influence was not lost. This was all exerted for the benefit of the christian cause. He engaged the serious ministers in his vicinity to establish a monthly meeting -»for prayer and fasting, and theological conferences. By his influence s-veral pious young ministers were settled around him, and others more confirmed in

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