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would, as every one is well aware, ment, begins to go much beyond discredit and shatter our system this point, there is always a risk beyond hope of reconstruction. of rendering the service unpopu

But there are other and even lar, or, in the case of a regiment, graver reasons why the present provoking an outbreak of insubsystem of voluntary enlistment ordination. Hence, any commandcannot, in the nature of things, being officer who is wise and prumade to last much longer. Social- dent, in his own interest and in ism and socialistic principles have that of his regiment, takes care certainly made some progress in to pay due heed to these considEngland during recent years, and erations, and keeps himself well there is some reason to fear that posted in the amount of work the army may have to a certain which his men are daily doing, in degree become infected by such order to avoid giving cause for principles. Indeed, when one con- discontent, and possibly acts of siders the classes from which our insubordination. It is needless recruits are mainly drawn, one to say that the men as well as sees that it is quite possible that the officers see and know all this, this may

be the case. Recent and are perfectly well aware that outbreaks of insubordination and the military authorities dare not grave breaches of discipline have, punish mutinous offenders in such rightly or wrongly, been asserted

a way as would really deter others to have been in some degree due from following their example. to such causes

as these.

But This is the real secret of the fre. without attributing any great im- quent relaxations of discipline portance to such statements which have been witnessed during opinions, it


be remarked that recent years of offences formerly it has not escaped observation or punished by courts-martial being comment, either in our

now dealt with by commanding in foreign armies, that these of- officers, &c., &c. . It must be evifences have been leniently dealt dent to every one that, under such with, and that far less severe pun- à condition of things, the disciishment has been meted out to pline of an army cannot be effithe offenders than would have been ciently maintained, but must inawarded in any foreign army. The evitably, as we are forced to fill real fact is, that with a voluntary our ranks with worse and worse system of enlistment like ours, the material, go from bad to worse. military authorities cannot afford After a due consideration of all to be severe, because in that case these figures and facts, can any the army would cease to attract one who honestly wishes to judge even the few recruits who can now the question have any doubts as be induced to enlist.

to the increasing unpopularity of For similar reasons, in peace army service throughout the Unittime there is a certain amount of ed Kingdom, or fail to see that, work which can be demanded from if our army is to be maintained our soldiers with safety ; but as at all, some very material changes soon as the military authorities, and reforms will have to be made as represented either by a general in order to secure a suflicient numor commanding officer of a regi- ber of recruits every year?




1 The comments of the foreign military press, especially of the German military organs, upon these matters last summer were very strong and outspoken.

It may surely be asked why it is present lamentable state of things that, in a country like ours, where to pass, and of the measures which Government service under the will have to be adopted in the near Crown, even in the lowest ranks, future to make the service more is so eagerly coveted and competed attractive, are, I need hardly say, for, whether it be in the police, wide questions, which would lead the navy, the customs, or the post- me far beyond the limits of this office, the army should be the sole article. This side he question exception? Why is it that service I must therefore leave for the in the ranks is boycotted, banned, present, in the hope that I may and barred by the mass of the have a future opportunity of dispeople, and is deemed by thousands cussing it. still to be a mark and a badge of

F. CHENEVIX TRENCH. social degradation and downfall ? Why is it that, in a country where Note.— The vastly increased imthe population is redundant, where migration into England of thouthe struggle for a bare livelihood is sands of almost destitute foreign so intense, remorseless, and fierce, labourers, which has been taking and where thousands of youths place during late years, is, or have no chance or avenue of em- rather ought to be, a factor in ployment in the skilled or favour of recruiting. These imskilled labour market—nay, more, migrants, by their poorer standard where

many of them are actually of living, cheaper habits of life, in want of sufficient food from day and their willingness to accept to day—these destitute youths will, starvation wages for all kinds of it would appear, do almost any. the cheaper forms of unskilled thing sooner than don the Queen's labour, are constantly ousting and uniform, whereby, in addition to displacing large numbers of unother advantages, they would se- skilled English workmen, and cure for themselves comfortable thereby rendering it increasingly and regular shelter, clothing, and difficult for them to obtain work food ?

in civil life. These unskilled Surely these things are to the workmen are, of course, the very general public a paradox and a class from which our recruits are puzzle, and betoken plainly that largely drawn. In 1880, the numthere is something radically wrong ber of these foreign immigrants in the system at present in vogue. was 68,316 ; in 1889, the number The consideration of the causes and rose to 147,398. Vide Emigrareasons which have brought the tion and Immigration Returns.


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Mr KINGLAKE could scarcely be meditative habit of mind which called a contributor to "Black

afterwards distinctive wood,' for he never wrote in it of him, and which led him in but once, when a sentence which discussing

matters to he had intended to be introduc- take views so original and unextory to the narrative of an inci- pected. dent in the French Revolution His repute might never have grew into a paper highly character- extended beyond the circle of his istic of its writer. But for more immediate acquaintance — for he than thirty years he had been the never showed himself competitive close friend of the late and then of or ambitious—but for his famous the present Editor of this Magazine, journey to the East. The interior in which his writings were fre- of Turkey, the Troad, Cyprus, the quently the subject of discussion; Desert, Damascus, were comparaand they have been the publishers tively untrodden ground half a of the successive volumes of his century ago, and the notes he took well-known history of the War in had all the freshness and picturthe Crimea, the first of which ap- esqueness which come from the enpeared in 1863 and the last in deavour of so original an observer 1887; throughout which period to depict what is at once deeply their relations of business and of interesting and little known. But friendship were close and constant. the first casting of these notes into It is fitting, therefore, that these shape was by no means what was pages should contain some tribute finally given to the world. For to one who leaves a name so emin- many years the most fastidious ent in literature, and who lived on taste was constantly at work upon terms so intimate not only with it, altering, blotting, expanding, the conductors of this Magazine, and polishing. Nobody who has but with many of their friends observed the fatal effects which and contributors.

have often attended this process, It is aflirmed on excellent au- or, indeed, who has considered thority that Kinglake was born, the matter from the common-sense not as commonly stated in 1811, point of view only, would recombut in 1809. He went to Cam- mend such a concentration of solibridge in 1828, and was the con- citude on a subject demanding, as temporary there of Tennyson, did Kinglake's, no especial research Thackeray, Monckton Milnes, and or exactitude. It might well have others who

to eminence. been expected that in the long enWithout making himself remark- deavour after perfection the sharpable there as a student of subjects ness, the distinctness, and the force which lead to honours, or of gen- of the original impressions would eral literature, he was socially be hopelessly frittered away and noted as a sayer of that kind of lost. But it was the special charepigram, the force and neatness of acter of Kinglake's intellect to be which infuses such a special flavour able to indulge all this paternal into his writings. And doubtless fondness, not only without injury there was already apparent that to the subject of it, but with a



a slight mishap from the slipping by neglect, was in a proportionate of his saddle, which was not with- degree gladdened by treatment so out important results. One of the cordial; and it is quite conceivstaff thus records the incident: able that he may thus have been “ Lord Raglan was most kind, rid- inspired by gratitude with that ing up with inquiries and offers of view of Lord Raglan's military help. Mr Kinglake was all thanks. qualities which became a chief That night, after the battle, Lord motive of his history. That work Raglan met him wandering about, has been so largely discussed, and not knowing where to go, so he the conclusions come to about it asked him to dinner. Of course have been so generally in agreehe came, and delighted every one ment, that its merits and defects present with his charming manner need not be entered upon here. and conversation.”

It may, however, be observed of Mr Higgins, the well-known what will yet find a multitude of “Jacob Omnium” of that time, readers, that its matter is of differtook occasion afterwards to relate ent kinds, and widely various dethis accident in print, and went on grees, of historical merit. Of one facetiously to remark that King- kind are all those parts which lake was

“the first man who fell express the prepossessions of the on the British side.” It so hap- writer, such as the terrible caricapened that the whirligig of time ture—so clever, yet so grotesque before long brought Jacob up for of the French Emperor; and of St ballot at the Atheneum, of which Arnaud, “ formerly Le Roy"; and club Kinglake was an influential the history of the origin and conmember; and the unlucky narra- stitution of the "Times' newspaper tor of the incident, seeing too late - very piquant, but apparently the impolicy of his offence, begged founded on grounds entirely fanKinglake not to blackball him. ciful. Prepossessions of this un“I will not blackball you,” was the favourable kind found, however, answer,

" but I will not vote for an ample balance on the side of you.” It was mainly for other eulogy. In his Crimead,' the part reasons, however, that Jacob, who of Achilles is assigned to Lord had for long been sowing similar Raglan, and of Hector quite justly dragon's teeth broadcast, was all to Todleben ; while on the other too plentifully black balled. hand Louis Napoleon continues to

Lord Raglan, most amiable and figure throughout as one of those courteous of commanders, followed ill-disposed and somewhat futile up this introduction with a con- deities who used, from their dissiderate kindness which was all tant Olympus, to muddle the that Kinglake could have desired, affairs of the Greeks. These repand far more than he could have resentations are often supported expected, and which continued on ingenious and refined surmises throughout his stay of about four —too ingenious and too refined to weeks in the Crimea-aflording afford a secure foundation. Of him, of course, many invaluable quite a different character are the opportunities for observation. It parts of the history in which he cannot be doubted that this degrer deals with facts. These were colof favour won the sensitive heart lected with astonishing patience, of the future historian, who, as and fitted in his mosaic with an he would have been easily chilled interest always fresh, so that no

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