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engine of extortion by unscrupu- government that will give liberty lous protégés against defenceless and security to life and property, Arabs, unjust claims have been and administer the law justly. enforced against innocent people. This cannot be expected from and persons have been imprisoned the present Moorish Government, without any redress. These abuses which is utterly corrupt: therehave been committed with im- fore the Shereefian Government punity under the sanction of the must be reformed before any imrepresentatives of foreign Powers, provement can take place in the which has, without doubt, contri- country. The establishment of inbuted very much to the opposition ternational tribunals is the only offered by the Moorish Govern- effectual way by which such reforment to any further advantages mation can be carried out, for these being granted to Christians, be- courts would be open to Chriscause they use unmercifully the tians, Jews, and Moors alike. That privileges which they have already an institution of this nature is the gained. We cannot say that the only remedy for the evil which European Powers are fully aware presses so heavily on Morocco, is • of the abuses carried on under the unanimous opinion of all those their name.

We venture to think we consulted on the subject. In that, if they were really acquainted order to carry out this beneficent with the matter, they would adopt measure, we would urge that Engsome' measures for removing these land, which carries on two-thirds scandals, which are a disgrace to of the

of Morocco, Europe. We fully admit that in should call a conference of the the present state of the Moorish various European Powers together empire, protection is necessary for for determining the reforms which carrying on commercial relations

are necessary for the wellbeing and with the interior; but we think the prosperity of the inhabitants of consuls ought to have used greater Morocco. In the interests of comvigilance, so as to have prevented merce and civilisation, we trust protection being made an engine that the Powers will cast aside for oppression, instead of being their mutual jealousy, and join used for the advancement of legiti- with one voice to put an end to mate trade.

a scandal which is a disgrace to We are of opinion that protec- Europe. If these reforms are tion, as now established in Mor- carried out in a just spirit, Morocco, should be abolished alto

occo in a few years may become gether.

We consider that every one of the richest countries in the one of the Sultan's subjects should world, and Europe generally will pay legitimate taxes towards the benefit by its prosperity and adsupport of the government of the vancement. country ; but then it must be a

DONALD MACKENZIE.

commerce

THE GROWING UNPOPULARITY OF MILITARY SERVICE.

THE question as to how long for the country during the last England will continue to be able eighteen or twenty years, what it to fill up the annual vacancies in is doing at present, and what it the ranks of her army, by means is likely in the future to effect. of our old-world system of volun- Furthermore, I will endeavour to tary enlistment and recruiting, point out the main facts which with the same conditions of pay plainly show that military service and other general advantages as is waning more and more in popare at present in vogue, is one

ular favour. which must inevitably press more The main thing that the shortand more urgently upon the con- service system has effected for sideration of those who are respon- the country during the last two sible for the numerical strength and decades is well known to all, and efficiency of the army. The reason is soon told. It has given the why the urgency of this question country what it never had beforegrows greater and greater as each viz., the First Class Army Reserve, year goes by is, that during the last a force consisting of upwards of decade or so it has been growing 53,000 trained soldiers, available more and more evident that the for filling up the ranks on the time is fast approaching when the outbreak of war. The reality and present system of recruitment and efficiency of this force may be said, enlistment must come to an end; on the several occasions on which simply because it will no longer it has been called out, to have continue to supply an adequate fully answered the expectations yearly quota of able - bodied and which were originally formed of efficient recruits for the ranks. it. In a word, this Army Reserve When that time does arrive in is, in spite of

many shortcomings the near future—and the signs of and deficiencies, a great fact, and its coming are so many

and constitutes a most valuable and plain that “he who runs may welcome addition to the military read”—then, one of two things and defensive resources of the must inevitably occur; either the country. pay, position, and prospects of the On the other hand, it must be soldier must be greatly improved, borne in mind that the Army or, if this is not done, no Govern- Reserve is the outcome, and repment can continue to allow the resents the survival, of an enorvast majority of young English-mous number of short-service enmen to evade altogether, as they listments during the last ten or do at present, the burden of per- twelve years ; that it has no sonal service in some modified annual training; and that the sysform, at any rate for the purposes tematic neglect with which the of home defence, In fact, in- reservists have been treated by creased pay or a conscription, in the War Office, and consequently some form or another, are the only by the country generally, have alternatives.

done much to extend, to deepen, I propose, therefore, in this and to accentuate the prejudices article to consider what our pres- against military service that unent system of enlistment has done fortunately exist among a large

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section of our population, and eligible age from which recruits which prevent the trade of a can be drawn. Last, but not least, soldier from ever becoming a pop- they have had the great advanular or desirable calling in the tage of being able to count upon eyes of the working classes. a continuous policy and system

In order, however, the better to of recruiting being carried out by obtain a just and adequate idea successive War Ministers, irreof what our recruiting system is spective of all considerations of doing for the country at present, policy or party. and what it is likely in the future Seeing, then, that the recruitto effect, it will be necessary, first, ing department has had all these to take a retrospective glance at advantages to back it, the public the history of its working dur- and the country in general may ing the last eighteen or twenty reasonably be justified in thinking years.

that, after the lapse of nearly two It is well known that during decades, recruiting might fairly be the above period the army author- expected to be established upon a ities have had a long uphill and firm basis, and to give good protoilsome task to perform. During mise and augury of success for the that period continuous efforts have future. been made to develop to the utmost As an aid to the formation of a the recruiting for the army, to correct judgment upon this point, raise the comfort and wellbeing of I will begin by quoting from the the soldiers, and to render military official figures, annually published, service attractive to the classes the number of recruits annually from which recruits are likely to obtained during the last seven be obtained. These efforts have years—viz., from 1883-1889, both been hampered and impeded by years inclusive :many causes, and the difficulties

No. of with which the army authorities

Recruits. have had to deal have been neither

1883,

31,924 slight nor few.

1884,

35,754 On the other hand, it would be 1885,

39,552 a mistake to lose sight of the fact 1886,

38,953 that they have had some counter

1887,

30,751 1888,

24,719 balancing advantages on their side,

1889,

29,401 which may be enumerated as follows:

A brief analysis of these figures will In order to aid them in their serve to show and explain what efforts they have had, of course, their true significance really is. the State Treasury, with its prac

It will be seen that in the year tically unlimited funds at their 1884, 35,754 recruits were obback ; several continued periods. tained. In 1885 the number rose of great depression in the labour to 39,552, which was the highest market-a

- a state of affairs which number of recruits ever enlisted is always somewhat favourable to in any one year.

In 1887 the recruiting; a population which, number sank' to 30,751 ; and in during the whole period under 1888 to 24,719. Now, it should review, has been increasing by be borne in mind that the years leaps and bounds, and which, con- 1885 and 1886 were those during sequently, has been affording every which the long-continued depresyear a larger number of youths of sion of trade and manufacture was

Year.

at its worst -a condition of affairs measurement, or of age in some which is always more or less fav- branches of the service. As these ourable to recruiting. As a direct standards had already all been reand natural consequence, the num- duced in the infantry, down to a ber of recruits who joined the ser- point beyond which it was imposvice was greater than ever before. sible to go, it was decided to reEven during this most favourable duce the standard of height by period, however,-i.e., 1883–1886 half an inch in the Artillery and

-it was not found possible to brigade of Guards. At the same obtain the requisite number of re

time it was also found necessary cruits without, on two occasions, to lower both the height and chest lowering the standard of chest measurement of the drivers of the measurement and height for some Royal Engineers by one inch-viz., sixteen months. Last year, more

to 5 feet 3 inches of height, and over, the same device had again to 33 inches round the chest. The be resorted to-viz., in the Foot net result of these measures was Guards and Artillery, both of that 53,888 men offered themwhich are branches of the service selves for medical examination, in which it was most desirable and that the number of recruits acthat no further reduction should tually enlisted was brought up to take place. In 1887 the number 29,401. With regard to the artilof men offering themselves for en- lery, 1299 more artillery recruits listment had sunk to 60,976, as were enlisted than in 1888. This against 74,991 in 1886, a decrease increased number, however, was of close upon 14,000 men; and probably obtained at the expense the number of recruits enlisted of the infantry, which was at the was 30,751. In 1888 the number beginning of this year 4500 men of men offering themselves for en- below its establishment. listment was less than in 1887 by During last year it was estinearly 12,000 men; and the num- mated that 34,500 recruits would ber of recruits obtained sank to be needed - i.e., 5100 in excess 24,719, showing a further decrease of the numbers raised during of more than 6000 men. It had 1889. become plain to every one by this Taking these and other collattime that if this alarming annual eral figures and facts, which easily decrease was allowed to continue come to the knowledge of any one at this rate, the British army who seeks information upon this would soon disappear, and that subject, into consideration, let us therefore something must be done. see what is the actual position, As every means and device which and what are the actual prospects, might be calculated to attract re- of recruiting at the present time. cruits had long ago been tried, Leaving out all side issues and and might well be deemed to be unimportant details, the essential utterly played out, there was no facts of the case may be summed alternative open to the War Office up as follows—viz. : authorities but to reduce either Firstly, That during the years the standard of height, of chest 1886, 1887, and 1888, the numbers

1 It is a grave and significant fact that, though the physique of our population has, as is universally admitted, greatly improved during the last twenty or thirty years, the standards of chest measurement and height are now as low as, or lower than, they have ever been.

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of recruits annually obtained dwin- Seventhly, That inasmuch as dled from 39,552 to 24,719, and more than 450,000 short-service that in the year 1889 the number recruits have during the last twenty could only be brought up to 29,401 years or so been enlisted in the by reducing the standard of height army, the conditions, the advanfor the Artillery, the Foot Guards, tages, and the disadvantages of and the drivers in the Engineers. army service are now thoroughly

Secondly, That even these results well known and understood were only achieved after having throughout the United Kingdom,

three occasions, made such and that, therefore, there is no reductions in the standards for reasonable ground for supposing chest measurement and height that recruits will in future enlist that no margin for further reduc- in greater numbers than at prestions has been left upon which to ent, or that the service will befall back in time of need.

come more popular. Thirdly, That these results have

Eighthly, That although the been obtained only after every War Office only requires recruits means and device to make known to be 5 feet 4 inches in height and the advantages of a soldier's career, 33 inches round the chest, and and to make the terms of service from 115 lb. to 128 lb. in weight, as elastic and palatable to all who the men and youths who offered would be likely to enlist, has been themselves for enlistment were resorted to, till it would seem that last year of such poor physique in this direction ingenuity could that 47 per cent of them were no further go.

rejected upon medical examinaFourthly, That in spite of all tion, and this, too, after the lame, that has been done during the the halt, and the weakly had prelast fifteen or twenty years, with viously been sifted out by the the object of popularising the recruiting sergeant as being maniservice and bettering the condi- festly unfit to send up for medical tions of the soldier, there is no examination at all. improvement, physically or socially, Lastly, That during the year in the class of young men who 1889, out of a total strength of enlist;

that the supply of recruits all arms of 210,298, only 5639 is as precarious as ever, and as men were found willing to extend much dependent upon the fluctua- their service. In other words, tions of trade and the demands of about 97 per cent of our soldiers the labour market as it was two were well content, after an

perience of some years of the Fifthly, That in six years out service, to leave it. Considering of the last seven, the establish- how highly prized and sought ment of the army has never been after Government service is in up to its normal strength; and all other departments of the State, that on the 1st of January of no greater proof of the unpopularlast year this deficiency amounted ity of military service could be to more than 4500 men.

shown than these figures reveal. Sixthly, That though our pop- It must surely be thought by ulation during the decade of 1870- any one who looks at these facts 80 increased by leaps and bounds, dispassionately, and with a desire there is now no corresponding in- to come to an impartial judgment crease in the number of recruits upon them, that this is a result coming forward for enlistment. with which the country cannot

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decades ago.

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