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cator be removed, pe runic þ occurs, I believe, in ree instances. Among MSS. which are of so great antiquity as to adhere to or þe Ð form, may probably be reckoned be glosses of pe Vespasian psalter, and of þe Book of Proverbs. Mr. Sweet kindly sent me a copy of his paper, and thus has given me an opportunity of making my meaning more clear. I hope þat he has not confused þe ancient date of þe Lindisfarne Latin text, wip be much later time, variously placed, of pe Saxon glosses. O. COCKAYNE.


To Adaw-to silence, quiet, quell.

So spake this bold brere with great disdain;
Little him answered the oak again,
But yielded with shame and grief adawed,
That of a weed he was overcrawed.

Shepherd's Calendar, Feb.

As the bright sun, what time his fiery team
Towards the western brim begins to draw,
Gins to abate the brightness of his beam

And fervour of his flames somewhat adaw.

Faery Queen.

In my dictionary and the appendix I have offered two explanations, each of which seemed plausible at the time, but lately fell on what I have no doubt is the true one, in Hessian dachen, tâgen, to allay, to calm. "Der schmerz dacht sich nach und nach." “Die wehthat tâgt sich, hat sich getâgt." Gedaeg, silenced, subdued, cowed. "Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden:" he is thoroughly cowed. Swiss dachen, to master one. Bav. dagen, gedagen, Goth. thahan, O.H.G. thagjan, Lat. tacere, to be silent. "Ich must still gedagen" (Schmeller).

Bolders, Boulders: Rounded stones of large size, owing their form to the action of water.-Atkinson. Bulderston, Swed. bullersten, bolder-stone: Havelok, 1790.-Stratmann. This bullersten, exactly corresponding to the E. word, is explained by Reitz as the larger kind of pebbles, as opposed to klappersten, the smaller kind, corresponding to Sc. chuckiestanes. As klappersten is from the rattling of pebbles (klappra, to clash,

clatter, chatter), so it seems that bullersten is from the deeper sound of the larger stones as they are rolled along a rapid stream-a sound very observable in a flooded brook in Switzerland, or a glacier stream. “It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained, and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent." (J. G. Bonny, Alpine Regions, p. 136.) Sw. bullra, Dan. buldre, to roar, rattle, rumble.

The designation of pebbles is often taken from the noise made when rolled by water. Gr. kayλaw, to dash, splash, rattle; xaxλng, a pebble, gravel, shingle; Turk. chàghlamak, to make a murmuring, splashing, or rippling noise in running over stones; chàkil, a pebble; N. singla, singra, to jingle, clink; singl, gravel, shingle.

Buxom: A.S. bócsum, obedient; Du. booghsaem, flexible; ghebooghsaem, flexible, obedient, pliable (Kil.). Buxom, in our early writers, was very common in the sense of obedient. "Buhsomnesse or boughsomnesse. Pliableness or bowsomenesse, to wit, humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Chaucer writes it buxsomeness" (Verstegan in Richardson). The difficulty lies in the transition to the modern sense of a buxom lass or buxom dame, where the word is explained by Bailey, amorous, wanton, merry, jolly. Richardson renders it that which is pliant, flexible, agile, brisk, lively, jolly. The true development of the meaning of buxom, used in commendation of women, may, I think, be gathered from an interesting series of quotations in the Athenæum, of March 27, which seem to shew that the sense is closely analogous to that of G. hold or holdselig, signifying, in the first instance, inclined to, then friendly, kind, favorable, agreeable, lovely, gracious, charming, graceful (Küttner). The act of bowing or bending the countenance towards one was taken as expressive of good will. "Thou which barist the Lord, make the patroun-to be to us inclineable or bowable or redi to heere (Pecocke, Repressor, p. 200). Hence the affection of one person to another, or the desire of propitiating his favour, was symbolized by the offer of a bowed or bent object.


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“Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of her child" (Foxe's Martyrs, ii. 21). "That oblation was an handfull of corne, or a bowed piece of bread (which we call a cracknell), baked in an oven or in a frying pan" (Bullinger's decad, i. p. 369). "He sent to him his servant secretly the night before his departure to Newbury, with a bowed groat, in token of his good heart towards him" (Foxe's M., iii. 519). In this latter example, we see the meaning of the gift of a crooked sixpence, the symbolism of which must have passed altogether out of mind, before it could ever have been spoken of as crooked instead of bowed. Buxom, then, applied to women, signified probably gracious, agreeable, pleasing in general, but when the radical force of the word was no longer understood, it became liable to be diverted to special applications, and having accidentally been used in a patronising way, with reference to persons of a lower class, it now conveys rather the notion of uncultivated charms, animal health and spirits.

Charcoal Charcoal was rightly explained by Tooke from A.S. cerran, O.E. char, to turn, as being wood turned to coal.

"Then Nestor broiled them on the coal-turned wood."

Chapman in Richardson. The verb to char' is now chiefly used in this special application of conversion to coal, burning without consuming the substance.

"His profession-did put him upon finding a way of charring sea-coal wherein it is in about three hours or less, without pots or vessels, brought to charcoal" (Boyle).

It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction, but the following quotation from "William and the Werewolf" will probably be found conclusive. It must be observed that the verb in that work takes the form of caire, occurring very frequently in the sense of turn one's steps, return, go; and at line 2520 it runs :

"Choliers that cayreden col come there biside,

And other wizes that were wont wode for to fecche:" i.e. colliers that charred coal, that turned wood to coal, charcoal burners.

The German equivalent kehren also is used in the sense of changing the nature of a thing. "Als Lucifer sich in eine schlange kehrt: as Lucifer turns himself into a snake.

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Doit: Du. duit, the least copper coin, 1/160th part of a guilder. Erroneously explained in my dictionary from the Venetian daoto, a piece of eight soldi-a much larger coin. The truth seems to be that the name is exactly synonymous with mite, and is given to the coin as signifying an atom, a particle of the least possible value. Even in Dutch the word is sometimes used in the more general sense of an insignificant particle. "Hij gelijkt hem op een' duit : he resembles him to a hair. In Cleveland doit and moit are

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both used in the sense of a jot, atom, particle. "The meat was eaten up every moit." "There was neither head nor hair on't, moit nor doit"-every fragment had disappeared. A process in the manufacture of cloth, in which the wool is cleansed from moits and shivs, minute particles of wood and other foreign substances, is called moiting (Whitby Gloss.) Sp. mota, a mote, a knot on cloth, a bit of thread or flue sticking to cloths. The occurrence of moit in the foregoing sense takes away the ground of my former supposition that mite, the coin, might be from a contracted way of writing minute, mite, as Miss from Mis for Mistriss. Mite may perhaps be only a different pronunciation of moit, as point is vulgarly pronounced pint, but more probably the thinning down of the vowel in mite, as compared with mote, expresses diminution of size. The notion of the least bit is commonly expressed by the figure of a slight utterance, the least sound that a person can make. Thus in Greek the sound of muttering is represented by the syllables μυ or γρυ; μυζειν μητε γρύζειν, to say neither με nor γρυ, not to utter the slightest sound, to be quite quiet; ovde ypu, not a syllable, not a bit. Sc. gru, an atom, particle. "No a gru of meal." Sw. dial. gru, gry, murmur, mutter. The Latins used mutio, muttio, to say mu or mut, in the same way. Non mutire, not to utter a syllable. The Italian expression non fare ne motto ne totto (Alfieri), corresponds in the closest way to the Yorkshire neither moit nor doit, although in the latter case the sense, as

in Gr. ypu, is transferred from sound to material substance. It is remarkable also that ypu, according to Suidas, like mite or doit, was used as the name of a small coin. The train of thought may be further illustrated, and the transfer from sound to substance again exhibited with another modification of the representative syllable, which in German becomes muck or mucks, in Magyar kuk, in Dutch mik or kik. Thus we have G. mucken, Magy. kukkanni, Du. mikken, kikken, to utter the least sound. "Niemand dorst kikken nog mikken: personne n'osa souffler ni branler" (Halma). The Dutch forms mik or kik probably show the origin of Lat. mica, a small bit, a crumb, and of ciccum, a trifle, Fr. chic, a little. De chic en chic, from little to little (Cot.); Sp. chico, little, small.

Forcemeat: We are so apt to consider forcemeat as synonymous with stuffing, that it was a pardonable blunder to derive the word from Fr. farcir, Limousin forci, to stuff. But farcir became farse in E., which is constantly used in the sense of stuff in the Liber Cure Cocorum, while fors also occurs in the same work in the sense of spice or season, i.e. strengthen the flavour of a dish.

But the white [peas] with powder of pepper tho
Moun be forsyd with ale thereto (p. 46).

Take mylke of almondes—

Fors it with cloves or good gyngere (p. 8).
Powder thou take

Of ginger, of kame that gode is, tho
Enfors it well (p. 38).

Forcemeat then is spiced, highly seasoned meat.

Fulsome Distasteful, loathsome, luscious-Bailey. Explained in my dictionary from O.N. fúllsa, to shew disgust at (Haldorsen). But the early meaning of the word seems to have been simply fulfilling, satisfying, and then satiating, cloying, sickening.

Thann were spacli spices spendid al aboute
Fulsomeli at the ful to eche freke thereinne
And the wines therwith wich hem best likid

William and the Werewolf, 4324.

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Gewgaw: A plaything, a showy trifle. Babiole, a trifle, whimwham, guigaw, or small toy for a child to play withal."

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