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steadfastly hold and swear to hold and observe the statutes that are made and shall be made through the aforesaid counsellors or the majority of them, in like manner as it is aforesaid. And that each help the other to do that by the same oath against all men. To do and maintain1 right. And let no one take either of land or property whereby this provision may be hindered or abated in anywise. And if any other or others come here against it3 we will and charge that all our liegemen hold them deadly foes. And for that We will that this be steadfast and enduring We send you this writ open, signed with Our seal, to hold among you in keeping. Witness Ourself at London the 18th day of the month of October in the 42nd year of Our crowning. And this was done before Our sworn counsellors, Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, Walter of Cantelow, Bishop of Worcester, Simon of Muntfort, Earl of Leicester, Richard of Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England, Piers of Savoy, William of Fort, Earl of Albemarle, John of Plesseiz, Earl of Warwick, John Geffreessune, Piers of Muntfort, Richard of Grey, Roger of Mortimer, James of Aldithele, and before many 5 others.

And all of the same words are sent into every other shire over all the kingdom of England and also into Ireland.

1 This is erroneous, see p. 87. It would be a very forced meaning to put on foangen.

2 There is nothing in the original corresponding to other or others.

The use of both here and it, shews that the passage has been entirely misapprehended; one or the other must be omitted, see p. 93.

4 The word inehord which the transcriber writes ine hord indicate the place of keeping. "To hold in keeping," is tautological, at least "safe keeping" is necessary.

5 Somner's old mistake concerning moze reproduced, see pp. 15, 95, and moze in the Glossarial Index.

6 Error of translation induced by the error of transcription, ov for on.

By putting are for is the translator shews that he misunderstood the words to mean that "all documents having the same words were sent" &c. It is not the meaning of the original, which merely says that something, unnamed, but evidently a "writ open," in precisely the same words, has been sent, etc. In this case al is an adverb, not an adjective plural.

Considering that correct translations had been published by Regel in 1856, and Marsh in 1862, the translator in 1865 might have easily avoided the errors pointed out in the preceding notes. For errors committed in the translation of the Burton copy of the old French version, see p. 87. The original French of this proclamation is not given in Sir H. James's work. But immediately following the facsimile of the English version is the facsimile of the enrollment in the Close Roll, 49 Henry III., of the summons issued by Simon of Montfort in the king's name, for the first real English representative parliament to meet on the Octaves of St. Hilary, 20 Jan 1265. It is in Latin, addressed to Robert bishop of Worcester, and dated 14 Dec 1264.1

The same work gives the charter of William the Conqueror to the City of London, and a grant of land from the same king to one Deorman, in Anglo-saxon characters, which may be here transcribed to shew the change in the language from William the Conqueror to Henry III.2

Charter to the City of London.

[1] Will'm kyng gret.3 Will'm bifceop andgoffreg portirefan andealle þaburhwarubinnan [2] londone frencisce andenglisce freondlice. andic kyde eow þat icwylle þat getbeon eallra þæra [3] laga weorde þegyt wæran on eadwerdef dæge kynges. andic wylle þæt ælc cyld beo hif [4] fæder yrfnume.3 æfter his fæderdæge. and icnellegeþolian þat ænig man eow ænig wrang [5] beode. god eow gehealde.a

1 A complete transcription of this document with the names of all the parties to whom copies were addressed may be seen in Rymer i, 449, in which the words "plena securitate tranquillitatis et pacis" are wrongly transcribed "plena securitate et tranquillitate pacis." This document uses the phrase "ad honorem dei et vtilitatem totius regni nostri" with the significant omission of "nostram fidem."

2 In the present transcription Roman characters are used, with the long f which is employed in the original in place of the ags. J. The connections of the words, punctuation, and capitals are preserved. Italics mark extended contractions.

These periods are probably only photozincographic errors.

▲ Translation.[1] William, king, greets William, bishop, and Geoffrey, portreeve, and all the burgers within [2] London, French and English,

Grant to Deorman.

[1] Will'm kyng gret will'm bisceop and swegn fcyrgerefan and ealle mine þegnaf oneaft feaxan freondlice. [2] and ic kyde eow þat ic habbe ge unnen deormanne minan man1 þa hide landef æt gyddesdune þe hi [3] of geryden wæf. andicnellegeþolian frenciscan ne engliscan þat him æt ænigan þingan mifbeode.2

friendlily. And I inform you that I will that ye-two be of-all the [3] laws possessed which ye-two were on Edward the king's day. And I will that each child be his [4] father's inheritance-taker (heir) after his father's day. And I will-not suffer that any man to-you any wrong [5] offer. God keep you.

In Sir H. James's work the dual forms get, gyt are not noticed, and the words beon eallra þæra laga we orde are translated, "be worthy all those laws," the meaning of which is not evident, but we orde is used in a legal sense, as “folc-rihtes wyrde, þagen-weres wyrde," possessed of popular rights, liable to a thane's fine, see Bosworth sub voce. Observe gret greets, contracted form, like fend sends, in the proclamation.

1 The 'a' in man is very indistinct.

2 Translation. [1] William, king, greets William, bishop, and Sweyn, sheriff, and all my thanes in Essex, friendlily. [2] And I inform you that I have granted to Deorman, my man, the hide of land at Gyddesdun which from-him [3] was off-ridden. And I will-not suffer Frenchman nor Englishman that he misuse him in any thing.

Observe the use of unnan to grant; and the phrase him of geryden was. The last letter m of him seems to have been worn off the parchment. In Bosworth geridan is explained, to ride, to ride through or over, to invade. Here it would seem to imply that Deorman had been deprived of the land by some raid, rather than by the Norman invasion. It is stated in the Introduction to Sir H. James's work that "his name does not appear in Domesday Book among persons holding land in England previous to the Conquest, nor indeed among any of the tenants before or after in Essex."


The following glossary is intended as a supplement to the Rev. Robert Williams' Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum (Llandovery, 1865), and contains about two thousand words, most of which are omitted from that Dictionary. The explanations or etymologies there given of the words now collected and marked with an obelisk (†) are either insufficient or (to my thinking) inaccurate. The present glossary has no pretension to be a complete supplement to Mr. Williams' work. Lhuyd's Archæologia Britannica has not yet been exhausted of its store of Cornish words; the list of names of places in Pryce's book should be scrutinised ; and the medieval Cornish charters and registers mentioned by Professor Max Müller in Macmillan's Magazine for April, 1867, will, doubtless, yield much valuable material to Cornish lexicographers more fortunately situated than the present writer. The Breton chartularies of Redon and Landevenic will also throw light on many names of Cornish persons and places.

Many, perhaps most, of the following words are borrowed from French, Anglo-Saxon (Old English), or Middle English. These words, which seem designedly omitted by the Rev. R. Williams, will be found not only to elucidate some of the phonetic laws of the Cornish language, but also to suggest interesting considerations as to the political and social connections of the Cornish people. It will, for instance, be observed that, of the French loan-words (for example, cummyas, vyag) several are taken from the Southern French or Provençal, and not, as might have been expected, from the Langue d'oil. A similar remark may be made as to the loan-words in Middle Breton.

As to pure Cornish words, it will be found that I have differed from Mr. Williams and followed the spelling of all

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