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when registered, and it was cheerfully done; more profitable to their greedy pockets. What addition to having filled the land with mouruwhen they came to vote, however, their politics more effectual means than these could be con- ing, bas fastened upon the people an enormons were suspected and their tickets were marked ; cocted by the evil brain of the great adversary debt, a debt incurred to preserve the unity and and as soon as they were known to liave been himself to crush out all manliness from the life of the nation, and which must be paid. cast ir the opposing interest, and that their rising generation in the South? The best men Mr. Chairidan, although the sacrifice of hu. exclusion from the count was absolutely neces- are daily bullied, and the loveliest women in- man life was great, and the expenditure of the sary to secure the election of the Radical can- sulted with impunity by this inferior race, who people's money was enormous, I believe that didates, they were unhesitatingly excluded. prowl around their homes, pillage their prop

The band of Providence, for a good purpose, The veteran soldiers are thus denied, without erty, shrink from honest labor, and reek with guided us through the thick smoke and barri the slightest investigation, all share in the filed as a luxury. Reared amid such revolting cane of battle. I believe that the heroic deeds government of the nation's capital, which they sceres, their high-spirited fathers and mothers and patient suffering and death of our soldiers, saved from destruction; while the bloated compelled to submit tamely, what short of a and the lofty self-denial and patriotic grief vagabonds of Africa are allowed to hold the miracle can prevent every particle of manliness of our wives and mothers was not in vain. I city's destinies in the hollow of their hand, and from being finally extinguished in the children? believe that the defeat of our enemies was the burning infamy indorsed by Congress! Theireducation, too, is ofdire necessity, sadly designed for their ultimate good! And, above How appropriate, then, how consistent for subjected. Excelsiors are becoming fainter in all, I believe that we are to have broader, ouce, were these Jacobins in substituting the their souls, and must soon die into an echo. | grander views of the destiny which awaits as past tense for the present; for soldiers are Many who might have been stars of the first as a nation. And that we are now making a verily with them among the things that were. magnitude, far up in the national zenith, are new departure in the race of progress for the Is it not well known that the President has been fated now to grope along the dim horizon of protection of life and liberty, and for the develfoiled times without nunnber by the Senate in ignorance. Thousands, before in affluent cir- opment of processes and means by which labor his efforts to appoint to office such men as the cumstances, are so constantly engaged in strug. is to reap its richest reward. To the American gallant Slocum, the dashing Blair, and re- gling to supply their mere physical necessities, people is confided the greatest and grandest nowned McClellan, who had bravely fought to

that their is neither time nor money, even if subdivision of the earth upon which to work put down the rebellion; men whose only offense | there were opportunity, to advance the mental out the problem of perfect human governwas that after conquering ten States they were condition. Still, despite all these efforts, many ment. Let us endeavor to be equal to the epoch not willing to make of them pandemoniums, are sufering for the plainest food. But their in which we live, and by wise legislation accel: where dark-skinned fiends and white faced, physical wants and sufferings, urgent as they erate the wheels of progress and secure to our white-livered vampires might rule and riot on are, are as nothing compared with the inental whole people prosperity, union, liberty, and ibe little blood they could still suck out by || torture, the burning consciousness of degra: justice. fastening on helpless throats, but were anxious dation. Not long since Rev. Henry Ward Mr. Chairman, I have stated that the war to restore them to their pristine status in the Beecher said in a speech that just before the debt of this country, incurred for the preserUnion, that they might prove it source of hap. war commenced "the crust between the South vation of the Union, must be paid. But how piness to themselves and of glory as well as and hell was only an inch thick.” Iam rather it shall be paid and when it shall be paid are profit to the nation so nearly crushed by finan- inclined to think the reverened gentleman's profound questions for American statesmancial burdens, not the least formidable of which assertion was, in the main, correct, so far as it ship, whose successful solution will require have arisen out of the very acts wherewith this went. But he, characteristically, stopped short the exercise of the most comprehensive wis: party affect to be seeking the restoration of the of the whole truth. The legislation of the dom. This debt, Mr. Chairman, is a first Union; but which instead is still further em- Opposition has broken through that crust, and

mortgage upon the present and prospective bittering and estranging the two discordant is fast making for the Anglo Saxon race a bell wealth and labor of the country, and must be sections.

of that part of our once fair domain. God forbid that the party now in power

paid and will be paid with the fruits of labor. Trusting, however, in the virtue and intelli

And, sir, in the development of the productive here, represent fairly a majority of their con- gence of the people, I believe a few months

industry and commerce of our country will be stituents; for if that constituency indorse more will sound the death knell for those who

found the true means for the solution of this ( which, bowever, recent elections forbid our have so misruled us, and that in the coming great problem. believing) 0:e half the diabolisin displayed in success of the great Democratic party the true The great triumph of this age is the invelitheirtreatment of the South malignant, indeed, l intelligence and virtue of the country will be tion of machines and processes by which labor must they be. It were enough to harrow up in the ascendency, and so save our temple of is not only economized in the production of the gristly heart of a fiend. Not content with constitutional liberty. And that pure patriot, articles of commerce, but in their distribution inflicting on a brave but now prostrate people Koratio Seymour, will stand at our helin of throughout the world. And, Mr. Chairman, the retributive tortures of a few months, while state and guide us to the haven ofrest

. He, like in my judgment the great strife among the the hot blood engendered by the strite was Cincinnatus of old, has been sought out and pations during the next half century will be to still careering through their veins, they keep | brought forth from his quiet home, and the secure to freight and passengers cheap and up a studied infliction in cold blood for years, acclamations which greeted his nomination in rapid ineans of transportation; for, sir, we although the pecuniary maintenance of this New York will be reëchoed in November next. have arrived at that point when the value of a black inquisition threatens to bankrupt the


days' lador is not to be estimated so much by nation. And what manner of people are they

what it will produce as by the facility with torturing on this gigantic rack which they have Mr. RAUM. Mr. Chairman, the people of which the article produced can be transported erected, covering half the land? Vainly will this country bave but recently emerged from to market. I lay it down as an axiom, that you search the earth for their superiors; may. a long and bloody war in which patriotism the value of artieles of industry is regulated I not say their equals? Brave, generous, triumpled over treason ; and the perpetuation by the facilities with which such articles can kind--the noblest of a noble race. What sol- of free government became an assured fact in be placed upon the market. diers in war, what captains to lead them when the United States. In the midst of that tre

And further, that the production of articles they deemed their rights imperiled! What a mendous struggle, when millions of men rushed

of commerce depends upon the same law; such galaxy of statesmen and orators in peace! to the grim edge of battle ready to die for production being stimulated and increased in What happy hours were theirs--appy now no their country, and where hundreds of thou- exact ratio to the increased means of cheap more! How favored their clime, how soft sands tell to rise uo more, save in response to

and rapid transportation. Thus, sir, we find their breezes, fragrant their bowers! How the final trump of God, the cry upon every lovely their women, at all times warmhearted patriot lip, and which was responded to by and railroads a complete revolution has been

that since the application of steam to vessels and true, gentle in their luxurious hours; yet, every patriot heart, was that all the blood and brought about in the production and commerce amid perils and wrongs, bow spirited! But treasure necessary to save this great nation of the world. I must confess, sir, that I was now, no more can "The light foot rove,

sacred impulse became an enthusiasm, moving tistics showing the tremendous increase in the Safe through the orange grove.'

the heart of the nation, and lasted to the end, trade of the world during the past thirty-six These Jacobins, instead of welcoming back giving us victory at an enormous sacrifice of

years. And, sir, it is a curious and interestinto the temple of tbe Union such a country life, and an unheard-of expenditure of money,

ing fact, that in all the commercial vations and a people endowed with these noble char- But our troops were paid and fed and clothed

whose trade has materially increased, railroads acteristics, the very highest elements of a na- and cared for in health and in sickness as po

have been extensively constracted; and what tion's greatness, which can adorn in times of other troops were cared for before; the people is more interesting, the increase of trade dias quiet and prove a mighty bulwark against a individually and as a vation accepted as a holy

been in exact ratio to the increase of railroads, foreign foe, they prefer to be guilty of national trust the duty of providing for the wants of so that the commerce of a country can now be mayhem.

One portion of a great people are that mighty host of patriot heroes who marched safely approximated from year to year from deliberately maiming the other into absolute and fought for liberty and Union, for the supimpotence. After desolating the southern port of their widows and orphans, and for the road construction is given. And, sir

, tle in: States, they have converted them into one vast interment in national cemeteries of the sacred

crease of production and trade in a country is prison-pen, where bayonets gleam at every remains of those, who, consecrating their lives

limited only when such country has no fertile turn. They have set over them an abject, to their country, died that their country might region throngh which to build railroads, or half-savage race, which the northern people live, and made death beautiful and glorious

no new market to reach by the same means. themselves erewhile thought it no sin to hold by the freedom of tbe sacrifice, the grandeur

I ask the indulgence of the House for a short as slaves, or sell like brutes, according as the of the cause.

time while I present a few figures showiug the bolding or selling thereof was prospectively the The war through which we have passed, in

progress of railroad construction and the in

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crease of commerce in some of the great pro- your attention to the fact, Mr. Chairman, that ducing and trading nations of the world ; and the Netherlands constructed no considerable I will begin with

extent of railroads until as late as 1850. And GREAT BRITAIN.

that she possessed vastly superior advantages The United Kingdom has about four thou- over Belgium in the way of water communicasand miles of navigable waters. For a num

tion, by means of her extensive canals and by ber of years

prior to 1833 the exports and the river Rhine, commanding the trade of Gerimports of that country had averaged about many: four hundred million dollars; but during the Years.

Total Exports and Imports. seven succeeding years lines of railroads were 1835


$53,000,000 constructed, which have been added to from


105,000,000 1839 Belgiuin ....

77.000.000 year to year; and the construction of railroads


139,000,000 and increase of commerce is shown to be as 1862

Belgium .....

380,000,000 follows:


288,000,000 Belgium

473,000,000 Miles of

Total ecports

322,000,000 Years.

railroad. and imports. 1810.

1,200 $581,000,000

This enormous production and interchange 18:15.

2,441 659,000,000 of wealth is theresult of the labor of a population 1850..

6,733 810,000,000 of a little more than four million five hundred 1855.

8,334 1,227,000,000 1860.

10,433 1,832,000,000

thousand, on a territory of eleven thousand four 1865.

13,289 2,393,000,000 hundred and two square miles, Belgium being 1867.

2,500,000,000 , in fact but little larger than the State of MaryThus it will be seen that the commerce of land. Great Britain, which had increased but little for many years, received a new impulse from Mr. Chairman, I now propose to detain the railroad development, and from $400,000,000 House for a short time while I examine very in 1833 reached the enormous sum of $2,500,- | briefly the progress of railroad and commercial 000,000 in 1807.

developinent in the distant and almost unknown

British province of India. Thatvast, fertile, and Let us now see what effect the construction | populous region has for more than a century of railroads has had upon the commerce of been under the domination of Great Britain, France, whose people are blessed with about and now controlled by a Governor General, seventy-seven hundred miles of navigable | who, in the name of the Queen, under the inwaters.

structions of a secretary of state for India,
The following figures will show the progress makes and administers the laws for one hun:
of commercial development in connection with dred and fifty million people.
railroad construction in that country:

The climate and productions of a considera-
No. miles
Total cxports

ble portion of India are very similar to those Years.

railroad, and imports. of our southern States, and it has long been 1810.

564 $403,000,000 the earnest wish of British statesmen to stim1845.

817 475,000,000


ulate the production of cotton in that distant

3,315 815,000,000 || province so as to compete with our country in 1860,

5,586 1,131,000,000

the growth of that great staple. As long ago 1865

8,130 1,432,000,000

as 1849 the British Parliament incorporated llere it will be seen that coinmercial pros

railroad companies for India. For many years, perity kept pace with railroad construction ; | however, very slow progress was made under so that from $ 103,000,000 in 1840 the exports

the lead of private enterprise; in 1856 about and imports of France increased to $1,440,

two hundred and twenty miles of railroad had

been completed, and it is probable that under 000,000 in 1867.

the same management five hundred miles of BELGIUM AND NETHERLANDS.

railroad would not have been completed at I will now bring to the attention of the House this day. British statesmanship, however, conthe reinarkable effect that the construction of ceived the grand design of securing the conrailroads has had upon the trade of the two struction of five thousand miles of railroad in busy little States of Belgium and Netherlands.

that vast empire by Government aid. Eight While under the Government of the United great companies were incorporated, and the Netherlands their commerce reached a point Government guarantied the payment of $366,of considerable importance; but at the time || 000,000 five per cent. bonds to aid in the conof their separation in 1830 the total exports struction of the roads. The rebellion in this and imports of the Netherlands were nearly | country causing a great dearth in the cotton treble those of Belgium, resulting mainly from markets of the world greatly stimulated the conthe fact of superior means of transportation struction of these India railroads. Early in by canals and by sea; but in 1835 Belgium || 1863 the India cotton regions were penetrated, commenced the construction of a wise system and the crop of that season was brought to the of railroads, so as to give her an outlet into coast by rail, and to-day a net-work of four Germany, Austria, and France.

thousand nine hundred and forty-four miles of Immediately production and trade received railroads is about completed in that country. a powerful impulse, and with the progress of Let us see what effect the construction of these her railroad system the commerce of Belgium || railroads has had upon the commerce of India. increased in a ratio unparalleled by that of any The following are the figures : other nation on earth; the soil was more skill.


Imports. Exports. Total. fully tilled; valuable mines were opened ; fur- 1858. $151,000,000 $138,000,000 $289,000,000 naces and work-shops were erected, and the 1859.

172,725,000 152,660,000 335,385,000 1860.

203,110.000 144,415,000 little State, insignificant in point of territorial


186,360,000 185,000,000 371.360,000 extent, outstripping her neighbor, the Nether.


215,705,000 214,850,000 460,555.000 lands, has taken a first-class position as a pro- 1864.

250,510,000 334,475,000 583,015,000 ducing and commercial people. The follow

1865.. 247,570,000 347,430,000 595,000,000 ing figures may prove interesting as showing The following figures show the value of the the progress of commerce in Belgium in rela-exports of raw cotton for a series of years: tion to railroad construction and the manner


$20,000,000 in which she outran the Netherlands in the race 1860.

27,000,000 of progress:


35.000,00 1862.

Miles of railroad

Total exports

and imports. 1864.

183,812,000 1835.

$53,001),000 185.

.... 77,000,000 The enormous expansion of British produc1845.

130,000,000 tion and trade at home and in India is really 1853


232,000,000 1860.

one of the marvels of this great age of progress, .1.037.

352,000,000 1862.


380,000,000 and is to be attributed to the wise development 1864. ...1,350..

475,000,000 of their railroad systems. Let us contemplate I now wish to compare the figures showing for a moment these amazing commercial rethe commerce of those two countries, calling | sults. The United Kingdom has a yearly



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one half

river; to authorize the consolidation of certain land through Missouri and Arkansas. In 1866, that Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Ken railroad companies, and to provide homesteads the grant being about to expire by limitation, tucky, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio for the laborers on said roads," which I had was renewed and enlarged by act of Congress, are deeply interested in the speedy constructhe honor of introducing on the 3d day of March upon the recommendation of the honorable gen- tion of this great thoroughfare. Jast, and which was printed, referred to and tleman from Indiana, [Mr. JULIAN,) the chair. Another consideration which should has been considered by the Committee on Roads

press man of the Committee on the Public Lands, heavily upon the minds of gentlemen is the and Canals.

and to-day nearly two inillion acres of land in fact that the construction of this railroad would This bill, Mr. Chairman, contemplates the Missouri and Arkansas are withheld from sale greatly cheapen the cost of living through the construction of continuous lines of railroad to aid in the construction of the road.

North and East by causing a reduction in the and telegraph from the Mississippi river, op- That the construction of this road would || price of beef. At this time there are five milposite Cairo, Illinois, through the States of permanently secure the reconstruction and lions of cattle in the State of Texas, the value Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas, to the Rio development of Arkansas and Texas and place of which will not average four dollars per head. Grande river, in the direction of San Blas, them upon the high road to prosperity, I pre: There is absolutely no market for the millions Mexico, on the Pacific coast, and to connect sume will not be doubted by any gentleman on

of fine fat beeves this immense herd contains with such railroads as may be built in Mexico this floor. Those States are great outlying, in consequence of the inadequate means of from the Rio Grande river, either to San Blas undeveloped Territories, with rich soil, admi- transportation from that State. There is no or the City of Mexico. rable climate, and capable of supporting ten

reason why the price of beef in our cities and The bill proposes that the United States million inhabitants. With the exception of large towuis should not be reduced from thirty shall aid certain companies heretofore char- her frontage on the Mississippi river, Arkan- to fifty per cent. by the introduction of Texas tered by the Legislatures of Missouri, Arkan- sas has no reliable means of trausportation. cattle by means of railroad transportation sas, and Texas to build said railroad, loaning | She had thirty-eight miles of railroad in 1860, and at the same time increase the value of the bonds of the United States to said com- and she has the same to-day, with little hope

cattle in Texas from one to two hundred per panies upon a second mortgage on said rail- of increasing the amount except through the cent. Texas is now the most extensive and road--the bonds to be issued as sections of generous aid of Congress.

best grazing country in the United States. I the road are completed, $10,000 per mile from The condition of Texas is but little, if any, am satified that she could furnish half a milCairo to Little Rock, and $16,000 per mile better. From her coast-line a few short roads lion of beeves annually twenty dollars per head from Little Rock to the Rio Grande. The point to the interior, but are not being ex- cheaper than similar stock is now sold in our bonds to run fifty years and to bear currency tended for want of funds. There are four hun- city markets ; thus by the construction of the interest at tbe rate of six per cent. per annum, dred and ninety-six miles of railroad in Texas, “International Pacific railroad" would the the interest to be paid by the railroad com; none of them having connections beyond the consumers of beef North and East save mil. panies. At the end of ten years the railroad | State. So utterly insufficient are these rail. lions of dollars annually by the reduction of companies are to create in the Treasury of | roads for the convenient transportation of the price of that article, and the value of the the United States a sinking rund of two and | freight that a large proportion of the products stock of Texas would be increased from the

per cent. per annum of the total debt, of the soil are transported in ox wagons from nominal sum of $20,000,000 to an actual value so that the debt will be paid by the railroad two to five hundred miles to market. The of $50,000,000. companies at maturity.

natural result of this condition of affairs is, Another consideration I desire to bring to The bill also provides that the lands hereto. that in both Arkansas and Texas production the attention of the House is the paramount fore granted by the United States to aid in the is at the very lowest possible stage, and labor | importance of making the most ample provisconstruction of that portion of the road that is absolutely without hope for remunerative ions for the hundreds of thousands of landless, lies in Missouri and Arkansas, and known as returns.

homeless poor persons, white and black, in the the Cairo and Fulton railroad, amounting to Another consideration which weighs heavily | States of Arkansas, Texas, and contiguous about two million acres, and the lands granted upon my mind is the great importance of fos- States, whereby they may secure homesteads. by general law in Texas, which will amount to tering and encouraging the cultivation of

sugar As previously stated, about two million acres about seven million acres, in all about nine | and cotton, both necessaries which enter largely of land in Missouri and Arkansas were granted million acres of land, shall be sold by the rail- into the daily consumption of the world. to aid in the construction of the proposed railroad companies at the maximum price of $2 50 The production of both of these articles was

road. These lands are now withheld from per acre, to such persons who, being laborers almost abandoned during the war, and while | market, and constitute some of the best lande on said 'railroads, may wish to purchase any the growth of cotton has been resumed with in those States. By the laws of Texas about part of said lands.

The bill also provides that partial success the production of sugar is in a seven million acres of land will inure to the in the construction of the road preference shall very languishing condition. It is a matter of proposed railroad as constructed. be given to persons wishing, in whole or in part, absolute necessity to the whole country to Upon these nine million acres of land oue to buy land for their labor; and the bill also stimulate the production of sugar and cotton bundred and fifty thousand homesteads or three provides that the Commissioner of Refugees in the southern States.

quarters of a million of inbabitants can be and Freedmen shall supervise the contracts 1. That the importation of sugar may be

located where they can till their own lands by made with freedmen, and aid them insecuring reduced.

day and sleep under their own roofs by night homes along the line of said road by the pur- 2. That the exportation of cotton may be in peace and prosperity. By the passage of the chase of lands from the railroad companies. increased. For by these means the balance of bill under consideration the railroad companies

The bill also provides that the railroad com- trade now largely against this country will be uired to sell their lands at the maximum panies shall have authority to borrow inoney changed in our favor.

price of $2 50 per acre to all persons who, in upon a first mortgage to an amount equal to 3. That the prices of these articles may be whole or in part, wish to pay for land in labor, the Government loan; also that the United reduced to the benefit of our whole population. Under the provisions of this act thousands of States shall at all times have preference in 4. That the labor of the sugar and cotton

persons would secure valuable homesteads sending dispatches and transporting troops and growing regions may be prevented from per along the line of this great thoroughfare and munitions of war, and that all the earnings of manently engaging in the production of bread. pay for them in labor, reserving enough froin the railroad companies for transporting the stuffs and provisions, thus securing to the great their daily earnings to support themselves and mails, troops, munitions of war, and Govern- West and Northwest a home market for all families. ment'freights and forwarding telegraphic dis- their productions ; for be it known, Mr. Chair- And, sir, by the passage of this act an impatches, shall be retained by and accounted for man, that at no time have we been able to find mense land monopoly will be prevented by semi-annually by the Secretary of the Treasury, a foreign market for more than five per cent. requiring the sale of these lands at a fair and to be applied exclusively to the payment of of the grain produced in the United States. fixed valuation

; for Mr. Chairman, the legis. interest on the Government bonds issued to And well did the honorable gentleman from lation of Congress in respect to the public the railroad companies, any surplus of semi- Pennsylvania, (Mr. KELLEY,) in discussing the lands of the country should be to prevent as annual earnings to be paid to the railroad coin- tax bill the other day, raise the note of warn

near as may be the aggregation of large bodies panies.

ing to the West of the danger that the South of land for speculation in the hands of indi The bill also provides that the railroad com- would soon be able to monopolize the foreign

viduals and corporations, and to secure to actual panies shall have authority to consolidate their grain trade, to the exclusion of the West; but settlers and cultivators of the soil homesteads corporate powers by virtue of State laws under I call the attention of that gentleman and of

free of cost or at a price within the reach of the corporate name of “The International Pa- the House and the country to the fact that

the poor; for sir, there is no curse to any cilic Railroad Company. The companies are if the South is encouraged to return to the

country so great as the ownership of the lands required to make a full and complete report vigorous production of sugar and cotton, the

in the hands of the few, and for the husbandto the Secretary of the Treasury annually of grain growers of the West will find a better man to be a tenant and not the owner of the their condition and business. market at home tban abroad.

soil he cultivates. Sir, the landless poor of These, Mr. Chairman, are the material pro- And fifthly, Mr. Chairman, I insist that it this country are children of the Republic, and visions of the bill, and to their carnest consid. is necessary to stimulate the production of should be encouraged by the most liberal legis cration I desire to call the attention of Con- sugar and cotton in the southern States as a

lation to secure homesteads

for themselves and gress and the country. There are many reasons, means of securing prosperity, happiness, and their posterity. sir, why this railroad should meet the hearty peace to the people of those States.

Mr. Chairman, I desire that Congress and approval and aid of Congress. In the first

And who among us, I ask, does not desire the country shall also examine this subject place, the construction of a railroad southwest to see peace and prosperity abound from ocean from tbe mouth of the Ohio river was seconded to ocean and from the lakes to the gulf? It ) sir, that as respects the economical adminisura by Congress as long ago as 1856 by a grant of is hardly necessary to state, Mr. Chairman,

tion of public affairs in those States and cou•


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tiguous Territories that the United States can happy. We would penetrate the very heart of well afford to aid in the construction of this Mexico by twelve hundred miles of railroad, railroad. We all understaud that millions of and thus secure a monopoly of her trade by dollars are annually expended for the trans- lines inaccessible to foreign countries. portation of troops, military and Indian sup Her people would want our agricultural and plies to our distant ports by the slow and meclianical implements and manufactured expensive means of mule and ox tcams. goods, and would pay for them mainly in the

Now, sir, at the military depot of San precious metals. A new and profitable field for Antonio alone our disbursing officers pay an- commerce would be opened to our people. The mually more than a million and a quarter of products of the inines of Mexico, amounting dollars for the transportation of supplies in now to some fifteen million dollars annually, wagons, from Indianola to San Antonio and other points, these same supplies having first the amount augmented to $50,000,000 within been transported from New York by sea or a few years. And, Mr. Chairman, reaching from Cincinnati, Louisville, Jeffersonville, or the Pacific coasi by this shortest and best of St. Louis to New Orleans by river, thence all routes, may we not look down upon the across the Gulf. And, sir, the disbursements west coast of South America and out upon the at San Antonio do not cover more than one half islands of the sea and hope for a rapid extenof the sum expended annually by the United sion of trade; and may we not look out and States for wagon transportation to our military | beyond those islands to that distant Asiatic posts in that distant region. I think, sir, that clime known as the “ East," whose trade for it is safe to assume that $1,000,000 per annum three thousand years has been the prize of comwould be saved to the Treasury by the con- merce,

and which in turn enriched Tyre, Jerustruction of this railroad by cheapening trans- salem, Palmyra, Alexandria, and Constantiportation.

nople, and which by the genius of Vasco de Mr. Chairman, this railroad, extending a Gama was brought around the Cape of Good (housand miles through the fertile lands of Hope to fill the coffers of Lisbon, London, and Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas, where there the whole of Europe; and extending our comare no means of transportation save by wagons merce over shorter lines divert into new chanon miserable roads, would operate like an nels across this continent a trade which has enchanter's wand in the development of pro- enriched every country controlling it, and which duction and trade along the entire line; a new is now separated by the diameter of the earth field would be opened for the energies of our from the point of distribution, and which is a people and a new market for the production of rich prize now within our grasp, and may, by our manufactures. And, sır, this railroad would | enterprise and energy, be secured to this counhave the same effect upon our foreign trade that try as an eternal heritage by the building of other railroads have had; our exports and this proposed railroad and others in process of imports would be increased $25,000 per mile constructiou. for the entire length of road, amounting to Mr. Chairman, it is my opinion that the $25,000,000 per annum; and the duties paid United States is about to make a new departure into the national Treasury upon dutiable im. upon the road to prosperity; and as the Repubports would amount to at least $3,000,000 per Jican party is likely to remain in power for a

These conclusions are inevitable and series of years, and will be responsible for the canuot be escaped; they are deducible from the legislation of the country, take this occasion statistics of the country, running back through to say that it is not enough that we shall be the the past thirty-five years, and are entitled to champions of liberty and union; we must also the attention of Congress and the country. be the champions of such legislation as will

develop industry, production, and trade, so as Having demonstrated the importance of this to bring about that degree of universal pros. railroad to our own people, and the economy perity which will make liberty enjoyable and of the United States aiding in its construction Union a thing to be loved by all. Therefore tro:n Cairo to the Rio Grande, I now come to I say, sir, that we should, without unnecessary the discussion of the subject with reference to delay, devise a just and wise system of improveche influence it will have upon the future of ments, in whole or in part at public expense, Mexico, and the trade of this country with to stimulate production, and to cheapen and that republic. The republic of Mexico bas a facilitate the transportation of the products of population of eight million. Her capacities || labor, thus securing to the producer the greatfor the development of industry and trade are est possible sum for the fruits of his toil, and surpassed by few countries; her mineral wealth thereby largely increasing the capability of the is absolutely inexhaustible and fabulous. The country to sustain the heavy burden of taxarevolutionary tires which have unfortunately tion pressing upon it. And it is in view of enveloped that country for the past thirty the conclusions just given, and the considerayears have about burned out, and it is hoped | tions heretofore mentioned, that I earnestly ibat the Liberal Government will be able to impress upon Congress and the country the maintain itself against a!l its enemies.

vast importance of the speedy construction of Mr. Chairman, I aim that the people of the International Pacific railroad. the United states are interested in the perma- For the construction of four thousand nine nent establishment of the Republic of Mexico hundred and forty-four miles of railroad in India and in the prosperity of its people. And, sir, the British Pariiamentguarantied $366,000,000, I express it as my deliberate opinion that and has actually paid $65,000,000 interest therenothing would more conduce to secure these To aid in the construction of the Internaends than the construction of a system of rail- tional Pacific railroad, one thousand miles long, roads connecting the two countries. I propose, about fourteen million dollars in bonds will be sir, that the United States shall aid in building | required. Thus we can secure a railroad one a railroad to the Mexican border; and by fifth in length of the India railroads at one thirfriendly ollices encourage the construction in tieth the cost. During the construction of the Mexico of two railroads, the one to the Pacific road the railroad companies are rrquired to pay and the other to the city of Mexico. To say theinterest on the bonds. When the road is comthat the construction of such a system of rail- pleted the payments by the United States for roads would advance the interests of both coun- the transportation of mails, troops, and suptries is stating the matter tamely; for, sir, the plies, will far exceed the interest on the bonds, imagination can scarcely conceive the wonder- and thus obviate the necessity of appropriaful advantages which would inevitably result tions from the Treasury for that purpose. The to both peoples. Mexico would at once awake sinking fund provided by the bill will be ample from her lethargy and enter the lists in the race for the payment of the principal; and thus, of progress; her liberal Government would without cost to the national Treasury, a work become a fixed fact; new fields would be tilled, ll enduring as time, the importance of which the new cities built, and the riches of her mines most sanguine imagination can now scarcely would be laid bare. Industry, production, | foreshadow, will be secured to this and future and trade would increase, and her people generations in perpetuity. would become contented, prosperous, and Mr. Chairman, progress is the watchword of

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Mr. HIGBY, who moved that the committee


slight amendment. I suppose under the rules, rise.

The PRESIDENT pro tempore laid before

strictly, it should go to the Committee of The motion was agreed to. the Senate a letter of The Secretary of the In.

Printing again, but I conclude that the Com. The committee accordingly rose; and Mr. terior, communicating information relative to

mittee on Printing will concur in this recomHigby having taken the chair as Speaker pro the third article of the treaty of April 28, 1866,

mendation. tempore, Mr. CULLOM reported that the Comwith the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians,

Mr. ANTHONY, It is not necessary to send mittee of the Whole on the state of the Union and an estimate for $15,000 with which to

it to the Committee on Printing again, but I having had under cousideration the Union gen

should like to know wbat the amendment is, meet the requirements of that article ; which erally, had come to vo resolution thereon. was referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs.

Mr. POMEROY. The amendment is to And then, on motion of Mr. GETZ, (at nine

Mr. CONNESS presented a petition of citi

allow one thousand copies in French. We cono'clock and forty minutes p. m.,) the House

curred in the recommendation of the Commitzens of Los Angeles, California, praying Conadjourned. gress to establish a district court of the United

tee on Printing with the exception of allowing States for the southern district of California to

one thousand copies in French, which the Con.

mittee on Printing did not agree to. be located at Los Angeles; which was referred PETITIONS, ETC. to the Committee on the Judiciary.

Mr. ANTHONY. Do you propose to print The following petitions, &c., were presented

Mr. CONKLING presented a petition of

tbe maps ? under the rule, and referred to the appropriate officers of the United States Army, praying an

Mr. POVEROY. We have not recom committees :

mended that. By Mr. BUCKLAND: The petition of Wilincrease of compensation, which was referred

Mr. EDMUNDS. Let it go over until to to the Committee on Military Affairs and the liam Robertson and ibers, owners of steamers Militia.

morrow and be printed. and vessels engaged in the coasting and other

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN presented a peti

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Objection trade on the southern shore of Lake Erie, for tion of officers of the United States Army,

being made, it goes over under the rule. the passage of the bills introduced into the

MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE. praying an increase of compensation; which Senate of the United States by Mr. CHANDLER

was referred to the Committee on Military regulating such trade.

A message from the House of Representatives, Affairs and the Militia. By Mr. LOAN : The petition of A. L. H.

by Mr. McPHERSON, its Clerk, announced that Crenshaw, of Jackson county, Missouri, for

Mr. TRUMBULL presented a petition of the House had concurred in the report of the

officers of the United States Army, praying an relief.

committee of conference on the disagreeing By Mr. MILLER: The petition of sundry increase of compensation; which was referred

votes of the two Houses on the bill (H. R. Army officers, praying an allowance of forage to the Committee on Military Affairs and the

No. 605) making appropriations for the legisMilitia. for an additional number of horses, and also

lative, executive, and judicial expenses of the the continuance of the compensation of ten

Mr. WILSON presented a petition of officers

Goverument for the year ending the 30th of dollars per month to every company comof the United States Army, praying an increase

Juve, 1869. mander for responsibility of clothing, arms, of compensation ; wliich was referred to the

The message further announced that the Committee on Military Affairs and the Militia. company property, &c.

House had concurred in the report of the com.

Mr. MORGAN presented a petition of citiBy Mr. PETERS: The petition of John G.

mittee of conference on the disagreeing votes Chandler and others, Army officers, for an

zens of New York, praying an extension of the of the two Houses on the bill (II. R. No.344)

time of the so-called tifty per cent. clause of increase of compensation.

to incorporate the Washington Target-Shootthe bankrupt act; which was referred to the By Mr. POLAND: The petition of Colonel

ing Company.
Committee on the Judiciary.

The message also announced that the House United States Army, praying for an increase officers of the United States Army, praying an

had passed a joint resolution (H. R. No. 489) of compensation.

authorizing the remission of the duties on a By Mr. RANDALL: The petition of sundry increase of compensation; which was referred

chime of bells imported for presentation to the to the Committee on Military Affairs and the officers asking the passage of the bill known as

Episcopal church at loosic, Rensselaer county, Militia. “the Schenck bill,'' to equalize the pay of the

New York.
officers and enlisted men of the Army.
Mr. HOWE presented the petition of Levi

Herzog, praying compensation for goods fur:
By Mr. SCHENCK: The petition of officers

nished the first regiment Marylard volunteer The message further announced tbat the of the Army asking for the passage of General

cavalry in 1861; which was referred to the Speaker of the House had signed the evrolled Schenck's bill, to fix and equalize the pay of Committee on Claims.

bill (S. No. 564) concerning the tax commisofficers and to establish the pay of enlisted

He also presented the petition of George

sioners of the State of Arkansas ; and it was soldiers of the Army.

Fuerst, praying to be allowed transportation signed by the President pro tempore. By Mr. WASHBURN, of Massachusetts : to Fort Vaucouver, Washington Territory;

SAMUEL PIERCE The remonstrance of C. II. Jones, and 7

which was referred to the Committee on Milother legal voters of Athol, Massachusetts, itary Affairs and the Militia.

On motion of Mr. FERRY, the bill (H. R. against the increase of the tariff on steel.

No. 783) for the relief of Samuel Pierce, which By Mr. WELKER: A memorial of Colonel

bad been reported on adversely, was postponed J. G. Chandler and 10 others, officers of the

Mr. DRAKE. I ask the unanimous con- indefinitely. Army,asking the passage of General Schenck's sent of the Senate to resume at this time the

DEFICIENCY APPROPRIATION BILL. consideration of the bill which was cut off yesbill fixing the pay of others and soldiers in the Army.

terday morning by the expiration of the morn- Mr. FERRY submitted an amendment in

ing hour. It will take but a little time, and it tended to be proposed to the bill (II. R. No. IN SENATE.

is a bill of public importance, which bas already 1341) making appropriations and to supply

passed the House of Representatives, and been deficiencies in the appropriations for the serTUESDAY, July 14, 1868.

reported with amendments from the Commit- vice of the Government for the fiscal year Prayer by Rev. E. H. GRAY, D. D.

tee on Naval Affairs. It is a bill (H. R. No. ending June 30, 1868, and for other purposes ; On inotion of Mr. FERRY, and by unani- || 941) to amend certain acts in relation to the which was referred to the Committee on Appromous consent, the reading of the Journal of Navy and Marine corps.

yesterday was dispensed with.
Mr. CATTELL. I am very sorry to inter-


fere with the purpose of the Senator from Mis.
souri, but a bill of, I think, very great public

The bill (H. R. No. 339) authorizing the Mr. VICKERS presented the credentials of

remission of the duties on a chime of bells import, Senate bill No. 513, has been up under Hon. William Pinkney Whyte, appointed by I discussion more than once in the morning the Governor of the State of Maryland a Sen | hour and been cut off, and I am extremely

imported for presentation to the Episcopal

church at Hoosic, Rensselaer county, New ator from that State to fill the unexpired terın anxious that it should be disposed of now. I

York, was read twice by its title, and referred of Hon. Reverdy Johnson, resigned.

to the Committee ou Finance. am quite unwell, scarcely able to be in the The credentials were read; and the oaths Senate this morning, and came here hoping

NORTHERN MICHIGAN RAILROAD. prescribed by law having been administered to Mr. WHYTE, he took his seat in the Senate. that that bill would be disposed of. I think it

Mr. HOWARD. I desire to appeal to the will not give rise to much discussion.

Senate to take up Senate bill No. 276. I only HOUSE BILLS REFERRED.

Mr. DRAKE. I beg the gentleman pot to The joint resolution (H. R. No. 332) author. object to taking up the bill I indicated.

want to have it taken up and read, and it may izing the appointment of examiners to exam

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Reports thing more pressing,

be laid aside then if any gentleman has anj: ine and report upon the expediency of discon

of committees are in order. tipuing the navy.yard at Charlestown, Massa

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The ques:

REPORTS OF COUMITTEES. chusetts, and uniting the same with the yard

tion is on the notion of the Senator from

Mr. POMEROY. I am directed by the Com. at Kittery, Maine, was read twice by its title,

Michigan, to take up the bill (S. No. 276) to mittee on Public Lands, to whom was referred and referred to the Committee on Naval Affairs. the resolution relative to printing extra copies

grant lands to the Northern Michigan Railroad The joint resolution (H. R. No. 338) exon

Company in extension of the Northern Pacific of the Land Office report, to report it back. | railroad. erating certain vessels of the United States It has been before the Committee on Printing from the payment of tonnage fees to consular

Mr. EDMÚNDS. Is it just reported ? and was referred again to the Committee on agents in Canada was read twice by its title, | Public Lands, and they recommend the amend

dir. HOWARD. No; it has been reported and referred to the Committee on Commerce.

for months. ment of the Committee on Printing, with a

Mr. TRUMBULL. Before that is taken up


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