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receiving his authority immediately from the patriarch of Aler. andria ; but it is by a special canon proliibited, that the Abuna should be a native of Abyssinia, and though styled a patriarch, he has not the power of making or establishing metropolitans. With regard to the ancient faith of the Abyssinians, in all points of substantial importance, it is scarcely possible to cite a confession superior to that of their Emperor, Claudius: the modern creed, as developed in the refined and subtile expositions of Mark, the present patriarch of Alexandria, (fortified with numerous anathemas,) the intelligent Christian must read with sorrow. But for these, as well as for Mr. Jowett's suggestions for the encouragement of Abyssinian learning, and his speculations concerning a mission to Abyssinia, we must refer our readers to his very interesting volume. No anathemas can restore this church. The circulation of the Holy Scriptures, and the faithful and affectionate administration of the truths and ordinances of the Gospel, are the healing balm which must be applied to her festering wounds.
Concerning the Jews, and the qualifications of those who would attempt their conversion, Mr. Jowett has offered some valuable facts and hints. But we must hasten to the concluding division of his solume, which treats of the Mohammedans. The causes of the continued prevalence of the tenets of the false prophet of Arabia are ascribed by Mr. Jowett 10 the profound igrörance of the nature of the human heart, in which the Mohammedan religion leaves its rotaries,—the want of right moral feeling which accompanies inveterate and universal ignorance the vices which their creed cherishes, and to which, generally speaking, the climates inhabited by them are conducive,-the cunning, fraud, and extortion which universally prevail under their governments,--and the chilling despotism by which they are all characterized. The causes of the continued depression of Christianity in Mohammedan countries, are-ignorance, more especially of the Scriptures-declension from the fundamental doctrines of Christianity,-intolerance,-the schims and feuds, of various sects of professing Christians, in the East, and their gross superstitions and idolatrous customs.
No Mussulman dares become a Christian, even if he were so disposed from conviction; for, by embracing the Christian faith, he would incur a forfeiture of life and property, and would be immediately deprived of both. Mr. Jowett has recorded one instance of a Christian, who had embraced Islamism, recanting
apostacy and suffering martyrdom at Smyrna ;(pp. 20-22;) and, with deep regret, we state the fact which he has also recorded, that there are not unfrequent instances of Christians who have renounced thcir Saviour!
ART. VIII.-A Description of the new First Presbyterian Church
in Philadelphia.-(With an engraving.) This edifice is situated at the corner of Seventh and Locust streets, on the south side of Washington Square, with its principal front facing the square on the north. The length of the building is 140 feet including its portico, and breadth 75 feet. The principal floor is raised on a basement 8 feet high to which you ascend by a flight of steps under the portico (on the eastern and western sides,) leading to two doors that form the chief entrances to the vestibule, which is 37 by 32 feet with school rooms, 26 by 16.6 (on the right and left.) At the extremity of this vestibule on either side is a flight of geometrical stairs 15 feet wide that affords an easy and convenient access to the gallery, and prayer room above; or to the basement underneath. Four large folding doors inserted in the wall, that separates the vestibule and stairs from the body of the church, wit two similar doors in the rear, give ample thoroughfare in entering or de. parting from the principal church room. The plan of the pews is novel, and although not pleasing to the cye, it possesses many valuable properties both for seeing and hearing to the best advantage-The whole plan embraces three double blocks of pews, each separated by aisles 5.8 inches wide, containing 42 single pews, two double ones, 9.3 inches in length and capable of seating, with ease, 6 persons in each single pew. The centre block is, in form, a simple parallelogram ; but the lateral blocks are in their general figure in the shape of trapezoids. The partition or subdivision of these blocks, radiating to one common centre, gives to the back of each pew, as they approach towards the pulpit, a position at right angles with it; so that each pew is facing the pulpit in a proportional ratio as it approaches the speaker, increasing naturally in length as well as in value. The desirable properties of this arrangement of the pews has met with general approbation, together with the inclined plane of the floor, capping of the pews, height of the pulpit, gallery, and general proportion of the rooms : the whole have been successfully studied to promote the most important objects of the edifice, those of hearing and seeing to the best advantage.--The terminating outline of the pews fext to the pulpit, by this plan, is in figure corresponding with the lines of the pulpit, affording an appropriate space and form for the accommodation of the communion table and at the same time forming convenient passes to the rear doors. The pulpit, by most persons, is thought to be happily placed, both in its plan and height, as it commands a perfect view of every part of the room and is of a just distance between the gallery and principal floor. The gallery, although unusually large and projecting, bears a good proportion to the general size of the It contains 80 pews of six per
sons each. The church room is 71 by 85 exclusive of bows at either
John Haviland, Architect.
John Struthers, Stone-cutter. The cost of the building when completed, will not exceed 45,000 dollars.
The Exterior. The elevation of the principal front facing the north is 77 feet in breadth; composed of a portico in the Herastyle of the Grecian Ionic order, taken from the Ionic Temple on the river Ilyssus at Athens,* and elevated on a basement 8 feet high. The
Nicholson in his principles of architecture, vol. 3, p. 84, in speaking of the beauties of this example observes, that “the simplicity and greatness of the parts, their judicious arrangement, the beautiful turning of the volutes, and the graceful curve of the hem banging between them, renders this one of the most beautiful and bold examples of this order.
The elegant base of the column, the grand proportion of the entablature, the massy mouldings of the cornice, and the spacious surface of the frize, well adapted for sculptured ornaments, and the architecture for its strength, as it is not broken into two or more faces, are considerations which should recommend the example,
columps are 44 inches in diameter, and 29 feet 6 inches in height; entablature 7 feet 6 inches. The pediment is 16 feet, which measures precisely one-fifth of its span. The whole height of portico to the apex of the roof is 61 feet, surmounted by a cupola 15 feet in diameter and 45 feet high, making the extreme height to the top of the vane 106 feet. The whole of this portico is composed of wood. The most perishable part of it is executed of red and white cedar, and secured from the weather by several coats of paint and sand used in the process of giving them the general appearance of stone in character with the other external surface of the building. The size of the lot on which this building stands, was unfortunately too small to admit of the introduction of one of the most beautiful features in a portico; i. e. that of the steps in front of the columns. The front was also too wide to give the intercolumniation the most desired proportion termed custyle.
The material that covers the roof prevented the architect from giving that pleasing angle to the pediment which he originally designed.* Although we have some authority to support the height of the one here erected; yet, we confess it does not accord with our own taste. From the nature of the plan, windows and doors in the front were also unavoidable. These, together with the cupola and other features of this edifice, are objectionable to the man of taste, who looks for a classic specimen of Grecian architecture; a model of the Athenian Temple, with all its beautiful simplicity and grandeur. But in justice to the architect, who, had no controul, where beauty might interfere with utility, it must be acknowledged that the general features of the building are excellent; the boldness of the parts in detail well made out and in good taste ; these with the advantage of situation and the lightness and interest given to the whole by the colouring in imitation of marble have a pleasing and imposing effect, to the passenger in Walnut street, who views it as a picture of some interest, beautifully relieved by the trees of the square.
Art. IX.- The Pleasures of Friendship. A Poem. By James
M'Henry. In two parts. Pp 72. Pittsburgh. 1822." We owe an apology to the author of this very pleasing poem, for having kept his musc in attendance a much longer time than we would willingly appear to neglect any work, whose tendency is so highly moral. Several circumstances have contributed to retard the expression of that approbation which we now most cordially pronounce. The lovers of verse will find in the “Plea
The most beautiful proportion for a pediment according to Daviler is that where its height is about one fifth of the length of its base, vid. Nichol son's Arola. Dic.
sures of Friendship,” pure and pious sentiments conveyed in correct and easy measure. We shall take a few specimens at random. They are not, perhaps, better than the general strain of the poem, which we think is sufficiently meritorious to entitle the author to praise and patronage.
We understand Dr. M'Henry is about to publish a poetical tale, founded on some incidents connected with the American revolution. That period of noble daring, and generous self-abandonment, is full of rich materials for the novelist and the poet, The author of the Spy has already obtained a respectable rank among the writers of fiction, by his embellishment of one small theatre of the many over which the American eagle spread her towering wings. America has had her historians and her biographers. The muse shall yet sing the glories of her cabinet and her banner; and fancy shall yet dwell upon that patriot glow which spread from the fireside to the field.
The Pleasures of Friendship opens with some general reflections on the blessings of friendship to human life, and thus sums up their value:
Thus Friendship bids the days of childhood smile,
Friendship! to thee, unsullied joys belong,
Stem of delight! endearing is thy power,
And say, when age with retrospective view,