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23. Spiritus Sanctus a Patre et Filio: non factus, nec creatus, nec genitus: sed procedens.

24. Unus ergo Pater, non tres patres: unus Filius, non tres filii: unus Spiritus Sanctus, non tres spiritus sancti.

25. Et in hac Trinitate nihil prius,aut posterius: nihil majus, aut minus.

26. Sed totæ tres personæ coœternæ sibi sunt, et coæquales.

27. Ita, ut per omnia, sicut jam supra dictum est: et Unitas in Trinitate, et Trinitas in Unitate, venerenda sit.

28. Qui vult ergo salvus esse, ita de Trinitate sentiat.

29. Sed necessarium est ad æternam salutem: ut incarnationem quoque Domini nostri Jesu Christi fideliter credat.

30. Est ergo fides recta, ut credamus, et confiteamur: quod Dominus noster Jesus Christus Dei

Filius, Deus [pariter] et homo est;

31. Deus [est] ex substantia Patris, ante secula genitus: et homo ex substantia matris, in seculo natus.

23. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son: neither made, nor created, nor begotten: but proceeding.

24. So there is one Father, not three Fathers: one Son, not three Sons: one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts.

25. And in this Trinity none is afore, or after another: none is greater, or less than another [there is nothing before, or after: nothing greater or less].

26. But the whole three Persons are coeternal, and coequal.

27. So that in all things, as aforesaid: the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, is to be worshiped.

28. He therefore that will be saved, must [let him] thus think of the Trinity.

29. Furthermore it is necessary to everlasting salvation: that he also believe rightly [faithfully] the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

30. For the right Faith is, that we believe and confess: that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man;

31. God, of the Substance [Essence] of the Father; begotten before the worlds: and Man, of the Substance [Essence] of his Mother, born in the world.

32. Perfectus Deus: perfectus homo, ex anima rationali et humana carne subsistens.

33. Aequalis Patri secundum divinitatem: minor Patre secundum humanitatem.

34. Qui licet Deus sit et homo; non duo tamen, sed unus est Chris


35. Unus autem, non conversione divinitatis in carnem: sed assumptione humanitatis in De


36. Unus omnino; non confusione substantiæ: sed unitate per


37. Nam sicut anima rationalis et caro unus est homo: ita Deus et homo unus est Christus.

38. Qui passus est pro nostra salute: descendit ad inferos: tertia die resurrexit a mortuis.

39. Ascendit ad [in] cælos: sedet ad dexteram [Dei] Patris [omnipotentis].

40. Inde venturus [est] judicare vivos et mortuos.

41. Ad cujus adventum omnes homines resurgere habent cum corporibus suis;

42. Et reddituri sunt de factis propriis rationem.

32. Perfect God: and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting.

33. Equal to the Father, as touching his Godhead: and inferior to the Father as touching his Manhood.

34. Who although he be [is] God and Man; yet he is not two, but one Christ.

35. One; not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh: but by taking [assumption] of the Manhood into God.

36. One altogether; not by confusion of Substance [Essence]: but by unity of Person.

37. For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man: so God and Man is one Christ;

38. Who suffered for our salvation: descended into hell [Hades, spirit-world]: rose again the third day from the dead.

39. He ascended into heaven, he sitteth on the right hand of the Father God [God the Father] Almighty.

40. From whence [thence] he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

41. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies;

42. And shall give account for their own works.

43. Et qui bona egerunt, ibunt in vitam æternam: qui vero mala, in ignem æternum.

44. Hæc est fides catholica: quam nisi quisque fideliter firmiterque crediderit, salvus esse non pote


43. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting: and they that have done evil, into everlasting fire.

44. This is the Catholic Faith: which except a man believe faithfully [truly and firmly], he can not be saved.


1 The LATIN text of the oldest known MS. in the Utrecht Psalter has been reproduced by Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy in his Report (London, 1873), and in the fac-simile ed. of the Utrecht Psalter (1875). It agrees nearly altogether with the text given above, but has a number of inaccuracies. I have compared also the texts of Waterland (Works, Vol. III. pp. 221 sqq.), Usher (De Romanæ Eccles. Symbolo Apost. vetere, 1647, Genev. ed. 1722, pp. 13-15), Montfaucon (in his ed. of Athanasius, Tom. II. pp. 719 sqq.), Hahn (pp. 122-125), Lumby (p. 259), and Swainson (p. 204). The numbering of verses differs: Waterland, Montfaucon, and the English Book of Common Prayer have only 40 verses by combining 19 and 20, 25 and 26, 39 and 40, 41 and 42; Walch and others make 44, the Roman Breviary 42. In my Church Hist. Vol. III. pp. 690-695, I have given the parallel passages from the fathers.

2 There is no authorized Greek text of the Athanasian Creed, since it was never adopted in the Oriental Church. There are several translations, which differ considerably. Usher gives a Greek version with many interpolations. Caspari (Vol. III. pp. 263–267) published for the first time two other Greek versions from MSS. in the Venetian Library of St. Mark and the Ambrosian Library of Milan.

'The English translation is that of the sixteenth century (1548), as found in the English editions of the Book of Common Prayer, and still in use in the public service of the Church of England. My emendations are inclosed in brackets. The punctuation is adjusted to the liturgical use of this Creed.

Ver. 1.-Some copies read opus habet for opus est. Usher: τὴν ὀρθόδοξον πίστιν, orthodoxam fidem. The MS. in the Utrecht Psalter begins with a grammatical blunder: 'Incipit fides catholicam.'

Ver. 2.-On the damnatory clause, which is twice repeated, ver. 28 and ver. 44, see the Introduction, pp. 39, 41. Some MSS. read inviolabilemque; some omit absque dubio.

Ver. 3.-Usher: Orthodoxa for catholica. Compare on this verse Gregory Naz., Orat. xxiii. : μονάδα ἐν τριάδι, καὶ τριάδα ἐν μονάδι προσκυνουμένην.

Ver. 4.-Person in the sense of persona, πρóσwжоv (also vπóσrasic in the post-Nicene use of the term), i. e., character, face, manifestation, subsistence. It must not be confounded with essence or being (essentia, substantia, natura, ovoia, pious). God is one in essence, three in persons (Deus est trinus, h. e. in essentia unus, tres habet subsistendi modos). In modern philosophical usage the term person means a separate and distinct rational individual. But the tripersonality of God is not a numerical or essential trinity of three beings (like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob), for this would be tritheism; nor is it, on the other hand, merely a threefold aspect and mode of manifestation, in the Sabellian or Swedenborgian sense; but it is a real, objective, and eternal, though ineffable, distinction in the one Divine being, with a corresponding threefold revelation of this being in the works of creation, redemption, and sanctification. 1 Swedenborg was willing to adopt the Athanasian Creed if a trinity of (the one Divine) person was substituted for a trinity of persons. According to him, the Father is the Essential Divinity, the Son the Divine Humanity, the Holy Spirit the Divine Proceeding or Operation.

Hence the distinction between the immanent, intrinsic (or ontological) trinity and the extrinsic (or œconomical) trinity; in other words, between the trinity of essence and the trinity of manifestation.

Ver. 4.-The Latin substantia (that which stands under) and essentia correspond to the Greek ovoia, as distinct from рóσwжоv. But in modern English, substance is used mostly in the sense of matter, body, or the most important part, summary. Hence essence or being is preferable. Hypostasis (vπóoraris, foundation, groundwork, substratum, substantia) was originally used in the same sense as ovoia, but afterwards it became identical with prosopon, persona.

Ver. 6.-Usher reads after divinitas: 'Unum robur, una potestas, unum regnum' (an interpolation of the Greeks).

Ver. 9.-Incomprehensible is a false translation, unless it be taken in the unusual sense, 'not to be comprehended within any bounds.' The Anglican translator of 1548 perhaps followed a Greek copy (of 1533) which renders immensus by áкaráλŋíтоç. But other Greek copies read ἄπειρος or ἄμετρος instead. Usher's Greek text has παντοκράτωρ, omnipotent. The Latin immensus means, what can not be circumscribed or limited by any boundaries, what is illocal, omnipresent. Fortunatus explains the word: 'Non est mensurabilis in sua natura, quia illocalis est, incircumscriptus, ubique totus, ubique præsens, ubique potens.' The author of the Athanasian Creed glories in the clear revelation and statement of the mystery of the Trinity rather than in the mystery itself. The Utrecht Psalter reads inmensus.

Ver. 20.-Waterland omits tres before Dominos. Usher reads for prohibemur: 'Non comprobamus, sed omnino prohibemus.'

Ver. 21.-Usher: sed ingenitus for nec genitus.

Ver. 23.-The Greek translation and the Latin text in Usher omit et Filio, which is contrary to the Greek doctrine of the single procession. Most Greek copies read only ȧò TOυ πατρός.

Ver. 25.-Usher: nullus primus aut postremus, nullus major aut minor, ovdεis πρm̃τos ǹ ἔσχατος, οὐδεὶς μέγας ἢ μικρός.

Ver. 29.-Fideliter is variously rendered in the Greek copies by оρtйç, пiorмç, ßeßaiwc. Ver. 30.-Utrecht Psalter reads quia for quod, and omits pariter.

Ver. 31.-Usher's Greek text inserts here a long interpolation, which is not at all in keeping with the sententious character of the symbol.

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Ver. 38. After passus est a Greek version adds the anti-patripassian clause: άπa‡ous tūs Jeórηtos μevovanç, impassibili manente divinitate.

Ver. 38. Some MSS. read ad infernos or ad inferna. Usher's enlarged Greek copy omits the clause, and reads raptiç kai ȧvaorág. The Utrecht Psalter reads et qui for qui vero. Ver. 43.-Usher: ɛiç aiwviovç koλáσɛıç, ad cruciatus eternos.

Ver. 44. The Greek copies read either πιστῶς alone, or πιστῶς τε καὶ βεβαίως, οι ἐκ πίστεως βεβαίως πιστεύση.

Vol. II.-F



Review of the Dogmatic Legislation of the Seven Ecumenical Councils.

The NICENO-CONSTANTINOPOLITAN Creed, and the Creed of CHALCEDON, both of which we have given in full, embrace the sum and substance of the dogmatic legislation of the œcumenical Councils of the undivided ancient or Græco-Latin Church. All the rest is merely explanatory and supplementary, or disputed.

The SIXTH ECUMENICAL (or THIRD CONSTANTINOPOLITAN) COUNCIL (also called Conc. Trullanum I.), held`A.D. 680, in consequence of the Monothelite or One-Will Controversy (633–680), enlarged the Creed of Chalcedon, notwithstanding the solemn prohibition of the Council of Chalcedon (see p. 16), by adding a öpoç, or dogmatic definition to the effect that Jesus Christ had two distinct and inseparable wills (Jeλýμara), as well as two natures, a human will and a divine will, working in harmony, the human in subordination to the divine; the will being regarded as an attribute of nature rather than person. See Actio XVIII. in Mansi, Conc., Tom. XI. pp. 637 sqq. After quoting the Symbol of Chalcedon down to the words Tapacedwкε σúμßʊλov (see p. 15), the Synod goes on, without interruption, as follows: Καὶ δύο φυσικὰς θελήσεις ἤτοι θε- | Et duas naturales voluntates in eo λήματα ἐν αὐτῷ [Ιησ. Χριστῷ] και [Jesu Christo], et duas naturales Súo puoiкaç Evεpyεíaç adiαipéтws, operationes indivise, inconvertibiἀτρέπτως, ἀμερίστως, ἀσυγχύτως, liter, inseparabiliter, inconfuse seκατὰ τὴν τῶν ἁγίων πατέρων διδα- cundum sanctorum patrum doctriσκαλίαν ὡσαύτως κηρύττομεν· καὶ δύο nam adæque prædicamus; et duμὲν φυσικὰ θελήματα οὐχ ὑπεναντία, as naturales voluntates non conμὴ γένοιτο, καθὼς οἱ ἀσεβεῖς ἔφησαν trarias, absit, juxta quod impii αἱρετικοί, ἀλλ ̓ ἑπόμενον τὸ ἀνθρώπι- asseruerunt hæretici, sed sequenνον αὐτοῦ θέλημα, καὶ μὴ ἀντιπίπτον tem ejus humanam voluntatem, ἢ ἀντιπαιλαῖον, μᾶλλον μὲν οὖν καὶ et non resistentem vel reluctanὑποτασσόμενον τῷ Θείῳ αὐτοῦ καὶ πανσθενεῖ θελήματι· ἔδει γὰρ τὸ τῆς σαρκὺς θέλημα κινηθῆναι, ὑποταγῆναι δὲ τῷ θελήματι τῷ Θεϊκῷ κατὰ τὸν πάνσοφον ̓Αθανάσιον.

tem, sed potius et subjectum di vina ejus atque omnipotenti vo luntati. oportebat enim carnis voluntatem moveri, subjici vero voluntati divinæ, juxta sapientissimum Athanasium.

Then follow quotations from John vi. 38, Gregory Nazianzen, Pope Leo (Ep. ad Flavianum, c. 4), Cyril of Alexandria, and a repetition of the Ephesian and Chalcedonian prohibition to set forth any new symbol of faith on pain of excommunication. Pope Agatho, by a dogmatic

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