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OLD CATHOLIC AGREEMENT ON THE FILIOQUE CONTROVERSY. 553

1. Der heilige Geist geht aus aus rem Sater (ἐκ τοῦ Πατρός) als bcm Anfang (apxú), der Ursache (airía), der Quelle (anyń) der Gottheit.?

2. Der heilige Geist geht nicht aus aus rem obne (ἐκ τοῦ Υἱοῦ), weit es in der Gottheit nur Einen Anfang (apx"), Eine Ursache (airía) gibt, durch welche alles, was in der Gottheit ist, hervorgebracht wird.3

3. Der heilige Geist geht aus aus dem Vater durch den Sohn.*

4. Der heilige Geist ist das Bild des Sohnes, des Bildes des Vaters,5 aus dem Vater ausgehend und im Sohne ruhend als dessen ausstrable ense Straft.

1. The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father as the beginning, the cause, the fountain of the Godhead.2

2. The Holy Spirit proceeds not from the Son, because in the Godhead there is only one beginning, one cause, by which all that is in the Godhead is produced.3

3. The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son.*

4. The Holy Spirit is the image of the Son (as the Son is the image of the Father), proceeding from the Father, and resting in the Son as the power shining forth from him.o

5. The Holy Spirit is the personal production out of the Father, belonging to the Son, but not out of the Son, because he is the Spirit of

5. Der heilige Geist ist die persönliche Hervorbringung aus dem Vater, dem Sohne angehörig, aber nicht aus dem Sohne, weil er der Geist des Mundes der Gottheit ist, welcher das the mouth of the Godhead which Wort ausspricht.?

pronounces the Word."

1 [Lit., goes jorth out of the Father. The N. T., in John xv. 26, uses παρά, from; the Nicene Creed, ἐκ, out of which, however, is implied in the compound verb ἐκπορεύεται.] * De recta sententia, n. 1; Contra Manich, n. 4.

* De fide orthod. I. 8: ἐκ τοῦ Υἱοῦ δὲ τὸ Πνεῦμα οὐ λέγομεν, Πνεῦμα δὲ Υἱοῦ ὀνομάζομεν. * De fide orthod. I. 12: τὸ δὲ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον ἐκφαντορικὴ τοῦ κρυφίου τῆς θεότητος δύναμις τοῦ Πατρὸς, ἐκ Πατρὸς μὲν δι' Υἱοῦ ἐκπορευομένη. Ibidem: Υἱοῦ δὲ Πνεῦμα οὐχ ὡς ἐξ αὐτοῦ, ἀλλ' ὡς δι' αὐτοῦ ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον. C. Manich. n. 5 : διὰ τοῦ Λόγου αὐτοῦ ἐξ αὐτοῦ τὸ Πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ἐκπορευόμενον. De hymno Trisag. n. 28: Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς διὰ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ Λόγου προϊόν. Hom. in Sabb. s. n. 4 : τοῦτ' ἡμῖν ἐστι τὸ λατρευόμενον . . . Πνεῦμα ἅγιον τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ Πατρὸς, ὡς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἐκπορευόμενον, ὅπερ καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ λέγεται, ὡς δι' αὐτοῦ φανερούμενον καὶ τῇ κτίσει μεταδιδόμενον, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἔχον τὴν ὕπαρξιν.

...

* De fide orthod. I. 13: εἰκὼν τοῦ Πατρὸς ὁ Υἱὸς, καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ τὸ Πνεῦμα.

• De fide orthod. I. 7: τοῦ Πατρὸς προερχομένην καὶ ἐν τῷ λόγῳ ἀναπαυομένην καὶ αὐτοῦ οὖσαν ἐκφαντικὴν δύναμιν. Ibidem, I. 12: Πατήρ . . . διὰ Λόγου προβολεὺς ἐκφαντορικοῦ Πνεύματος.

...

* De hymno Trisag. n. 28: τὸ Πνεῦμα ἐνυπόστατον ἐκπόρευμα καὶ πρόβλημα ἐκ Πατρὸς μὲν, Υἱοῦ δὲ, καὶ μὴ ἐξ Υἱοῦ, ὡς Πνεῦμα στόματος Θεοῦ, Λόγου ἐξαγγελτικόν.

6. Der heilige Geist bildet die 6. The Holy Spirit forms the Vermittlung zwischen dem Vater und mediation between the Father and dem Sohne und ist durch den Sohn the Son, and is, through the Son, mit dem Vater verbunden.1 united with the Father.'

NOTES.

1. The Filioque controversy, which is now a thousand years old, refers only to the metaphysical question of the eternal procession (ékπópevσic) of the Holy Spirit (John xv. 26); the Greek Church, in the interest of the monarchia of the Father, maintains the single procession from the Father alone; the Latin Church, since Augustine, in the interest of the homoousia of the Son, the double procession from the Father and the Son. About the temporal mission (c) of the Spirit from the Father and the Son (John xiv. 26; xv. 26; xvi. 7), and the practical question of the work of the Spirit in the regeneration and sanctification of believers, there has been no controversy between the Greek and Latin Churches. See Vol. I. p. 26. 2. JOHN OF DAMASCUS, or JOANNES DAMASCENUS (surnamed CHRYSORRHOAS, gold-pouring; also called by the Arabs MANSUR, i. e., λ‹λvrowμévoç), born at Damascus (then under Saracen rule), monk in the convent of St. Sabas near Jerusalem, died after 754, is the last of the Greek fathers, and the greatest and most authoritative of the divines of the Oriental Church. He may be called the Thomas Aquinas of the East. Inferior in productive genius and originality to Origen, Athanasius, Gregory Nazianzen, and Gregory of Nyssa, he is more comprehensive in his range of teaching, and more uniformly orthodox in his dogmatic statements. His chief work is his ‘Exposition of the Orthodox Faith (έκδοσις ἀκριβὴς τῆς ὀρθοδόξου TiOTEwC), which sums up under a hundred heads the results of the theological labors of the Greek fathers and councils down to the seventh century. It was the first complete system of divinity, and by the use of Aristotelian dialectics ushered in the scholastic period. He distinguished himself also by his hymns, and by his eloquent defense of images against the iconoclasts, for which he was highly lauded by the second Council of Nicæa (787). The best edition of his works has been issued by Le Quien, Paris, 1712, two vols. folio, reproduced in Migne's Patrologia Græca, Vols. XCIV.-XCVI., Paris, 1857.

3. After reading this agreement, the aged Dr. Döllinger, who is the head of these Union conferences, added the following hopeful remarks: 'So far then are we agreed, and the theologians know that the question of the Holy Spirit is herewith properly exhausted. A dogmatic conflict concerning this question no longer exists between us. May God grant that what we have here adjusted be received by the Churches of the East in the spirit of peace and discrimination between dogma and theological opinion. What we have accomplished furnishes a new ground of hope that our efforts are blessed by God, and that we shall succeed still further; while the history of former union transactions makes the impression that God's blessing did not rest on them. I think it no presumption to believe that here we perceive the blessing of God, there the absence of his blessing (Gottes Unsegen). Let us remember how much deception and fraud, what a tissue of falsifications, how much ambitious violence were employed at the Councils of Lyons and Florence, how both parties were always conscious of aiming at something else than agreement in the great truths of the Christian faith. I hope we shall be able to continue these international conferences next year. What a joy, if then the Orientals bring the glad tidings-Our Bishops, Synods, and Churches have approved our agreement.'

1

De fide orthod, I. 13: μέσον τοῦ ἀγεννήτου καὶ γεννητοῦ καὶ δι' Υἱοῦ τῷ Πατρὶ συναπ τόμενον.

INDEX TO VOL. II.

A.

Catechism, Larger, of Eastern Church, 446.
Celibacy, 197, 230.

Absolution, sacerdotal, 105, 141, 143, 151, Chalcedon, Statement of, 62.

167, 387.

Adam's sin, 85, 301.

Adultery, 196.

Almsgiving, 371, 344, 391, 433.
Amusements forbidden, 373.
Anathema, power of, 238.

Angels: functions, 294; classes, 297; guard-
ian, 463; intercession of and prayers to,
295, 409, 435.

Antichrist, 481.

Apocrypha. See Scriptures.

Apollinarianism condemned, 36, 62, 64, 69.
Apostles' Creed, 45.

Cherubim, 297.

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Church and State, 220, 223, 226; separation
of, 227.

Clergy, seven orders of, 187.

Apostolical constitutions, 39; succession, 263, Comparative Table of Creeds, 40.

411, 412.

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Concordats, 223.

Concupiscence versus Sin, 88.

Confession: of Dositheus, 401; of Nathaniel,
4; orthodox, 213; of Peter, 4; of Thomas,
4.
Confession to priest, 139, 147, 166, 368, 391,
549.

Confirmation, 125, 378, 421, 494.
Constantinople (iii.), Creed of, 72.
Consubstantiality of Son, 33, 36, 57, 66, 287,
312, 401; of Spirit, 57, 66, 287, 348.
Contrition. See Repentance.
Councils, authority of, 265, 277, 364, 451; of
Ephesus, 73; of Florence, 262, 267; of
Lyons, 267; œcumenical, iii., 73; v., 73;
vi., 72.

Courts, ecclesiastical, 220.

Creation, 239, 280, 293, 300, 406, 463.
Creationism, 308.

Creed: definition, 456; Apostles', 45; of
Cæsarea, 61; Comparative Table, 40; of
Constantinople, 72; of Arius, 28, 61;
Athanasian, 66; of Chalcedon, 62; of Je-
rusalem, 61; Nicene, 57.

Cross, sign of, 332, 493 (see Images); adora-
tion of, 436.

Crucifixion, 324.

Cup denied, 175; water and wine, 182.
Cyprian, 20.

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James, Bishop of Jerusalem, 413.

Jerusalem, Creed of, 61; Church of, 361;
Synod, decrees of, 401.

Eucharist, 126, 136, 380, 421, 427, 495; adora- Jesus, 313, 466.

tion of, 132, 137, 430.

Eusebius of Cæsarea, 29.

Eutychianism condemned, 62, 65, 69.

John, baptism of, 122, 491.

John of Damascus, quoted, 291, 294, 305, 319,
330, 383, 413, 498, 552, etc.

Extreme Unction, 159, 169, 394, 414, 421, 502. Judgment, last, 69, 338, 479.

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Fasting and fast days, 365, 370, 391, 441, Knowledge versus Faith, 446.

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Military service, clerical immunity from, 221. | Revelation, 214, 241, 252, 446.

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Pelagianism, 73, 92, 111.

Penance, 105, 113, 116, 390, 421, 500.

Perseverance of Saints, 103, 114, 115.
Peter, Confession of, 4. (See under Pope.)
Polygamy prohibited, 195.
Pope, primacy of the, 209, 258, 260, 363, 410;
functions of the, 220, 231, 263; authority
of the, 209, 265, 269; infallibility of the,
266, 270; gives new doctrines, 269.
Prayer, 369, 506; Lord's, 508.
Predestination, 103, 305, 310, 403, 464.
Primitive State, 84, 301, 419.
Prophecies, 454.

Protestantism denounced, 217.

Providence, 310, 406, 465.

Public Schools, 224.

Purgatory, 117, 198, 345.

R.

Rationalism condemned, 215.

Relics, 200, 435-38, 527.

Repentance, 144, 389, 390.

Reprobation. See Predestination.

Resurrection of Christ, 333, 477; of the
body, 48, 69, 396, 503; of the flesh, 47,
49, 50.

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Science and Christianity, 247, 255.
Scriptures, 80, 241, 253, 373, 402, 448, 546;
interpretation of, 242, 245, 402, 434, 449,
454; limited use of, 433, 454; translation
of, 80, 241, 546.

Second Coming, 337, 479.

Seven Orders, 187. See Ordination.
Sin, Original, 84, 304, 407.

Sirach, book of, quoted, 285, 302.

Societies, Bible and Secret, 218.
Soul, origin of, 308.
Subordinationism, 25.

Supererogation, works of, 547.
Syllabus of Errors, 213.
Synergism. See Pelagianism.

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THE END OF VOL. II.

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