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columns; behind it is the Market Place, remarkably clean and convenient, and which is well supplied on Wednesday and Saturday. A small but neat Theatre was built in 1808, and a handsome chapel, on the London road, in 1812.

The inhabitants of Gravesend are principally engaged in employments connected with maritime affairs. A manufactory of ropes and cables is established, and there is a yard for ship-building, in which several men of war and frigates have been constructed. Many smacks are employed in the cod and turbot fishery; extensive lime and brick works are carried on; and from all these causes the town presents a most busy and animated scene. The population of Gravesend, in 1821, was 3814, and of Milton, 2769. The latter place contains nothiug remarkable; its Church, situated near the high road to Rochester, is an ancient structure, with a square tower, and has recently been repaired. Near Gravesend is a small battery of sixteen guns, intended, in conjunction with Tilbury Fort, to command the passage of the river.

GREENHITHE, a hamlet on the Thames, three miles from Dartford, is noted for the vast quantities of lime and chalk shipped from thence to London and other places, for building or agricultural purposes. Curious fossils are often found, imbedded in the chalk; and the flints with which it is also intermixed are much esteemed in the Staffordshire potteries, and are sometimes sent even to China.

GREENWICH. This fine town is five miles from London, and its origin is ancient, although the earliest event recorded in its history is the murder of Archbishop Alphage by the Danish invaders in 1012. On the spot where he is said to have expired, a Church was afterwards erected, and dedicated to him, and the present edifice still bears his name. It is an elegant stone fabric, erected in 1718, of the Grecian order, and forms a fine object from the upper end of Nelson Street, a handsome avenue just completed, leading to the Royal Hospital. To accommodate the increasing population, a new Church has been lately erected, near the entrance to the Park; it is a neat but plain structure,

built of a light-coloured brick, with a small tower, and its interior is very handsomely finished.

In addition to its churches, Greenwich contains several Dissenting chapels, two Colleges, one called Queen Elizabeth's, founded by William Lambard, the historian of this county, in 1575, for the reception of poor and infirm persons; the second, called Norfolk College, founded by Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton, for a similar purpose, in the chapel of which is a very fine monument of the founder; several Alms-houses; four Charity Schools for poor children; a small Theatre; and a Market, held on Wednesday and Saturday, the tolls of which belong to the Hospital, by gift from the Earl of Romney. The streets, though irregularly built, contain many respectable mansions and elegant shops ; and the improvements lately made, and now in progress, evince a spirit and taste in the inhabitants worthy of imitation in quarters where much greater pretensions are advanced.

The manor of Greenwich was appropriated by William I. to himself and his successors, and it has been ever since attached to the crown. Edward I. is said to have resided here; but the Palace, called Placentia from its pleasant situation, was built by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, in 1433. Edward IV. enlarged and improved it; and it became the favourite residence of the sovereigns of the house of Tudor. Here Henry VIII. was born, as were his daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, the latter of whom resided frequently here, as also did her successors, until the period of the Civil War, when the palace was almost destroyed. Charles II. determined to rebuild it, and one wing of the intended edifice was completed, when his death suspended the further prosecution of the design; some years afterwards the building was resumed, and converted to its present noble use.

One of the principal attractions of Greenwich is its PARK, which was enlarged, planted, and walled round by Charles II., who also erected the Observatory, for the use of the celebrated Flamstead, whose name it still retains. This building, which has lately undergone a complete reparation, is furnished with a matchless collection of instruments, and a valuable library; and from its meridian all English astronomers make their calculations of distances.

The Park is well stocked with deer, and, for its size, affords as much variety as any one in the kingdom. The views from the Observatory and One. Tree Hill are beautiful beyond conception. The rise of these hills is so abrupt, and their projection so bold, that the spectator does not look down upon a gradual slope or a flat enclosure, but the eye glances at once upon the tops of widely-spreading trees, growing in clumps, amidst deep hollows and shady dells. A thousand natural breaks among their branches display picturesque portions of the noble river, which, if gilded by the sunbeams, have an effect surpassing the power of description. A little further the view rests upon the splendid pile which the gratitude of Britain has consecrated to the comfort of her heroic defenders; then the Thames, crowded with shipping, and making that beautiful curve which forms the Isle of Dogs, attracts the eye; which is finally arrested by the majestic dome of St. Paul's, the beautiful towers of Westminster Abbey, and the thousand spires and pinnacles of the Great City.


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which may be considered as a kind of preparatory school to the Royal Hospital, is situated between that building and the Park. The centre of this elegant edifice is what was formerly called Pelham House, to which two wings have been added, each connected with the main building by a handsome colonnade. This structure is a noble accompani

ment to the College; and, like it, is calculated to inspire the British seaman (if that be possible) with additional zeal in the defence of his native land; for while he looks forward to the latter as a secure har. bour for himself, when time or wounds shall have disabled him from pursuing his career of glory, his cares are relieved by the knowledge that if death should cut short that career, his orphan children will in the former be received and protected by his grateful country. This institution was destined to receive 3000 children of seamen ; but is not now on so extended a scale as was at first intended. The little inmates are provided with every necessary, and re. ceive such an education as may render them useful members of society. At a proper age the boys are sent to sea, or, if they dislike a naval life, apprenticed to some trade; and the girls are apprenticed, or placed as servants in respectable families. The situation is delightful, the play-grounds extensive, and the appearance and manners of the children afford the best proof of the care which is bestowed on their comfort and improvement.

We have now to describe the grand object of attention to every visitor of Greenwich, “ the observed of all observers,”-the Royal HospITAL.

This institution was founded in 1694 by William and Mary, for the reception of 300 aged and maimed seamen, who were to be here maintained, lodged, and clothed. The king, most laudably anxious for the success of this noble design, desired the assistance of his subjects in carrying it on, as the war in which he was then engaged, did not permit his appropri. ating so considerable a sum towards it as he desired. His appeal was answered with truly British generosity, and the tablets suspended at the entrance of the Hall, record donations to the amount of nearly £60,000, received from private individuals. After the rebellion in 1715, the forfeited estates of the Earl of Derwentwater, amounting to £6000 per annum, were voted by Parliament to this Hospital; many subsequent benefactions have been received ; and it is now enabled to provide for 3000 inmates, and to distribute pensions to nearly 6000 others, who, as vacancies occur, are admitted.

The Hospital, or College, is composed of four



distinct piles of building, called King Charles's, Queen Anne's, King William's, and Queen Mary's. In the front is a grand terrace, 860 feet in length; and the great square, between King Charles's and Queen Anne's buildings, which are next the river, and 273 feet apart, has a fine statue of George II. sculptured by Rysbrach, from a block of white marble, weighing eleven tons, taken out of a French ship. by Sir George Rooke.

King Charles's building, on the west of the great square, is of Portland stone, of noble architecture, and contains the apartments of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and other officers; the Councilroom, in which are many fine portraits; and 14 wards for the pensioners.

Queen Anne's, the opposite building, is of correspondent architecture, and is occupied by apartments for various officers, and 24 wards.

King William's, the western of the two southern piles, contains the Great Hall, 106 feet long, 56 wide, and 50 high, with its Vestibule and Saloon, all of which are painted in a most splendid style by Sir James Thornhill, who received £6,685 for the work, which he commenced in 1708, and completed in 1727. The cupola of the Vestibule is adorned with a compass with all its points properly displayed, and in the corners allegorical figures of the winds, &c. Over the door are the tablets containing Lists of Donations before-mentioned; among them are William III. who gave £19,500; Queen Anne £6472; Robert Osbaldeston, Esq. £40,000, with his unexpired grant of the North and South Foreland Lighthouses, of which the Hospital has since obtained a renewal ; Sir J. Cropley, Mr. Evelyn, and Mr. de la Fontain, each £2000; these tablets are accompanied by emblematical figures, intimating that the sums received are devoted to Charity.

The Saloon has a beautiful ceiling, on which are the portraits of William and Mary, accompanied by the cardinal virtues, &c.

The Upper Hall, to which we next ascend, is adorned both on the ceiling and the walls with magnificent paintings; in the centre of the former are Queen Anne and her husband Prince George of Denmark, surrounded by various emblematical figures ;

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