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of a Gateway, of pointed architecture, now imperfect; a small Tower at the south-east angle; a considerable portion of the walls; and the Keep, which is of a circular form, and is placed on a hill, 300 yards in circumference, which is enclosed by the walls of the Base-court. The Keep is divided into three wards, each surrounded by a wall; the outer one is 104 feet in height above the base; the second is considerably higher, and 12 feet thick; and the third is 32 feet high, enclosing the summit of the bill, and being divided into two apartments, which are now iu so ruinous a state, that their form and dimensions cannot easily be determined. Within the area of the Base-court formerly stood the Assize Hall, a Chapel, and the County Gaol, with some other buildings, the whole of which have been pulled down, with the exception of the Gaol, which still remains, near the bottom of the hill.
As early as the reign of Edward III this Castle appears to have been partially dilapidated; a portion of it was, however, of sufficient strength to be garrisoned for the King during the Civil War in the seventeenth century, and was one of the last fortresses possessed by the royal party in this county. After the Restoration it was bestowed on Sir Hugh Pyper, and is now the property of the Duke of Northumberland.
LISKEARD Is a large and populous town, situated partly on some rocky eminences, and partly in a valley, 224 miles from London, and about 16 miles from Plymouth. It had formerly a Castle, not a vestige of which now remains, but the site is still called Castle Hill. In 1240 this town was endowed with the privileges of a free borough by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and it has since that time been distinguished by the grant of several valuable immunities. It is one of the Stannary towns,
but no coinage of tin has recently taken place here. Liskeard has returned two Members to Parliament from the reign of Edward I to the present time; and received a Charter from Queen Elizabeth in 1580, vesting its government in a Mayor, Recorder, eight Capital Burgesses, and fifteen Åssistants, who, with the freemen, have the right of electing the Representatives of the borough.
From the inequality of the ground on which it is built, Liskeard has a very singular appearance, the roofs of some houses being on a level with the basement of others. Thc Church, dedicated to St. Martin, is spacious and well built, and has a low embattled tower at the west end; the body of the building is principally of slate-stone, but the tower, and the ornamental pinnacles and battlements on the south side, are of granite. The interior is remarkably neat, and contains, among other monuments, one in memory of Joseph Wadham, Esq. who died in 1707, and is recorded as “the last of that family, whose ancestors founded Wadham College, Oxford.” Meeting-houses, for Independents, Quakers, and Methodists; a Grammar School, and various Charity Schools, are estabJished here.
The Town Hall, built in 1707 at the expense of Mr. Dolben, one of the Representatives, is a handsome structure, supported on granite pillars. The Market-house, recently erected, is spacious and commodious, and the Market, held on Saturday, is amply supplied with provisions: beside the weekly one, three “great Markets” are also held here in the course of the year, and three large cattle Fairs annually.
The population of Liskeard, in 1821, was 2423 persons, many of whom are employed in tanning and shoemaking; a paper mill has also been established.
Near this town a battle was fought in 1643, in which the Parliamentary forces were defeated by Sir Ralph Hopton, who immediately took possession of the town; and in August of the following year the King remained here with his army some days.
Three miles from Liskeard is the village of St. Cleer, which is remarkable for its Church, a spacious and handsome fabric, with a lofty tower, surmounted by four elegant pinnacles. About a mile from hence is St. Cleer's Well, formerly enclosed by four walls, of which the front, overgrown with ivy, with two low arches, alone remains: the “holy spring” forms a large pool, and this was also enclosed, and is believed to have been used as a "bow sening pool*;" near the well is a stone Cross, rudely sculptured.
* Bowsening, as described by Carew, was a remedy for madness only suited to a Cornish constitution: the insane person was placed on the wall surrounding the pool, with his back to the water ; while standing thus, he
The neighbourhood of St. Cleer possesses many objects of interest to the antiquary. Among the most remarkable are the circles of stones called the Hurlers, from the tradition that they were once men, punished in this manner for pursuing the formerly favourite Cornish diversion of hurling, on the Sabbath-day: when perfect the Hurlers consisted of three circles of upright stones, from three to five'feet high, and were most probably of Druidical origin; but many of the stones have been thrown down or removed.
At a short distance eastward is one of the most remarkable objects in the county, called
which is a pile of rugged rocks, standing near the summit of a hill, and rising to the height of 32 feet. The stones which compose it are eight in number, and are piled on each other in the most surprising
was saluted with a violent blow on the breast, which of course threw him backwards into it; before he could recover from the shock, " a strong fellowe, provided for the nonce,” took him and tossed him up and down, 66 alongst and athwart the water,” until the patient, by losing his strength, “ had almost forgot his fury.”—“ Then was he conveyed to the Church, and certaine masses sung over him: upon which handling, if his right wits returned, thanks were given to the patron saint, but if there appeared small amendment, he was bowsened againe and againe while there remained in him any hope of life, for recovery.' VOL. I.
manner; the four upper ones being considerably the heaviest, while the third and fourth are comparatively small; these circumstances have excited the wonder of every visitor, the situation of the pile being much exposed, and its shape seeming ill-calculated to resist, as it has done, the assaults of unnumbered storms during a long succession of ages. The hill on which it stands is about 300 yards in circumference at the summit, which is surrounded by a wall or rampart of small stones. Several other groups, similar in character to the Cheese Wring, are scattered over the hill, in various parts; the whole are of granite, and the scene is one of the most extraordinary that can be witnessed
About a mile and a half from St. Cleer is a large and singular Cromlech, called Trevethy Stone, from a British word signifying " the place of the graves." It stands on a commanding eminence, and consists of six upright stones, covered by one immense slab, 16 feet in length, and 10 in breadth, which rests on five of them.
To the south of Liskeard is St. Keyne's Well, a miraculous spring, in the parish of the same name, whose waters are overshadowed by four trees, and are said, in an old legend, to possess
“ That quality, that man or wife
Whose chance or choice attaines
Thereby the mast'ry gaines.” This worthy Saint is said to have been a British princess; but how she acquired the means of imparting to this Well the extraordinary powers attributed to it, we are unable to ascertain; the tradition, however, has formed the subject of more than one poetical effusion, of which that written by Southey is the most generally known.
LIZARD POINT. This well-known promontory forms the southern extremity of the Island, as well as of the county, its beariugs being 5 deg. 12 min. W. longitude, and 49 deg. 58 min. N. latitude. Its appellation is perhaps derived from its resemblance, when viewed from the sea, to the lengthened form of the animal whose name it bears; or more probably from the British words Lis-ard, signifying a lofty projection. At this point two Lighthouses have been erected, nearly abreast of each other; the dangerous sunken rocks which beset this coast, however, too often prove fatal to the navigator, in spite of their friendly warning; and from the steep and rugged nature of the eliffs, no assistance can be afforded to the unhappy mariners, who often perish in the sight of numerous spectators, and within a stone's throw of the land.
About a mile north-west of the Lizard is Kynance Cove, the descent; to which is overhung by awful crags, and is exceedingly steep. The Cove itself is formed by an assemblage of immense rocks, of a dark red colour, which, from the constant friction of the waves, exhibit a beautiful polish, and in one part are so disposed as to form a fine arched grotto of considerable extent. Another rock has a deep chasm, through which the sea rushes, in certain states of the tide, like a water-spout; this is preceded by a loud rumbling sound, resembling thunder, and is called the Devil's Bellows.
To the east of the Lizárd Point is Landewednack, a small village, with an ancient Church, containing a curious Font: near this is the neat fishing hamlet of Cadywith, in the vicinity of which is an extraordinary excavation in the cliffs, called the Frying Pan, nearly 200 feet in depth, and of a circular form, into which the sea rushes at high water, through an arch near the bottom, and boils up with a tremendous noise.
The whole of this district affords a most interesting field of study to the geologist, and the lover of patural phenomena; many of the species of stone found here are very uncommon in other parts of the country, and some, as that beautiful kind called Serpentine, are not known to exist elsewhere.
LLANDULPH, a village on the Tamar, at a short distance north of Saltash, is only remarkable for an inscription in its Church, in memory of Theodore Paleologus, who died in 1636, and was a descendant of “ Constantine Paleologus, that rayned in Constantinople until subdued by the Turks." Two miles from hence is the Church of Botus Fleming, a venerable fabric, in which a recumbent armed figure of a crusader was discovered about ten years ago, after