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views of rude magnificence, and others of fertility and beauty. The entrance of the Harbour was formerly defended by a square Tower on each side, erected about the reign of Edward IV, and intended to bear cannon: the walls are six feet thick, but both are now in ruins, and the security of the town and harbour is provided for by two small Batteries of modern erection, and St. Catherine's Fort, built in the time of Henry VIII, on the summit of a lofty rock, which commands the river.
Fowey is a place of considerable antiquity, and was given by the Conqueror to the Earl of Mortaigne: it was afterwards bestowed on the Priory of Trewardreth, and one of the Priors obtained the grant of a weekly Market, and two annual Fairs to be held here, from Edward II. It was at this time "but a small fischar town," says Leland; and he adds that its prosperity is to be dated from the wars iu Edward III and Henry V's days, when, by feats of arms, and "piracie," the inhabitants" waxed rich, and so fell to merchandise." About this time it bad acquired sufficient consequence to refuse the submission required by the vessels of Rye and Winchelsea in passing those havens, and in a battle which followed, the ships belonging to this town defeated those of the Cinque Ports, and the mariners acquired the appellation of "the Gallants of Fowey." In the reign of Edward IV, when that prince had concluded a peace with France, the men of Fowey still continued the war, and would not desist from their
piratical" enterprises until a strong fleet was sent against them, their ships seized, their captains carried to London and executed, and the chain which extended across the mouth of the harbour, between the towers previously mentioned, taken away. In 1571 Fowey first sent two Members to Parliament, and continues to enjoy that privilege: the number of voters is about 60, including the Corporation, which consists, conformably to a Charter of James II, of a Mayor, eight Aldermen, a Recorder, and other officers.
Fowey extends along the margin of the river nearly a mile; the houses are mostly of stone, but the streets are narrow, winding, and badly paved. The Church is a handsome fabric, consisting of three aisles, with a lofty tower at the west end, decorated
with many sculptured ornaments. and crowned with four elegant pinnacles. The interior is of corresponding beauty, and the roof is richly carved in wood: it is dedicated to St. Fimbarras, an early Irish bishop, and from the style of its architecture, and the devices with which it is adorned, is supposed to have been erected in the fifteenth century. Here is a spacious Market-house, over which is the Town Hall; two Free Schools; a Poor-house; and an Alms-house for eight aged widows. The population, in 1821, was 1455 persons, a great number of whom are engaged in the pilchard fishery, which is now the principal support of the town; many other kinds of fish, especially salmon, are, however, taken in the river.
On an eminence adjoining to the Church-yard is Treffry or Place House, a mansion, formerly the residence of the Treffry family; it was attacked by the French in the reign of Henry VI, and successfully defended by the lady of Thomas Treffry, in her husband's absence. On his return he "buildid a right faire and strong towre in his house, and embattled all the walles, making it a kinde of castell; and unto this day," says Leland, "it is the glorie of Fowey." The southern front exhibits some rich sculpture, and the Hall has a finely carved oaken ceiling; but some other parts of the mansion have been much altered, and the whole is now out of repair.
ST. GERMAN'S, OR GERMAIN'S,
Is an inconsiderable town, 224 miles from London, pleasantly situated on a rising ground, near a branch of the Lynher creek. It is of great antiquity, and is supposed by Whitaker to have been the seat of a Bishop as early as the year 614; the first prelate recorded, however, is Athelstan, who was consecrated in 910; the see was afterwards annexed to that of Crediton, and the episcopal seat was finally removed to Exeter. A Priory was founded here by King Athelstan, and dedicated to St. Germain, a French bishop, who is said to have come over to this country for the purpose of opposing the Pelagian heresy, in 429. This establishment continued until the Dissolution in 1538, when its yearly income was valued at £243. 88.; the Church
was then made parochial, and the lands were granted to John Champernowne* and others.
The parish of St. Germain is one of the largest in the county, being more than 20 miles in circumference, and its population, in 1821, was 2404 persons; but the inhabitants of the town do not much exceed 500. It has little or no trade, and the Market, formerly held on Friday, has been long discontinued. In 1562 it received the privilege of returning two Members to Parliament, which it still possesses: the returning officer is the Portreeve, who is annually chosen at the Manor Court; the electors are about 20 in number; and it need not be added that the election is "all a farce."
The only building deserving particular notice in this town is
one of the finest ecclesiastical edifices in the county: it is still of large dimensions, but was originally
* The following pleasant anecdote, related by Carew, shows with what discrimination the King rewarded those minor "Defenders of the Faith," who surrounded him. "John Champernowne, sonne and heire apparent to Sir Philip, of Devon, in Henry the Eighth's time, followed the court, and, through his pleasant conceits, of which much might be spoken, won some good grace with the king. Now, when the golden showre of the dissolved Abbey lands rayned wel nere into every gaper's mouth, some two or three gentlemen, the king's servants, and Master Champernowne's. acquaintance, waited at a doore where the king was to passe forth, with
much more extensive, the chancel having fallen down in 1592. It now consists of a nave and two aisles, one of which is lower and narrower than the other. The west front has on each side a tower; the upper part of the southern one is now square, although it is probable that both were formerly'octagonal; they are richly mantled with ivy. Between them is the entrance, a fine receding circular arch, 20 feet wide, having four pillars on each side, which reduce the doorway to the width of six feet: this arch is ornamented with plain and zigzag mouldings; above it is a pointed pediment, terminated by a cross within a circle: on each side is a very small window, and three narrow pointed ones above, and the gable is surmounted by a second cross. The interior, which is 104 feet long and 674 wide, presents some curious specimens of Saxon architecture, intermixed with that of a later age. A stone seat in the chancel, below which is some rude carving, is called the Bishop's Chair, but is believed to be nothing more than one of the seats provided for the monks. Here are several monuments, the most remarkable of which is one in memory of Edward Eliot, Esq. admirably executed by the celebrated Rysbrach; and a white marble tablet commemorating Elizabeth, wife of John Glanville, Esq. inscribed with the following beautiful epitaph:
"While faithful earth doth thy cold relics keep,
Let here the pious, humble place above
Witness an Husband's grief, an Husband's love;
And love, that only with himself must cease;
And let it bear for thee this heartfelt boast
"Twas he that knew thee best, that lov'd thee most!"
A very elegant font of white marble, presented by Lord Eliot, is placed at the west end of the Church, and the ancient Saxon font, probably coeval with the
purpose to beg such a matter at his hands. Our gentleman became inquisitive to know their suit; they made strange to impart it. This while, out comes the king; they kneele down, so doth Master Champernowne: they prefer their petition; the king graunts it: they render humble thanks, and so doth Champernowne. Afterwards, he requireth his share; they deny it: he appeales to the king: the king avoweth his equall meaning in the largesse; whereon the overtaken companions were fayne to allot him this Priory for his partage."
building, lies in a corner of one of the towers. The pulpit is curiously inlaid, and the altar-piece is of oak, finely carved. The ancient burial-ground has been levelled and formed into a lawn before the mansionhouse, called Port Eliot, the residence of the Earl of St. Germain's, which does not possess any claim to notice on account of its external appearance, but contains an excellent collection of portraits and other paintings; and the grounds command extensive and pleasing views.
GRAMPOUND, an ancient but decayed town, 248 miles from London, consists principally of one street, on the declivity of a hill, at the foot of which the Fal winds through a narrow valley, and is crossed by an ancient Bridge. This town is partly in the parish of Creed, and partly in that of Probus, and consequently does not contain a Church; it had, however, an ancient Chapel of Ease, in which divine service was performed until within a few years; but it is now deserted, and fast mouldering to decay. The Market-house is an antique structure; and the town is altogether of mean appearance, and had, in 1821, but 668 inhabitants; yet it has a Mayor, eight Magistrates, a Recorder, and Town Clerk, by whom, and some few other persons, two Members of Parliament were elected, until about ten years ago, when the corruption practised here became too glaring for toleration, and Grampound was disfranchised.
About a mile and a half from hence is Trewithan, the seat of Sir Christopher Hawkins, a spacious mansion, situated on an eminence, commanding very extensive prospects; and a mile further is the village of Probus, remarkable for its Church, which stands on the brow of a hill, and is neat and commodious; the tower, at the west end, is built of granite, about 120 feet high, and is the finest in the county: it is decorated with a great variety of sculpture, and no less than 40 pinnacles adorn its various parts: it was built by the subscriptions of the parishioners in the reign of Henry VII.
HAYLE is situated on the eastern bank of the river of the same name, about four miles from St. Ives, and carries on a considerable trade with Bristol and the