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formed the sepulchres of British warriors. There are several Logan or Rocking-stones in this district, as well as in other parts of the county; a particular description of the principal one, with an Engraving, will be found at a subsequent page. Treryn Castle, near St. Levan, as well as those of Carniajeck and Boscagell, near St. Just, and several others at this extremity of the Island, are nothing more than large plots of rugged ground, enclosed by ramparts of the unhewn rock, and protected by wide ditches. The ingenuity of antiquarians has been exercised on all these monuments of a remote age; their founders have been declared, and their objects indicated, with an exercise of imagination, and an absence of evidence, truly ludicrous forms, invisible to other eyes, are traced by their's; and the obscurity of twenty centuries is opposed in vain to their persevering researches.
Situated 216 miles from London, and possessing, for a Cornish borough, the very respectable number of 1321 inhabitants, chiefly consists of one broad street of mean houses, and exhibits no object of interest except the Church or Chapel of Ease, the town forming part of the parish of Southill: this edifice is a spacious fabric, rebuilt about 1450 at the expense of Nicholas de Asheton, one of the Judges, who is buried in the chancel; here is also a handsome tomb in memory of Lord Willoughby de Broke, who died in 1502: in the Churchyard are the remains of an ancient sculptured Cross, much defaced.
Callington is governed by a Portreeve chosen at the Manor Court, the town not being incorporated: its first return to Parliament was in 1585, and the electors are about 70 in number. It has a manufactory of woollen cloth; a Market every Wednesday; and four annual Fairs.
Near this town is the elevated tract of Hengeston Downs, the highest part of which, called St. Kit's Hill, is composed entirely of granite, and here a mansion has been recently erected by Sir John Call, which commands a most extensive and beautiful prospect.
Five miles from Callington is the village of Calstock, with 2388 inhabitants, and a handsome Church, with
a lofty tower, ornamented with pinnacles, which has a very fine appearance from its situation on a commanding eminence; it is of Gothic architecture, built of granite. In this parish is Cotehele House, the seat of the Earl of Mount Edgecumbe, an ancient and irregular pile, erected about the reign of Henry VII, and possessing a curious collection of ancient armour, some fine old furniture, tapestry, &c.; it stands on a beautiful eminence near the river Tamar, and the grounds and woods are extensive and noble.
CAMBORNE, a neat and populous town, about four miles from Redruth, stands in the midst of the most productive copper mines in the county, to which circumstance it owes its present consequence: the inhabitants of the parish, in 1821, were stated to be 6219 persons, the greater part of whom are in some way connected with the mines. The Church is an ancient building, dedicated to St. Martin, and contains some handsome monuments, a fine altar-piece, and a curiously-carved stone pulpit. Here is also a respectable Market-house, where a Market is held weekly on Saturday, and four Fairs are annually kept.
CAMELFORD, an ancient town, on the banks of the Camel, 228 miles from Loudon, is situated in a dreary part of the country, and is a collection of miserable houses, without a single edifice worthy of notice, excepting the Town Hall, which is a neat structure, built some years ago. The Church is at Lanteglos, about a mile off, and the population of the whole parish is 1256 persons. Yet this wretched place is governed" by a Mayor, eight Aldermen, the same number of Freemen, a Recorder, and Town Clerk; and these important persons return two Members to Parliament. A weekly Market is held here on Friday, and four annual Fairs, at which great numbers of cattle are disposed of. This neighbourhood is remarkable as the scene of a great battle between King Arthur and his nephew Modred, who, after seducing Queen Guenora, rebelled against his uncle, and carried on a devastating war during several years: in this final battle, which is supposed to have been fought in 592, both were slain.
ST. COLUMB MAJOR, SO called to distinguish it from a village in the neighbourhood, known as St. Columb Minor, is pleasantly situated, 246 miles from London, on the northern side of the county. It stands on an eminence, at the foot of which flows a small stream, which falls into the sea at a little distance; the streets are broad, but the houses of mean appearance, and the Church, a large ancient building, has been disfigured by modern alterations; it contains some monuments in memory of the Lords Arundel of Wardour. The Market house is a mean fabric; the Market-day is Thursday, and two annual Fairs are also held. The population, in 1821, was 2493 persons.
About two miles from St. Columb is an extensive Entrenchment, called Castle-an-Dinas, originally consisting of three circular walls, and a ditch 60 feet wide, enclosing an arena 400 feet in diameter: from its situation on a hill it must have been of great strength when perfect, and is supposed by Borlase to have been constructed by the Danes.
DULOE is a village 34 miles from West Looe, with an ancient Church, dedicated to St. Cuby, containing some monuments curiously sculptured in slate: the population of the parish is 779 persons. Dr. Jeremiah Milles, celebrated for his antiquarian researches, was born here in 1714: he was educated at Oxford, and marrying a daughter of Archbishop Potter, was, by the interest of that Prelate. presented with several livings, and in 1762 became Dean of Exeter. He was during many years President of the Society of Antiquaries, and published several curious papers on his favourite science in the Archæologia. He took a conspicuous part in the controversy respecting the poems ascribed to Rowley, and exposed himself to great ridicule by publishing an edition of them, with a long and learned disquisition in proof of their authenticity: he died in 1784.
At a short distance from Duloe is a small Druidical Circle, consisting of eight stones, four of which still retain an upright position. About a mile from hence is St. Cuby's Well, a circular basin of granite, with mutilated carvings, into which a small spring discharges its waters.
This town is 269 miles from the metropolis, and is situated at the foot of an eminence at the mouth of the river Fal, which here forms a noble harbour, defended by the Castles of Pendennis and St. Mawes, and is at once capacious and secure. This town is of modern origin*, there being scarcely a house here previously to 1613, when John Killigrew, the owner of the land, commenced the erection of a town, which in 1660 obtained the appellation of Falmouth, and, from its excellent situation for commerce, has become one of the most important places on this coast; the population, in 1821, was 6374 persons.
Falmouth consists principally of one well-built street, extending nearly a mile along the beach, but from its recent origin the town does not contain many edifices of interest: the Church is a respectable structure, erected about 1664, and dedicated to Charles the Martyr; it has a handsome altar-piece, and contains some monuments, but not any demanding particular notice. A Roman Catholic Chapel, a Jews' Synagogue, and Meeting-houses for Dissenters of various denominations, are also established bere; and a charitable institution, called the Public Dispensary, or Hospital, affords relief to disabled seamen, their widows, and children.
The trade of Falmouth is very considerable, and a good Quay has been formed, the depth of water being sufficient to admit vessels of large burthen to discharge their cargos on the wharf. Much importance attaches to this town from its being the station of the packets to Spain, Portugal, the West Indies, Brazil, &c. and steam vessels now pass regularly between this port and Lisbon, Gibraltar, Corunna, and other places on the south-west coast of Europe. Large quantities of the precious metals are frequently imported here, and fleets of outward-bound vessels are
It was long called Penny-come-Quick, 'as it is said, from the following circumstance: about 1600 a female servant of Mr. Pendarves, a neighbouring gentleman, inhabited a small cottage on this spot, and brewed some ale, which she sold to the sailors coming on shore; from the quickness of the demand her stock being exhausted when her former master called upon her, she replied to his expostulations, "Truly, master, the penny come so quick I could not deny them." It was also called Smithwick, from a forge or smithy occupying another part of the site of the present town.
often detained in its capacious Harbour, until enabled, by favourable winds, to resume their course: from all these causes, Falmouth presents a scene of great animation and business, and the inhabitants are almost universally engaged in commercial or maritime pursuits; the pilchard fishery is also carried on extensively, and gives employment to many persons. An excellent Hotel affords the best accommodation, and the weekly Market, on Thursday, is supplied with every article of luxury or necessity. Two annual Fairs, principally for cattle, are held in August and October.
St. Mawes' Castle, which defends the eastern entrance of the Harbour, was erected by Henry VIII, and receives its name from a wretched hamlet, inhabited by a few fishermen, but having the title of a Borough, governed by a Mayor, and returning two Members to Parliament: it has neither church, chapel, nor meeting-house: the Castle is much inferior to Pendennis, being completely commanded by a hill immediately behind it.
Pendennis Castle, erected by the same monarch, and at the same period as St. Mawes, occupies the brow of a hill, which rises to the height of 300 feet above the sea, and completely commands the entrance of the Harbour. The fortifications include an area of more than three acres, and are exceedingly strong: within the walls, are a convenient residence for the lieutenant-governor, barracks for the garrison, and a variety of storehouses and magazines. In 1646 this Castle was bravely defended against the Parliamentary forces, and surrendered at last on honourable terms.
At the eastern extremity of Falmouth is Arwenack House, the ancient seat of the family of Killigrew: it is a venerable mansion, but much injured in appearance by modern alterations. During the siege of Pendennis Castle, this house formed the head-quarters of the Parliamentary general.
This town, which is 244 miles from London, is situated on the western bank of the Fawy, which here forms a secure and spacious haven. The surrounding scenery is richly varied, some points presenting