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lars are also maintained; various Sunday and National Schools; an extensive and well-conducted Workhouse; an Asylum for Lunatics, &c.
The Guildhall is an ancient and spacious edifice, originally erected in 1330; the present front, which is supported on pillars, was built in 1593, and the whole was thoroughly "repaired and beautified" in 1720; it contains several valuable portraits. The Sessions House is an elegant modern building of Portland stone, in which the Assizes, Quarter Sessions, and County Courts are held. On the north side of the city is the County Gaol, erected about the beginning of the present century; it is of brick, handsome in its external appearance, and convenient in its internal arrangements. Not far from hence are the Cavalry Barracks, adapted for the reception of about 200 men. Within the city are prisons for
debtors, felons, &c.
On an eminence, near the County Gaol, are the remains of Rougemont Castle, which was exceedingly strong by its situation, and was fortified with considerable skill. The period of its foundation is unknown, but it was either rebuilt or thoroughly repaired by William the Conqueror. It continued in a state of good preservation until the period of the Civil War, when it was taken by Fairfax, after a siege of two months, and demolished by order of the Parliament. The exterior walls are all that now remain of this ancient edifice; they enclose a considerable area, and from the ramparts a most delightful view of the surrounding country is commanded, extending over a circumference of more than 50 miles, and embracing the windings of the Exe, Torbay and the beautiful country lying between the city and the sea. The moat which surrounded the Castle has been filled up, planted with trees, and laid out in handsome and pleasant walks. The Walls of the city remained nearly in a perfect state so lately as 1769; they have, however, since that period given way to the "march of improvement;" and of the four Gates which at that time existed, but one, the West Gate, yet remains. Exeter, indeed, although in many parts it has an antiquated appearance, is honourably distinguished by the handsome buildings erected within its limits, since the commencement of the present cen
tury: among these are an elegant Theatre; the Athenæum, a literary institution; the County Hospital, situated on a pleasant green called Southern Hay, where also are
an elegant edifice of Grecian architecture, having three porticoes, which are supported by noble columns: over the central entrance is a statue of Neptune; the interior is fitted up with every convenience for the enjoyment of the pleasant and healthful exercise to which the building is devoted. Beside its Theatre, Exeter has frequent Assemblies and Balls; numerous tea-gardens are also established in the vicinity; and while the lover of amusement will be gratified by these, the student will experience a more refined pleasure in the Literary Societies, whose Essays possess a degree of merit, seldom found in provincial publications.
Exeter is still a place of considerable trade, and although its woollen manufactures are not now so extensive as formerly, they yet afford employment to a large portion of the inhabitants. Here is also a cotton factory, which occupies many persons, and others are engaged in maritime pursuits, and the commerce which is carried on from hence with the continent of Europe. The Market-days are Wednesday and Friday, and four Annual Fairs are held: a weekly serge market is also established, at which considerable business is done. The population, in 1821, was 23,479.
Several eminent persons have been born in this city: one of the earliest on record is Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, who at first was Archdeacon of this diocese, and rose by degrees to that high dignity; he crowned Richard I, and accompanied him on his wild expedition to Palestine, where he died about 1192. He wrote some theological tracts, which have been published, and he patronised his townsman, Josephus Iscanus, or Joseph of Exeter, who was a celebrated writer of Latin poetry. He also accompanied Richard on the crusade, and wrote an epic on that warlike monarch's deeds, entitled "Antiocheis,' which," is unfortunately lost, with the exception of a few lines, sufficiently beautiful to make us regret the remainder." He was the author of a poem on the Trojan War, which is still extant, and is styled by Warton," the miracle of his age in classical composition." He died about 1224.
John Hooker, an antiquarian and historian, was born at Exeter in 1524, and was educated at Oxford. He afterwards travelled in Germany, and returning to England was elected Chamberlain of his native city, which in 1571 he represented in Parliament. He wrote several works, among which are his Description of Exeter, Chronicles of Ireland, &c. &c. and died in 1601. His nephew, Richard Hooker, was born at Heavitree, one mile from this city, in 1553, and studied at Oxford, where he was patronised by Sandys, Archbishop of York, and was distinguished for his great skill in the Oriental languages. He was afterwards presented to several benefices, and in 1595 the Queen gave him the living of Bishop's Bourne, in Kent, where he passed the remainder of his days. He died in 1600, having just finished, but not completely published, his great work on Ecclesiastical Polity, which is a defence of the Church of England against the attacks of the Puritans, and is admired no less for the learning and deep research of its author, than for the richness and purity of its style; it has been frequently reprinted. Hooker was a man of primitive simplicity and kindness of heart; and his Life, by Izaak Walton, affords a delightful picture of the good priest, and the humble, pious Christian.
Sir William Petre was born here early in the six
enth century; he was a wily politician, who contrived to remain in favour with, and be employed by, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth; he was principally engaged in foreign missions, and displayed considerable abilities as an ambassador, "whose business it is," says Swift, "to tell lies for the good of his country.'
Sir Thomas Bodley, the munificent founder of the Library at Oxford which bears his name, was born in this city in 1544. He was educated partly at Geneva, and partly at Oxford, in which University he read lectures on the Greek language. He afterwards. married a lady of large fortune, and was employed in embassies to France, Germany, Holland, and Denmark. Declining all state affairs about 1597, he devoted the remainder of his life to the re-establishment of a library at Oxford, which had been founded by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, in the fifteenth century, but had been subsequently plundered and dilapidated. He expended large sums in collecting and purchasing books and manuscripts in all parts of the world, and at length amassed so great a number, that it became necessary to erect a new building for their reception, of which he laid the first stoue in July, 1610, but died in January, 1612, before the completion of the building. A monument to his memory is erected in the Chapel of Merton College, of which he was a Fellow. He left the greater part of his property for the support and augmentation of his library, which has been much increased by other benefactions, and is now one of the most splendid and voluminous collections in the world.
Peter King, a celebrated lawyer, was also born at Exeter, where his father was a grocer, in 1669. As he evinced at an early age a strong inclination for literature, he was sent to the University of Leyden, by advice of the great Locke, his maternal uncle, and on his return was entered as a student of the Inner Temple. His attention appears, however, to have been principally directed to theological studies, and he published "An Inquiry into the Constitution, &c. of the Primitive Church," in 1691. In 1699 he represented, Berealston in Parliament, and in 1708 was chosen Recorder of London, and knighted. In 1709 he was appointed one of the Managers of Sacheverel's
trial, and in 1712 defended Whiston on his prosecution for heresy. On the accession of George I he became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and in 1725 was created a peer, by the title of Baron King, of Ockham; he shortly afterwards succeeded Lord Macclesfield as Lord Chancellor, which office he held until 1733, when he resigned the seals, and died in the same year. As an author he is principally known by his "History of the Apostle's Creed;' first published in 1702.
Eustace Budgell was born at St. Thomas, near Exeter, about 1685, and educated at Oxford; he went afterwards to the Inner Temple, but was much more attached to the fashionable amusements of the day than to the study of the law. He wrote several papers in the Spectator, and although Addison disclaimed his relationship, and always spoke of him, as "the man who calls me cousin," he procured him a situation in his own office of Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; this was followed by soveral other lucrative appointments, which Budgell imprudently lost by exercising his wit in a lampoon on the Duke of Bolton, who became Viceroy of Ireland, in 1718. He then came to England, and the loss of £20,000 in the South Sea bubble completed his ruin. He passed some years in the precarious employment of a party writer; and in 1737, while engaged in the publication of a work called the Bee, a legacy of £2000 being left to him by the will of Dr. Tindal, the relatives of the deceased disputed the authenticity of the instrument, which was set aside by the Court. The unhappy man was so overwhelmed with shame and grief by this circumstance that he committed suicide by drowning himself in the Thames, May 4, 1737.
William Jackson, the well-known musician and composer, was born in this city, in 1730, and displayed so decided a taste for music in his youth, that his family reluctantly consented to gratify his wishes by placing him with the then organist of the Cathedral. After the usual probation, improved by two years study in the metropolis, he returned to Exeter, and being at length appointed to the post held by his former preceptor, passed the remainder of his days there. His musical compositions are still popular,