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of antiquity; the most remarkable of these is the Roman Amphitheatre, called Maumbury, which is situated on a plain about a quarter of a mile south-west from the town, and is believed to have been formed under the government of Agricola. It was calculated to hold 12,000 or 13,000 spectators*; the perpendicular height of the rampart above the level of the arena, was 30 feet; it is of an oval shape, and the greatest diameter is 3434 feet, externally, and 218 internally: it is still in a state of good preservation, and the views from the summit are very extensive. Poundbury Camp is a very large Fortification, on the Frome, about half a mile west of the town, which is by some writers ascribed to the Romans, and by others to the Danes; and Maiden Castle, on a hill about a mile south-west of Dorchester, is a very extensive Camp, attributed to the Britons, and probably afterwards occupied by the Romans: in the vicinity are numerous barrows and tumuli.
The village of Fordington adjoins Dorchester on the east, and had formerly a weekly Market, now discontinued. The Church is an ancient building, in the form of a cross, seated on an eminence; it has some curious specimens of sculpture over the south porch. The eastern end of this village is called Icen town, which name it probably derives from its situation near the Roman road called Icening Way. A Causeway, 1980 feet long, and 36 wide, was made in 1747, over the marsh through which the old road ran, at the expense of Mrs. Pitt, who also built a Bridge over a branch of the river Frome. Many Roman antiquities were discovered during the progress of these works; and more than 200 skeletons, and some fragments of swords, were found in the neighbourhood about the same period, since which time many others have been met with, the last as lately as in 1799.
GILLINGHAM, a very extensive parish on the northern side of the county, was formerly noted for its Forest, which was enclosed in the reign of Charles I, and this measure produced considerable riots among the neighbouring peasantry. About four miles from
* A woman named Mary Channing was burnt here, in 1705, for the murder of her husband, and it is computed that more than 10,000 persons were present at her execution.
hence, at Marnhill, the seat of his father, was born Giles Hussey, a celebrated artist of the last century. After receiving his education at the Catholic seminaries of Douay and St. Omer's, he went to Italy for the improvement of his talents in painting; and returning to England in 1737, commenced portrait painter. He had some peculiar notions as to the form and proportions of the human face; and although he is said to have produced good likenesses, his singularities prevented his experiencing extensive patronage, and after residing some years in London, in distressed circumstances, he retired to the country, and died at Ashburton in 1788, aged 78 years.
HORTON, a village about five miles from Wimborne Minster, was formerly the site of an Abbey, founded by Orgar, Earl of Devonshire, father of Queen Elfrida, already mentioned under the head of Corfe Castle. Not a vestige of its buildings is now to be discovered: the parish Church is near its supposed site, and is conjectured to have been a part of the conventual Church, but this is doubtful, and it now retains very few marks of antiquity, having been almost entirely rebuilt in 1720. In the former edifice was a monument in memory of the Hon. Henry Hastings, whose mansion, called Woodlands, is in this parish, and has been much modernized, although the old Chapel, the Kitchen, and a large Cellar, still remain: the extraordinary character of the former proprietor is so amusingly delineated in an inscription under his portrait, at Lord Shaftesbury's, supposed to be written by the celebrated nobleman of that title, that we have inserted it below *. In this
* “This gentleman lived in the year 1638, and by his quality was son, brother, and uncle, to the Earls of Huntingdon. He was peradventure an original in our age, or rather the copy of our ancient nobility, in hunting, not in warlike times.
"He was low, very strong, and very active, of a reddish flaxen hair; his clothes green cloth, and never all worth, when new, five pounds.
"His house was perfectly of the old fashion, in the midst of a large park well stocked with deer, and near the house rabbits to serve his kitchen; many fish ponds; great store of wood and timber; a bowling green in it, long, but narrow, and full of high ridges; it being never levelled since it was ploughed: they used round sand bowls; and it had a banqueting house like a stand, a large one, built in a tree.
"He kept all manner of sport hounds, that run buck, fox, hare, otter, and badger; and hawks, long and short winged. He had all sorts of nets for fish; he had a walk in the New Forest, and in the manor of Christ
neighbourhood are many barrows, and two entrenchments; some of the former have been opened, and
church: this last supplied him with red deer, sea and river fish. And, indeed, all his neighbours' grounds and royalties were free to him; who bestowed all his time on these sports, but what he borrowed to caress his neighbours' wives and daughters; there being not a woman, in all his walks, of the degree of a yeoman's wife, and under the age of 40, but it was extremely her fault if he was not intimately acquainted with her. This made him very popular; always speaking kindly to the husband, brother, or father, who was to boot very welcome to his house whenever he came. "There he found beef, pudding, and small beer, in great plenty; a house not so neatly kept as to shame him or his dusty shoes; the great hall strewed with marrow bones, full of hawks' perches, hounds, spaniels, and terriers ; the upper side of the hall hung with the fox skins of this and the last year's killing; here and there a pole cat intermixed; game-keepers' and hunters' poles in great abundance.
"The parlour was a great room as properly furnished.. On a great hearth, paved with brick, lay some terriers, and the choicest hounds and spaniels. Seldom but two of the great chairs had litters of young cats in them, which were not to be disturbed; he having always three or four attending him at dinner, and a little white round stick, of fourteen inches long, lying by his trencher, that he might defend such meat as he had no mind to part with to them.
"The windows, which were very large, served for places to lay his arrows, cross-bows, stone-bows, and other such-like accoutrements. The corners of the room, full of the best chose hunting and hawking poles. An oyster table at the lower end, which was of constant use, twice a day, all the year round; for he never failed to eat oysters, before dinner and supper, through all seasons: the neighbouring town of Poole supplied him with them,
"The upper part of the room had two small tables and a desk, on the one side of which was a Church Bible, and, on the other, the Book of Martyrs. On the tables were hawks'-hoods, bells, and such like'; two or three dozen old green hats, with their crowns thrust in, so as to hold ten or a dozen eggs, which were of a pheasant kind of poultry, which he took much care of, and fed himself. In the whole of the desk were store of tobacco pipes that had been used.
"On one side of this end of the room was the door of a closet, wherein stood the strong beer and the wine, which never came thence but in single glasses, that being the rule of the house exactly observed, for he never exceeded in drink, or permitted it.
"On the other side was the door into an old chapel, not used for devotion. The pulpit, as the safest place, was never wanting of a cold chine of beef, venison pasty, gammon of bacon, or great apple pie, with thick crust, extremely baked. His table cost him not much, though it was good to eat at.
"His sports supplied all but beef and mutton; except Fridays, when he had the best of salt fish (as well as other fish) he could get; and was the day his neighbours of best quality most visited him. He never wanted a London pudding, and always sung it in with, My part lies therein-a." He drank a glass or two of wine at meals; very often syrup of gilly flowers in his sack; and had always a tun glass without feet, stood by him, holding a pint of small beer, which he often stirred with rosemary.
"He was well-natured, but soon angry; calling his servants bastards and cuckoldy knaves; in one of which he often spoke truth to his own knowledge, and sometimes in both, though of the same man. He lived to be an hundred; never lost his eyesight, but always wrote and read without spectacles; and got on horseback without help. Until past fourscore he rode to the death of a stag as well as any."
were found to contain great quantities of human bones, spear heads, pieces of iron, &c.
On Shag's Heath, in this neighbourhood, the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth was apprehended after his flight from the battle of Sedgemoor. He had left the field, with Lord Lumley, on horseback, and rode as far as Woodyates, on the north-eastern border of this County, where quitting their horses, and separating, the Duke attempted, in the disguise of a peasant, to make his way on foot to the coast, and had wandered thus far, when finding that he was suspected to be in the neighbourhood, he concealed himself in a deep ditch, under an ash tree. The soldiers' who were in pursuit of him having received information that he was in the Island (a part of the Heath so called), surrounded it, and passed the night there, but were unable to discover him. As they were leaving the place the next morning, however, one of them perceived the brown skirt of the Duke's coat, and dragged him forth. He was carried before a Justice of the Peace, and being identified, was immediately sent a prisoner to London, where James, after gratifying his barbarity by a sight of him, and inducing him to make disclosures, under the hope of mercy, coldly consigned his brother's favourite son to the scaffold. The spot where he was hidden is still pointed out, and is called Monmouth Close; the tree under which he lay is inscribed with the names of numerous visitants.
KIMERIDGE, or KOMMERIDGE, is a small village, about a mile from the sea, and five miles from Wareham; here are extensive alum mines, and at a short distance a singular species of fossil coal is found, 16 feet below the surface, which burns very strong and bright, with a sulphureous smell; it is chiefly used by the poor, on account of its cheapness. In this parish, near Smedmore, a quantity of small stones, partly pierced with holes, have been found at various times; by the country people they are called coalmoney, and are believed to be British antiquities; but whether coins or amulets is not yet decided by the learned.
Not far from this village is Encombe House, the seat of the Earl of Eldon; it occupies a fine situation,
commanding a prospect of the Channel; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and the house is a handsome mansion of Portland stone.
LULWORTH, EAST, and WEST, are two small villages on the coast, about five miles from Wareham; in the former is a Church, dedicated to St. Andrew, rebuilt about 40 years ago, at the expense of Mr. Weld, proprietor of the manor; it contains some monuments, principally in memory of that family, who are stated, in an inscription on one of them, to be descended from "Edric, Duke of Mercia, and Edina, daughter of King Ethelred." In this parish is Lulworth Castle, a fine building, standing on an eminence in a park about four miles and a half in circuit, surrounded by a stone wall, and commanding beautiful and extensive prospects in every direction. A Castle is said to have existed here in the early part of the twelfth century; but the erection of the present edifice was not commenced until 1588, and it was not fully completed before 1645. "This building," says Mr. Hutchins, "is an exact cube of 80 feet, with a round tower at each corner, 30 feet in diameter, and rising 16 feet above the walls, which, as well as the towers, are embattled. The walls are six feet thick; the offices are under ground, arched with stone. The house has three stories, but the towers four: in each front are three rows of four windows; in the towers are four rows, of three each, exclusive of the offices. The Hall and Dining Room are large; and the rooms are in general 18 feet high. In the apartments are some family portraits, executed by the celebrated Sir Peter Lely. The principal front is on the east, and faced with Chilmark stone; before it was a large court, now laid into the lawn leading to the landingplace, which is guarded by a balustrade of stone, called the Cloisters, because paved with the stones taken from the cloisters of Bindon Abbey, which is continued along the north and south sides, at the extremity of which it joins a terrace to the west, of the same height as itself. Over the doors are statues of two ancient Romans, in their gowns. On each side of the door, which is supported by four pillars of the Ionic order, is a large niche, and over them two shields, on which are the arms of Weld, properly