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ration for the mischief he had done, by pointing out such measures, and recommending such vigilance, as have since prevented a recurrence of the calamity.
Under the name of the Gun Wharf are included several ranges of building, for the reception of naval and military stores, artillery, &c. On the Wharf immense piles of guns, carronades, and mortars, with shot and shells of every description, are ranged in a pyramidical form. The Small Armoury also contains 25.000 stand of arms, handsomely arranged in various figures; and attached to these establishments are handsome houses for the residence of the storekeeper and other officers.
It has been stated that these portions of this grand naval emporium are on the Portsea side, where is also the King's Mill, in which the flour is ground for making biscuits; in Portsmouth is the Victualling Office, which comprehends several immense ranges of Storehouses, with Bake-houses, Salting-houses, &c.; the Government House, said to have formed part of an ancient Hospital for poor men, but so much altered and improved as to display few, if any, traces of its origin; the Chapel, which belouged to the above Hospital, but is now appropriated to the use of the Garrison; and the houses of the Lieutenant Governor and of the Port Admiral, which are handsome and convenient residences.
Excepting the buildings connected with the Government offices, Portsmouth does not possess much deserving of notice. The Church, dedicated to St. Thomas-a-Becket, is a large but irregular building, erected at various periods; the tower, with its cupola and lantern, is 120 feet high, and forms a conspicuous sea-mark. In this church, behind the altar, is a large monument in memory of the Duke of Buckingham, whose heart is deposited in a central marble urn; his body was interred in Westminster Abbey. Portsea is a part of the parish of Kingston, whose church is at two miles distance; from this circumstance, and the large population of the united towns, it has been found necessary to erect several Chapels of Ease, the most house at Calne. That he committed, or attempted to commit, several other robberies; particularly one at Norwich, where he stole two silver tablespoons and a pair of silver buckles. He also committed a robbery on the bighway between Portsmouth and Petersfield.”
handsome of which is St. John's Chapel, which was consecrated in 1789, and is an elegant building of Grecian architecture; the interior is particularly admired; the ceiling is richly decorated, and the altar, placed in a semicircular recess, is separated from the body of the Chapel by a beautiful screen of fluted Corinthian pillars. Here are also several Meeting-houses for Protestant Dissenters of various descriptions, and a Roman Catholic Chapel.
The Corporation consists, by virtue of a Charter of Charles I, of a Mayor, Recorder, twelve Aldermen, and a number of Burgesses, in whom the right of electing two Members of Parliament is vested; and this Borough has been represented ever since the year 1295. The public business is transacted at the Town Hall, a large building in the High Street, beneath which the Market is held. In the same street is a Prison, recently erected.
In Broad Street, a part of the suburb called Portsmouth Point, is the Custom House, a large and convenient building; the establishment is on a very extensive scale, and, beside the usual officers, includes several fast-sailing cutters, which are employed in attempting to prevent smuggling. At high water, the Point is completely insulated, and a drawbridge then forms the communication with the town. This is the spot in which the principal commercial business is carried on, and it is in every way well adapted for the purpose; here is also a convenient Bathing House, near the mouth of the Harbour.
The charitable establishments of Portsmouth are, a Poor-house for that town; another for Portsea, healthily situated and excellently managed; Almshouses for eight poor widows; and several Charity Schools. The amusements of the towns-people principally consist in Assemblies, Concerts, and Balls, held at the Crown Tavern, while the maritime visitants usually resort to the Theatre, which is consequently almost always crowded.
Although the prosperity of Portsmouth must, in a great degree, depend on warlike operations, the vast establishments of which it is the seat, secure to it, even in time of peace, a considerable trade; several extensive Breweries are carried on here; and its annual Fair still continues to be held during fifteen
days, commencing on the 10th of July; while it lasts, no person can be arrested for debt within the town or precincts. Here is also a Market three times a week, which is well supplied with every article of luxury or necessity. The population of Portsmouth, in 1821, was 7269; and that of Portsea, at the same period, 34,785. Considerable improvements have been made in both towns, of late years, in paving, watching, and lighting the streets; and that the commercial pursuits of the inhabitants do not preclude all attention to literature, may be concluded from the fact that two weekly Newspapers are published here.
The celebrated philanthropist Jonas Hanway was born at Portsmouth in 1712. Early in life he was placed with a merchant at Lisbon; and in 1743 became a partner in a commercial establishment at St. Petersburgh. He travelled into Persia, on the business of the concern, and employed himself during his residence there in acquiring an intimate knowledge of the manners of the people, and the events of their history; the results of this inquiry he gave to the world in 1753, in " An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, &c. with the particular History of the great Usurper Nadir Kouli.” This work forms four 4to. volumes, and contains much curious and instructive matter; but its extent, and the rather prolix style in which it is written, are not likely to recommend it to notice in the present age of light reading. Mr. Hanway also wrote a variety of other works, all relating to schemes of charity, and usefulness; nor was his benevolence confined to the exercise of his pen; he was the principal institutor of the Marine Society, and one of the most active patrons of the Magdalen Charity, which is said to have been originally planned by his partner in trade, Mr. Dingley; he was the first to direct public attention to the miseries endured in London by the poor chimney-sweepers; and was engaged in the establishment of Sunday Schools. So highly was he esteemed by his fellow citizens, that a deputation of the principal merchants of London waited on Lord Bute to request that some public reward might be bestowed on him, and he was in consequence made a Commissioner of the Navy, which office he resigned after having held it 20 years, but retained the salary during the remainder of his life. He died in 1786, and a monument was erected to him by subscription. “ He was a man of some harmless peculiarities in dress and manners; but eminently upright, sincere, and philanthropical. His knowledge was extensive, and his numerous writings were highly useful, although rating low as literary compositions.
Before concluding our account of Portsmouth, it must be mentioned that the Harbour is superior, both in extent and in safety, to most others in the island. The largest ships may ride here, even at the lowest ebb, secure from every storm; and it is capacious enough to receive the whole British navy. There is good anchorage in every part, and the strength of the ebb tides prevents any accumulation of sand, so that the entrance is perfectly free; while the great depth of water permits even first-rates to quit the Harbour at any time of the tide. It is also so completely land-locked that even when ships are driven from their anchorage at Spithead by the violence of the wind, those within the Harbour remain perfectly secure; and against the possibility of hostile attack, the numerous forts and batteries, which command the entrance in every direction, and which are almost level with the water's edge, afford nearly equal security. Immediately off the entrance of the Har: bour, in the reach so well known as Spithead, lies the Royal George, of 100 guns, which was sunk by accident in August, 1782; while undergoing some trifling repairs, a sudden squall overset her, and in five minutes she went to the bottom, with the brave Admiral Kempenfeldt, upwards of 600 of her crew, and 200 women and children, in spite of all exertions made by the crews of the surrounding vessels.
REDBRIDGE, an ancient village, about three miles from Southampton, at the mouth of the Test, is mentioned by Bede as having had a Monastery early in the seventh century, whose Abbot, Cimberth, could only obtain leave of the barbarous Ceadwalla to baptize the two youthful brothers of Arvandus, King of the Isle of Wight, before they were put to death. Redbridge is now a place of considerable trade, especially in coals, corn, and timber; shipbuilding is also carried on here, and some vessels, stated to have been peculiarly adapted for fast sailing, were constructed, about 1796, under the superintendence of General Bentham, who had given great attention to the subject of naval architecture. At this place the Andover Canal terminates; and here is a Bridge, partly ancient, and partly modern.
RINGWOOD, a town of great antiquity, is situated on the eastern bank of the river Avon, nine miles from Christchurch, and 964 from London. It was anciently a place of much importance, as may be learnt from Domesday Book, where it is ranked higher than Christchurch; it is still a respectable town, with a population of 3804 persons, many of whom are employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth and stockings; a large quantity of strong beer and ale, famed for its excellence, is also made here; and it has a well attended Market on Wednesday, and two annual Fairs, at which colts from the neighbouring Forest form one of the articles for sale.
ROMSEY. This town stands in a flat situation, surrounded by meadows, which are rendered very productive by the frequent overflowing of the river Test. It is 73 miles from London, and eight from Southampton. Romsey is a place of great antiquity, and had an Abbey for nuns of the Benedictine order, founded by Edward the Elder, whose daughter, Elfleda, became the first Abbess; all her successors, during a long period, were of royal birth; and all, we are told, were saints. In 992 the Abbey was plundered by the Danes, but its inmates had previously escaped to Winchester; it was re-established, and is mentioned in Domesday Book; and here Matilda, daughter of the King of Scotland, and heiress of the royal Saxon line, was educated by her relative the Abbess Christina, until her marriage with Henry I. The Abbey continued in a flourishing state until the period of the Dissolution, when it was seized by Henry VIII, by whom the greater part of it was granted to some persons, who, as usual, demolished the buildings for the sake of the materials. The Abbey Church was, fortunately, granted to the inhabitants of the town,