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find 224 of its manors bestowed by him on his military followers. From this period the events of which Sussex has been the theatre are very few; the most important are the military operations during the Civil War, which will be found under the head of that city to which they more peculiarly belong.
This city is situated on a gentle eminence, 61 miles from London, and is surrounded, except on the north side, by the Lavant, and sheltered by a range of hills from the northern and north-easterly winds. It is a place of great antiquity, and is supposed to have been the town called Regnum by Strabo, and to have existed long previous to the Roman invasion. That it was a considerable station of that people is evident from the number of their coins and other antiquities found here. Its destruction by Ella, and reedification by Cissa, have been already related. While it continued the capital of the South Saxon monarchs it probably increased in consequence; but after the annexation of their kingdom to that of Wessex, it declined; and it suffered, in common with the whole island, from the merciless ravages of the Danes, although on one occasion, during the reign of Alfred, the citizens defeated those barbarians on their landing, slew a great number of them, and destroyed several of their ships. About 1082 the episcopal see was removed from Selsea, where it had been established by Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, about 400 years before, to this city, in which it has ever since continued. In the reign of Stephen it obtained its first Charter, which was confirmed by several subsequent sovereigns; it forms a county of itself, and has sent two Members to Parliament ever since 1295. After this we meet with no event of importance in its history, until the reign of Charles I, when in the first year of the Civil War, several noblemen and gentlemen of this county, having obtained commissions from his majesty, proceeded to levy troops, in which they were not very successful; and the Parliament dispatching Sir William Waller, with a considerable force, against them, they fortified themselves in Chichester, erecting some new works, and strengthening the old; after a siege of
twelve days, however, in which the city and Cathedral sustained considerable damage, they were compelled to surrender. Since this period it has enjoyed uninterrupted tranquillity.
From its situation near a spacious arm of the sea, it would appear well calculated for commerce; but unfortunately this seeming advantage is rendered of no avail, by extensive sandbanks, which prevent the passage of vessels of considerable burden. It has five annual fairs, two weekly markets, on Wednesday and Saturday, and a beast market every second Wednesday, which is one of the largest in the kingdom. Chichester was famous, about two centuries ago, for needle-making, but the district in which this was carried on being destroyed during the siege, the trade was totally lost. Its malt was also in high repute about the same time; but this branch of business has considerably declined; and a small woollen manufacture is the only one now carried on here.
which is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is the most remarkable edifice in this city, and is in
length from east to west, including the Lady Chapel, 410 feet; in width, from north to south, at the transepts, 227; the choir, 62; the nave and aisles, 92; the height of the interior vaulting is 63 feet; and of the central tower and spire, 297 feet.
After the removal of the see to this city, it became the object of the bishops to erect a Cathedral; various obstacles, however, arose; and it was not until the time of the third prelate, Ralph, in 1108, that the sacred edifice was completed. This building
was principally of wood, and six years after its consecration, it was destroyed by fire. The bishop immediately commenced the erection of a second pile, of less combustible materials, and with the assistance of the King, Henry I, completed it before his death, which occurred in 1123. Little more than sixty years elapsed before this building was, according to some accounts, totally destroyed by a second fire; but from other annalists it may be inferred that the injury sustained by the church at this time extended only to the roof and the interior, and that the walls remained; this supposition is strengthened by their appearance, the shape of the arches, and the formation of the pillars which support them. was repaired by Bishop Seffrid, about the year 1200; further repairs and additions were made by Bishops Aquila and Poore, by the latter of whom the elegant spire is supposed to have been erected; the Lady Chapel was built by Leofardo, Bishop of this see, towards the close of the thirteenth century; and his successor Langton formed the great west window, and those in the north and south transepts.
The external appearance of this Cathedral is rather plain; the west front had formerly a tower on each side, but since the siege one of these only remains; it is a massive building, the architecture is that of the thirteenth century. Over the great western entrance is a window of magnificent dimensions; which was destroyed by the Parliamentary forces, but has been repaired. The ends of the transepts are handsomely finished, with turrets on each side, between which is a beautiful window, that on the south side especially is of exquisite workmanship, and was filled with painted glass, but was demolished by the barbarians of the seventeenth century. It
was erected by Bishop Langton, at an expense of £310, which, early in the fourteenth century, must have been considered a very large sum. The window in the north transept is of the same size, but not equal in beauty; this was erected at the expense of the same prelate, who also built the Chapter-house. On the south side of the Church are the Cloisters, which form an irregular quadrangle, its shape being affected by the projection of the cross aisle. The east end of the Cathedral is handsome, and presents two octagonal towers, crowned with neat pinnacles, between which is a triple window, and above this a circular one. Beyond this is the Lady Chapel, of a more ornamental style of architecture, but much injured in appearance by the filling up of its great east window. From the intersection of the cross aisles with the nave and choir, rises the great Tower, adorned with pinnacles at each corner, and supporting the elegant Spire, which is said to have been built by the same workmen as that of Salisbury; and its style and execution renders this supposition highly probable. In 1721 it was struck by lightning, and several large stones were thrown down, one of which, weighing nearly three quarters of a hundred, passed over the houses in West Street without doing any damage. Considerable fears were entertained for the safety of the spire, in consequence of this terrible shock; but on examination it was found that the injury was confined to the part which had been struck, and this was so well repaired, that the spire is now considered as secure as before the accident.
Near the north-west corner of the Church stands a massive square Tower, with four turrets, containing eight bells, which before its erection were placed in the central tower. This structure is 120 feet high, and is supposed to have been built by Bishop Langton, early in the fourteenth century.
The interior of this Cathedral is handsomely finished. The Nave is lofty and spacious, vaulted and groined with great skill and beauty, and beside its centre and side aisles, has a second aisle on each side, apparently intended for chantries and chapels, in which mass was said for the souls of " the faithful" here interred, as many traces of the altars erected for that purpose may yet be observed.
The Choir is elegant in its appearance; the stalls and seats are of oak, richly carved and gilt, as is also the beautiful altar-screen, above which is a gallery intended for the reception of the choristers on the celebration of high mass, on great occasions. The Choir was fitted up by Bishop Shurborne, early in the sixteenth century; and as that prelate had passed many years abroad as ambassador from Henry VII to various foreign states, it is probable that in its decorations he imitated those of the continental cathedrals to which he had been accustomed, and to which that of Chichester bears a much stronger resemblance than any other in England. The stalls, organ, and altar, as well as the tombs in all parts of the Church, the beautiful painted windows, and in short every thing within their reach, were mutilated or destroyed by the Parliamentary soldiers in 1643; and a second party, commanded by Sir Arthur Haselrig, was sent in 1647, to complete the "godly work," which was done by demolishing what had been overlooked by their predecessors, or restored by the piety of the churchmen; the episcopal palace, the deanery, the chapter-house, and all the residences of the clergy, were dismantled in this second visitation. After the Restoration great exertions were made to repair the damage occasioned by this fanatical violence; and, with the exception of the mutilated tombs, and the absence of the superb painted glass which filled the windows, but few traces of it now remain.
The South Transept is adorned with very curious paintings, executed by Bernardi, an Italian artist, at the cost of the munificent Bishop Shurborne. One represents an interview between Wilfrid and Ceadwalla, who is erroneously shown in it as the donor of the island of Selsea for the foundation of a church, whereas he only confirmed the grant originally made by Adelwalch. He appears surrounded by his courtiers, at the gate of his palace, and is approached by Wilfrid, attended by his clergy. The Archbishop's request of a site for the intended Church is inscribed on a scroll; the king's answer is in an open book; and in the back ground is a view of the peninsula of Selsea, the sea, and the shores of the Isle of Wight. A second painting exhibits Shur