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Street, is appropriated to debtors, and persons sentenced to imprisonment by the Court from which its name is derived. This building is enclosed by a high wall, and covers a very extensive plot of ground; it was burnt by the rioters in 1780, but soon rebuilt. It contains about 220 apartments, eight of which are called State Rooms, and are larger than the others; each of these has a single bed, but is usually occupied by more than one person. It has also a Chapel, a Coffee-house, two Public-houses, and various shops and stalls for the sale of almost every article of provisions, &c. The prisoners amuse themselves by playing at racket and other games; and the wall and gates are almost the only visible symptoms of confinement. Debtors, on giving security to the Marshal, and paying in proportion to the debts for which they are confined, may reside without the walls, in what are called the Rules, which extend to a circumference of about three miles.
The Marshalsea, in High Street, near St. George's Church, is for debtors, and also for persons guilty of offences on the high seas, previously to their trial at the Court of Admiralty. Some years ago this prison was in a state of ruin and decay; it was, however, rebuilt in 1811, and is at present well arranged and convenient, though small. It is divided into separate chambers, like the King's Bench, and has a Chapel, a Wine-room, and a small court yard.
The Town Hall is situated in the widest part of the High Street, called St. Margaret's Hill, and is a plain but neat edifice, ornamented with Ionic pilasters, &c. and was erected about 1793, on the site of a former building, which had been reared after the fire of 1676; a statue of Charles II, which adorned the front, was sold to some persons, who placed it in Three Crown Court, in the neighbourhood, where it presides over a watch-box, which is constructed in the pedestal. Here the Sessions are opened by the Lord Mayor, in token of the City's supremacy; and in the front the election of Members to represent the Borough in Parliament takes place. Nearly opposite this building is the Tabard Inn, which occupies the site of the one from which Chaucer describes his pilgrims as setting out to Canterbury. The original edifice existed till the fire in 1676. În
Union Street is Union Hall, a handsome building, in which the Police Magistrates sit daily.
The Borough Market is to the west of High Street, and very recently has been so much improved as to render it one of the best in the metropolis. The area is very spacious; it is divided into walks, and the roof is supported by iron columns; in the centre is a handsome market-house, surmounted by a cupola. The market, which is held under a charter of Edward VI, granted to the Corporation of London, was at first kept in the High Street; and, although this must have been exceedingly inconvenient, it continued there until 1756, when it was removed to its present situation.
In Blackfriar's Road, near the Obelisk, is the Surrey Theatre, a neat building, erected in 1806, on the site of the Royal Circus, destroyed by fire in the preceding year. This Theatre was originally built in 1782, and was intended for equestrian and other entertainments; after passing through the hands of many proprietors, to most of whom it has proved a losing speculation, it is at present tenanted by Mr. Elliston, and is said to be remarkably and deservedly successful. The interior is elegantly fitted up; it is lighted by gas; and is calculated to hold more than 2000 persons, and to produce about £300, when completely filled.
Southwark contains but few relics of antiquity, except those already described; the same fatal element which deprived London of so many venerable buildings having also destroyed the greater part of the ancient mansions which formerly existed here. The Bridge House, in Tooley Street, is supposed to be coeval with the Bridge, and to have been a storehouse for the materials used in that structure. It is at present let to government for a depot. The Bridge House estates, intended for the reparation of the Bridge, are of very great value, and are under the management of two Bridge-masters, appointed by the City. Opposite to St. Olave's Church is an ancient Crypt, beneath a building on the site of which formerly stood the mansion of the Prior of Lewes. A little lower down was the residence of the Abbot of Battle, the embellishments of whose gardens are still commemorated in the Maze and Maze Pond.
The district called the Mint occupies a part of the site of a magnificent mansion called Suffolk House, built by Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, in the reign of Henry VIII; after many changes of owners, this palace was pulled down, and in its place has arisen a number of wretched and dirty streets, lanes, and alleys. Near to St. Saviour's Church, stood Winchester House, a splendid structure belonging to the bishops of that see, and having a park of 60 or 70 acres. Here they resided from 1107, when it was erected by Bishop Giffard, until the beginning of the seventeenth century, when it was deserted for a residence at Chelsea. During the Civil Wars, this palace was employed as a prison; it was afterwards sold, and partly demolished. At the Restoration it again came into the possession of the Bishop, but was leased out, together with the park, to various persons. The few remains of this once magnificent building now form part of the contiguous warehouses, stables, &c.; and the walls of the Great Hall, with a most beautiful circular window, were discovered in consequence of a fire which consumed the surrounding buildings in August 1814. Even these ruins have since been destroyed, or hidden by new buildings. The district round this palace is called the Liberty of the Clink, and still belongs to the see of Winchester; it is of considerable extent, is exempt from the jurisdiction of the City of London, and a court leet is held annually for the election of its officers.
On Bankside, in this neighbourhood, was formerly a range of buildings, called the Stews, licensed by the Bishop of Winchester," for the repair of incontinent men to the like women;" they are mentioned so early as 1162, and continued until 1546, when they were suppressed by Henry VIII. These houses were rented, in the reign of Richard II, by William Walworth; they were destroyed by Wat Tyler's followers; and it has been suggested that the worthy Mayor's loyalty received an additional impetus from this occurrence, and that the idea of revenging his personal injuries had at least as much weight with him as the loyal indignation, which has been generally assigned as the motive for his attack on the insurgent chief.
During the reign of Elizabeth, Bankside was the site of several Theatres, among which the Globe, the Rose, the Hope, and the Swan, are enumerated; the former of these was situated at the corner of a place still called Globe Alley, and here some of Shakspeare's plays were first performed. On Bankside, but nearly opposite to Blackfriar's, were the Bear Gardens, one of which was also called Paris Garden, in which our ancestors enjoyed the refined amusement of bearbaiting and bull-baiting; this place is mentioned in the reign of Henry VIII; Elizabeth condescended to patronize it by her presence; and James I conferred the office of "keeper of the royal bears" on Edward Alleyn, the founder of Dulwich College, by which he is said to have gained £500 a year; the Bear Garden continued to be in use as late as 1672, but probably not long after that period.
In Blackfriar's Road, not far from the Bridge, is the building, once occupied by the Leverian Museum, and afterwards by the Surrey Institution, which was formed in 1807, on a plan similar to the Royal and London Institutions, and comprised a library, reading-rooms, and a theatre for the delivery of lectures on scientific and literary subjects. This institution continued with apparent prosperity during several years, but in 1820 it was dissolved, and the library, &c. sold by auction; the house has since been tenanted by various persons as a coffee-house, exhibition and lecture rooms, &c.
Southwark has long been noted for the vast manufactories situated within its limits; the principal of which are the unrivalled Brewery of Messrs. Barclay, Perkins and Co. not far from St. Saviour's Church, which occupies a space of nearly six acres, and where 275,641 barrels of porter were brewed in the year ending July 5th, 1829; the extensive Vinegar Yard of Messrs. Potts, near the Southwark Bridge; the South London Gas Works, on Bankside, said to supply more than 4000 lamps, from main pipes extending above 40 miles in length; the Glass House of Messrs. Pellatt and Co. which occupies the site of the ancient manor-house of Paris Garden; and a number of extensive hat-manufactories, dye-houses, iron-foundries, &c. in which business is carried on to an extent elsewhere unparalleled.
Within the present century, the improvements effected in the Borough and its vicinity have been very great. Handsome and well-built houses now occupy the site of the wretched erections which formerly disgraced St. George's Fields; the new roads and streets communicating with Southwark and Waterloo Bridges; the recent completion of Stamford Street, and its continuation in York Road; the new Dover Road; the neat buildings on Newington Causeway; those which form Trinity Square and its neighbourhood; the Cobourg Theatre; and, above all, the re-edification of St. Saviour's Church, and the grand line of approach now forming to the New London Bridge, show that this division of the metropolis has not been left behind in "the march of improvement."
STOCKWELL, a hamlet of Lambeth parish, is about three miles from Cornhill, and its pleasant situation has induced many persons to make it their residence. In 1767 a plain but commodious Chapel of Ease was built here, to which Archbishop Secker contributed £500. Two Chapels for Dissenters, and a National School are also established, as well as several Boarding Schools.
STREATHAM, five miles from London, is a beautiful village, which derives its name from its situation near the Roman road from London to Arundel. A mineral spring was discovered here in 1660, of a cathartic quality; it is situated on Lime Common, near the entrance of the village, and is still held in much esteem. The Church is small, but neat, with a square tower and tapering spire, which is seen for several miles. In the interior are two tablets of white marble, with Latin inscriptions by Dr. Johnson, in memory of Mr. Thrale, and his mother-inlaw, Mrs. Salusbury. Here also are interred two remarkable females, who, if we may believe their epitaphs, must have been paragons of excellence; the first is Rebecca, wife of William Lyne, who died in 1653; her virtues are enumerated on her tomb by her husband, who concludes with these lines:
"Should I ten thousand years enjoy my life,