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supposed to be, except that of London, the oldest on the Thames, having become much decayed, it was determined, a few years ago, to erect a new one, which has accordingly been done, at an expense of more than £40,000.
is a very handsome structure of stone, having five arches over the river, and one over the towing-path. On each side is a flight of steps leading to the water, enclosed in a circular recess; and the whole erection is highly creditable to the talents of the architect.
LAMBETH is now so immediately connected with the metropolis as scarcely to be considered under a separate head. The parish is of great extent, being not less than 16 miles in circumference; it contains the manors and hamlets of Vauxhall, Kennington, Stockwell, and some others. The earliest mention of this place in history is in 1041, when Hardicanute, son and successor of Canute, the first Danish monarch of England, suddenly expired here at a marriage feast given by a nobleman of his court; by some his death was imputed to poison, by others to intemperance. Here Harold declared himself successor to. Edward the Confessor; and Henry III kept a solemn Christmas here in 1231, and in the following year
assembled the Parliament at the same place. It has been conjectured, however, that the scene of all these events was at Kennington, and not at Lambeth, properly so called.
The most remarkable edifice in this parish is
the residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the only one now remaining of the ecclesiastical mansions with which London formerly abounded.
This venerable edifice exhibits specimens of the architecture of almost every period from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century. The principal part was built by Archbishop Boniface about 1260, but the Chapel is apparently of earlier date. This building possesses nothing remarkable, except the tomb of Archbishop Parker, whose body, during the Civil War, was taken from its sepulchre, and thrown into an out-house. After the Restoration it was discovered, and replaced, by the care of Archbishop Sancroft, in its original situation, which is marked by a marble slab, with this inscription:
"Corpus Matthæi Archiepiscopi tandem hic quiescit*." His monument, which had been removed when the Chapel was converted into a ball-room, was placed
"The body of Matthew the Archbishop rests here at last."
in the vestibule by the same prelate, with an inscription relating the circumstances. The windows of this Chapel were formerly filled with painted glass, put up by Cardinal Morton; and one of the charges brought against Laud was his having repaired these "idolatrous windows," which were completely demolished by the fanatics.
The Great Hall, 93 feet by 38, with a handsome Gothic oaken roof, was rebuilt by Archbishop Juxon, at an expense of £11,500, on the model of the former one, which had been destroyed by Colonel Scott, who purchased the whole building from the Parliamentary commissioners.
The Guard Chamber, 56 feet by 274, is roofed like the Hall, and was built in the fifteenth century.
The Presence Chamber has three windows adorned with painted glass, constructed at the expense of Archbishop Sheldon.
The Gallery, built by Cardinal Pole, is 90 feet long and 16 wide; the wainscot is finely carved, the windows bear the coats of arms of several Archbishops, and the walls are hung with a great number of portraits, principally prelates of this and other sees. A fine bay-window was made here by Archbishop Cornwallis, which commands a beautiful view, over the grounds of the Palace, of Westminster Abbey and Bridge, St. Paul's, and the Monument; the less pleasing objects being excluded by the arrangement of the shrubs, &c.
The Great Dining Room contains portraits of all the Archbishops from the time of Laud; and several other apartments are enriched with paintings, principally portraits, many of which are highly valuable.
The Library, which stands over the cloisters, and occupies the four sides of the quadrangle, was founded by Archbishop Bancroft about 1610, and its contents were much increased by his successor, Abbot. During the Civil War, the books were deposited at Cambridge, on the suggestion of Selden, that Trinity College in that University, had a reversionary right to them. After the Restoration they were delivered to Archbishop Sheldon, who made a considerable addition to them, and many valuable works have been added by subsequent prelates; so that the whole number now amounts to nearly 30,000 printed vo
lumes. A highly valuable Library of Manuscripts, amounting to above 11,000, has also been collected; and the room is adorned with some paintings, and engraved portraits of all the Archbishops from Warham to the present time, of the principal Reformers, and of several eminent nonconformist ministers. In one of the windows is a figure representing St. Augustine, and in another Archbishop Chicheley. Here is preserved the shell of a tortoise, which was put into the garden by Archbishop Laud, and killed by the negligence of the gardener in 1757, at least 120 years afterwards.
The Gateway, with the adjoining tower, both of brick, were built by Cardinal Morton, about 1490. The Lollard's Tower, so called from its having been the place of confinement for the persecuted followers of Wickliffe, was raised by the munificent but bigoted Henry Chicheley, in 1435. This is a massive building of stone, and at the top is the room used for the purpose from whence it derives its name; it is a small apartment, wainscotted with oak, on which many broken sentences and initials are rudely carved, supposed to have been done with the knives of the unhappy prisoners. Large iron rings remain in the walls, mementos of the bigotry of former days-a bigotry which could transform the otherwise liberal and charitable prelate who erected this tower, into a ferocious persecutor, thirsting for the blood of men whose only offence was a refusal to acknowledge the truth of doctrines which they felt convinced were founded in error.
In the reign of Elizabeth this Palace appears to have been frequently employed as a prison; Tunstal, Bishop of Durham, and Thirleby, Bishop of Ely, deprived of their sees after the death of Mary, for their attachment to the "ancient faith," were committed to the custody of Archbishop Parker, whose kindness alleviated the pains of confinement, and led him to treat them rather as friends than as prisoners. They both died here, and were buried in the adjoining Church, where the body of the latter, in a perfect state of preservation, was found in digging a grave for Archbishop Cornwallis, in 1783. The Earl of Essex was also confined here for a short time, previously to his being sent to the Tower,
The Gardens and Park, containing about 13 acres, are laid out with great taste, and were much improved by Archbishop Cornwallis. In the garden are two remarkably fine fig-trees, of the white Marseilles sort, which bear delicious fruit, and are said to have been planted by Cardinal Pole. They have been twice nearly destroyed by severe frosts, but the branches have again shot out with such luxuriance, that they are now nearly 50 feet in height, and more than 60 in width.
This venerable Palace has experienced, as well as its owners, many reverses of fortune: in 1381, during the insurrection of Wat Tyler, when Simon of Sudbury, the Archbishop, was put to death, this building was very much injured by the insurgents; in 1501 Catharine of Arragon, on her first arrival in England, lodged here several days; Mary, her daughter, who was much attached to her cousin, Cardinal Pole, visited him several times during his residence here; and Elizabeth was frequently the guest of Archbishop Parker*, and his successor Whitgift. In 1640 it was attacked by a mob, incited by hatred of the tyrannical Laud; in 1643, during his confinement in the Tower, this building was seized by the Parliament, and converted into a prison. In 1648 it was sold, with the manor, to Colonel Scott, who destroyed the Great Hall, turned the Chapel into a ball-room, and committed other dilapidations. After the Restoration the whole reverted to the see of Canterbury, and Colonel Scott was executed, as a Regicide. In 1780 the Palace was threatened by the infatuated Rioters, but was fortunately preserved by the arrival of a military force. The late Archbishop (Sutton) made many improvements during the period in which he held the see; and the present prelate (Dr. Howley), who succeeded him in 1828, is rebuilding a great part of the Palace, in a splendid style of Gothic architecture; the work is considerably advanced, but not sufficiently so for description.
Although she had been treated with the utmost hospitality and magnificence, Elizabeth could not forbear, on one of these visits, from evincing her dislike to the marriage of the clergy, by addressing Mrs. Parker, whom the Archbishop had married before the statute enjoining celibacy was repealed, in the following rude manner: "Madam I may not call you; Mistress I am ashamed to call you; yet as I know not what to call you, yet I thank you!"