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The number of cadets at present educated here is about 300, who are all of respectable families, and principally the sons of military officers. The Academy, erected about twenty years ago, is upwards of 600 feet in length, and cost more than £150,000. It was designed by Mr. Wyatt, and is in the castellated form, consisting in front of a centre and two wings, each of which has four turrets, those of the centre being finished by cupolas, and the whole united by corridors, with a hall and various offices behind. The beauty of the building is by no means remarkable, and the utility as well as the propriety of the establishment has been frequently questioned.
On the other side of the Common are the Artillery Barracks, an immense pile of building, whose principal front is nearly 1200 feet in length. This structure is of brick, and was commenced about 1775, but the greater part of it has been reared within the present century. It is appropriated exclusively to the regiment of Artillery, which during the war consisted of almost 17,000 men, but has since been reduced to about 7000, who form nine battalions. In front of the Barracks is the Parade; and the open space of the Common affords room for exercising the men in throwing shells, &c.
To the eastward of the Barracks is the Ordnance Hospital, an extensive edifice, capable of receiving about 700 patients. Several other buildings for the use of the military have been erected on various parts of the Common; among which are a Veterinary Hospital for the horse brigade of Artillery; and the Repository for Models, in the form of a pagoda, which was removed hither from Carlton House, in the gardens of which it served as a banqueting-room to the Allied Sovereigns, on their visit to this country in 1814. On the west side of the town are Barracks and an Hospital, for the fourth division of Marines, whose head-quarters are fixed here.
The whole of the military and civil establishments of Woolwich, including the Academy, are under the superintendence of the Master General and Board of Ordnance.
Several hulks, for the reception of convicts, are moored off this town; and the prisoners are employed in the Dock Yard and other public works.
WYE, a village four miles from Ashford, has a large and handsome Church, formerly collegiate, consisting of a nave, aisles, and chancel, with a fine tower. Here is an ancient College, founded in 1447, by Archbishop Kemp, now occupied as a Grammar School; and also a School for the education of children of both sexes, endowed by Lady Thornhill in 1708. The population of the parish, in 1821, was stated to be 1508.
At Ollantigh, in this parish, was born Cardinal Kemp, Archbishop of Canterbury, a man of great ability and liberality. He died in 1453, aged 73, and was interred in his Cathedral. His nephew Thomas, Bishop of London, was also born here, and died in 1489.
The same place gave birth to the patriotic Alderman Sawbridge, so well known for his activity in the political turmoils of the first twenty years of George III's reign. His sister, Mrs. Macauley Graham, authoress of the History of England, and remarkable for her attachment to republicanism, of which she gave rather too many proofs in her writings, was also born here in 1731.
YALDING, a village on a branch of the Medway, over which it has a stone bridge, has a population of 2414 persons, but is nevertheless a place of very little importance. The Church is a large old building, with a square tower, but possesses nothing worthy of notice. Nicholas Amhurst, author of the Craftsman, and other political works, was a native of this place, and died in 1742, of chagrin at the neglect of his pretended friends, from whom he expected a liberal reward for his services in driving Sir Robert Walpole from power, but who, with the usual gratitude of politicians, kept the reward to themselves, and left their humble tools to perish in obscurity.
END OF THE DESCRIPTION OF KENT,
THIS County is bounded on the North by the Thames, which separates it from Middlesex and a small part of Buckinghamshire; on the East by Kent; on the South by Sussex; and on the West by Berkshire and Hampshire. Its form is nearly oblong, except on the north, where it is deeply indented by the Thames. In size it is inferior to many other counties, its greatest length from east to west being not more than 39 miles, and its utmost width from north to south 26; comprising an area of about 519,000 acres. It is divided into 13 hundreds; is represented in Parliament by 14 members; and its population, in 1821, was 398,658.
Almost the whole surface of this county consists of a gentle diversity of hill and dale, the eminences occasionally rising to a considerable height, and presenting a very bold and commanding aspect. In some places wide and barren heaths impart a wildness to the prospect, which is strikingly contrasted with the innumerable beauties scattered over the surface of the country by the hand of art; while the hills, which sometimes aspire to the bold character and picturesque scenery of mountains, at others gradually decline into richly-wooded dales, and plains covered with luxuriant harvests. It has been observed, that Surrey contains a greater number of gentlemen's seats than any other district in the kingdom of the same extent; and although this distinction is certainly owing, in some measure, to its vicinity to the Metropolis, the acknowledged salubrity of the air, and varied beauty of the prospects, would doubtless procure for it a marked preference as a residence, were it at a much greater distance.
The Soil of this county is greatly varied, the different species lying intermixed in small patches.
These, however, may be reduced to the general heads of clay, loam, chalk, and heath. On the southern border, called the Weald of Surrey, extending about thirty miles in length, and from three to five in width, the soil generally consists of a pale clay; the surface is flat, and covered with wood. To the north of this district a sandy loam prevails, the richest part of which lies round Godalming. But the most striking feature of this county is its extensive chalky Downs, lying nearly in the centre, and about seven miles in width at their entrance by Croydon from Kent, but narrowed almost to a point at their termination near the borders of Hampshire. Along their elevated summit is a large extent of heath, which also is found in considerable patches in other parts of the county, especially on the western side, and is considered to be among the worst and most unprofitable soils in England.
The Mineral and Fossil productions of this county are numerous and important. Iron ore is found in considerable quantities about Haslemere and Cranley, near the Sussex border, as well as near Lingfield, on the Kentish side; and is supposed to exist in most parts of the Weald; but the high price of fuel has occasioned the works to be totally neglected. Fuller's earth abounds in many places, particularly near Reigate; and in the same neighbourhood are extensive quarries of a particular kind of stone, which is in great demand for fire-places, being capable of resisting heat to a very considerable degree. Limestone of an excellent quality is dug near Dorking, as also at Guildford, and various other places. Chalk abounds, and is in general use as a manure. Brick earth is found in several parts of the county, but is inferior to that of Middlesex.
The principal rivers of Surrey are the Wey, the Mole, and the Wandle: the first of these rises near Haslemere, and running eastward to Godalming and Guildford, passes near Woking, and falls into the Thames at Weybridge, having been joined in its course by a number of small streams, which supply many mills, and ornament the grounds of several noblemen and gentlemen: the Mole is formed by the union of several small springs on the borders of Sussex, which between Reigate and Dorking com
pose a considerable stream; after washing the base of Box Hill, near which it disappears, but is visible again at about two miles distance, it proceeds by Cobham to Esher, and opposite to Hampton Court pays its tribute to the Thames; from the circumstance of its temporary disappearance it probably received its name: the Wandle rises not far from Croydon, and being much augmented by numerous springs near Carshalton, turns nearly fifty mills, and joins the Thames at Wandsworth. A branch of the Medway has its source in the south-eastern part of this county, but soon leaves it, and enters Kent. The western border is skirted by the Loddon; and the northern side is washed by the Thames. There are several extensive ponds in various parts of the county, some of which contain not less than 150 acres, and are employed in the rearing of fish for the London market. The mineral springs are numerous, and were formerly in high repute; they have not lost their virtues, but ever-varying Fashion now patronizes more distant resorts; and these are now abandoned for others, which will be condemned in their turn.
In agricultural improvement Surrey may be looked upon as inferior to many other counties. The produce of wheat is from two to five, and sometimes six quarters an acre; that of barley, from four to seven or eight. The latter is used for malting, for which purpose it is considered equal to any in the kingdom. The climate appears to be not so favourable to the cultivation of oats, which sometimes do not produce more than three or four quarters per acre. Garden peas and beans, asparagus, potatoes, and other vegetables, are extensively cultivated near the metropolis, and about 3500 acres are employed for this purpose. Turnips are raised in large crops; as are carrots, clover, sainfoin, and hops, with which latter about 900 acres are occupied near Farnham, and are held in very high estimation. A great quantity of land is devoted to the cultivation of physical herbs; but there is a much smaller proportion of grass land than in most other counties. Oxen, sheep, hogs, and fowls, are bred in Surrey in considerable quantities; and many geese are kept on the Commons, and in the Weald.
The roads of this county were formerly very indifferent, but have been much improved within the last