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Was born at the Castle of Vitrol The Congress was assembled at les, in Provence, in the month of Chatillon. Thither the baron repairAugust of the year 1774, and is de- ed quite alone, towards the end of scended of an ancient family. He the month of February 1814, and emigrated with his parents at the without any injunctions, without any cominencement of the Revolution, direction, save that which he received entered the corps of the Chevaliers from an enlightened patriotism, he de la Couronne at the time of its succeeded in retarding the negociaformation, and served during the tions, already considerably advanced, campaigns of 1792, 1793, and 1794. and which must have proved detriHe afterwards attached himself to the mental to the house of Bourbon. BeChasseurs' of Bussy. Having return- ing afterwards invited to head-quar. ed to his native country, after the ters at Troyes, he repaired thither, fall of the Directory, he set himself and afterwards to Bar-sur-Seine and to retrieve his fortune. For this pur- io Bar-sur-Aube, and had daily conpose, he retired with his family to ferences with Prince Metternich, and the estate of Vitrolles, devoted him- the other ministers of the four powers. self to agricultural pursuits, and en- He was frequently admitted to discouraged, by every method in his cuss with them the necessity and the power, establishments which might means of giving the war with Buonaprove useful to a country so poor and parte such a termination as might 80 remote. He filled the offices of secure the safety of France. The mayor and member of the general Emperor of Russia expressed a strong council of his department, and others desire to see him, and received him to which the confidence of his fellow. with those tokens of regard which citizens called him.

are dye from an enlightened monarch During the year 1813, he foresaw to one who exbibits enthusiastical atthe fall of Buonaparte, and therefore tachment to his king and country. repaired to Paris, in hope, through his The baron attempted to prove to the numerous connexions, of being service- emperor, that the restoration of the able to the royal cause, the success house of Bourbon would be of intiof which was regarded by him as the nite advantage to France ; that it was pnly remedy for the evils of his coun- the only method by which that country. But great difficulties stood in try and the allies could be saved the way of his exertions. Buona- from the evils of a most calamitous war, parte being irritated by the nuinerous and by which assurance of future redefeats which he had suffered, was pose could be obtained; in fine, that on that account, the more to be ihis was the only way in which France dreaded ; and it required no node- and Europe could be united by durarate share of zcal and resolution to ble tics. attack what was called his omnipo.

He succeeded, in having the negotence. In these circumstances, M. ciations broken off, and in persuading de Vitrolles, following the bent of the allied powers to issue a formal his own character, conceived one of declaration, refusing to treat any the most daring projects of which his Jonger with Buonaparte, and putting tory affords an example,

the provinces already occupied under

the administration of Monsieur, the most trying circumstances, ample king's brother.

He afterwards ad- proof of bis zeal and of his capacity, vised, that the army should march and having acquired a high place in directly to Paris, by which means the the public esteem, he received the war would become political rather honourable distinction of being apthan offensive; and was permitted to pointed to go in quest of Monsieur, carry to his Royal Highness Mon. and he re-entered Paris at the side of sieur the favourable accounts of the that prince. The latter immediately manner in which they were proceeds appointed him interim secretary of ing. That prince was then at Nanci, state ; and on the arrival of the king, and was far from indulging the hopes M. de Vitrolles was not only favourwhich the news brought by M. de ed with the most flattering assurance3 Vitrolles communicated. He received of the royal esteem, but was confirm. the baron in the most gracious man- ed in the important office which the ner, and immediately empowered him brother of the king had thus assigned to continue to treat with the allies, to him. and to watch interests of the royal He alone countersigned the declacause in France.

ration of Saint-Ouen, and all the first M. de Vitrolles having left Nanci, acts of the royal government, until in company with several foreigners the month of March 1815. At that of distinction, was attacked in his way epoch, he insisted with much eagerto head-quarters by some corps which ness before the council and his mawere in advance of the army; and jesty, that, if it should be found imafter vainly attempting to resist a practicable to defend Paris, the king much superior force, was made pri- should retire to the southern pro

At the time when this occur- vinces, which remained loyal. "The rence took place, Buonaparte had advice of the baron was not followabandoned the defence of the capital, ed; but when his majesty quitted the and was at Saint-Dizier.

capital, he dispatched M. de Vitrolles The Baron de Vitrolles was in a si. to the south, expecting that, by his tuation sufficiently perilous, and doubt- talent and resolution, he might put a ed not that his destruction was near. check to the too rapid successes of He contrived, however, to destroy the Napoleon. After spending a few mipapers which were on his person; nutes with Madajne at Bourdeaux, he and after having been conducted for repaired to Toulouse, intending to orseveral days in the midst of some un- ganize a centre for the royal governfortunate prisoners attached to the ment there. The want of time, and. rear of the retreating army, and ha- the progress of rebellion, prevented ving endured fatigue and privations the wise measures which were adoptof all kinds, he escaped with mosted by him from being successful in unexpected good fortune, and arrived their issue; but the baron being reat Paris shortly after the entrance of solved not to abandon the lionourable the allied troops. The Emperor of and perilous post which he occupied, Russia immediately sent for him, and and being, moreover, influenced by tho first words which he uttered on the opinion of Madame, who thought seeing liim were these, -" Well! that the preservatioo of Toulouse Monsieur de Vitrolles, think you the would afford to the Duke of Anyouresults of our last conversation have leme the means of a secure retreat, been important?”

would, on no account, make his o After having thus exhibited, in the cape from the fury of his enemics. VOL. IX. PART II.



The friends of the usurper were, it from prison, under the provisional may easily be supposed, sufficiently government, on the day of Buonaincensed against him; but those who parte's second abdication, he was sethated him most could not help enter. ting out for Ghent, when he discovertaining the highest esteem for him. ed, that, by staying at Paris, he might Even Buonaparte, on hearing of his serve the royal cause. He accordingactions, exclaimed, “ Why was not I ly remained there, and braved new made acquainted with that man?” dangers, in order to render new ser:

He was arrested at Toulouse on vices. On the return of his majesty, the 14th of April, and the report of he resumed the functions of a minihis noble conduct and of his dangers ster of state. He was elected memeogaged the interest of Europe. Du- ber of the Chamber of 1815, by the ring the hundred days he was kept department of the Basses-Alpes, and in the closest confinement, and owed distinguished himself by his moderahis liberty to the results of the battle' tion, and by the wisdom of his opiof Waterloo. Having been delivered nions, voting with the majority,


This lady is sister to the Duke of her until a short period before her Orleans, and was born on the 28d of deată, which took place in the year August, 1777. She had the advan. 1802. The Duchess of Orleans, her tage of having her education con- mother, had meantime made Cataloducted by Madame de Genlis, and nia the place of her retreat, andbewas remarkable in her early youth ing anxious to see her daughter once for her sweet and amiable disposi. more, and to have her to be the comtions; every body saw that she was panion of her solitude, she sent à never so happy as when employed in person to conduct her into Spain. relieving the distressed; she loved In obedience to the orders of her her brother with the most ardent af- mother, the young lady left Presbourg fection, and found in him both a in the month of January, 1802, and friend and a protector. Being obli- reached Catalonia in the month of ged to leave France in 1793, she March following. There she resided went in his company to Belgium, for six years, enjoying the comapny and thence to Switzerland. After in of her mother, and received the utvain attempting to procure an asy- most kindness from the gentry of the ium for her in the cantons of Zu- country, After this period of safety rich and Zug, he had her placed suc and tranquillity, the ladies were sudcessively in the convents of Brem- denly exposed to the most imminent garten and Fribourg, under the pro- danger. The French had invaded Catatection of her aunt the Princess of lonia, and meeting with some resist. Conti. In that pious retreat, Made ance before Figuieres, they threw moiselle d’Orleans lived for a consi- bombs into the city, and the house of derable time. When her aunt went to the Duchess of Orleans was destroyBavaria and Hungary she followed ed. The two princesses were under her, and indeed was constantly with the necessity of taking to flight in the

night season, and they were quickly the beginning of the year 1809, and forced to leave the place to which soon afterwards she witnessed the they then retreated. Meantime the happy alliance which her brother perilous situation of his mother and contracted with the Princess Amelia. sister being made known to the Duke The princess now spent a happy life, of Orleans, he dispatched an agent for her mother, judging it expedient who was instructed to bring them to leave Spain, took up her residence away from the theatre of the war. in Malta, and the daughter divided The old lady, however, was unwilling her time between her and her bro. to leave Spain, but persuaded her ther's family. But the happiness of daughter to put herself under the the Orleans family was not a little duke's protection.

increased when the news arrived of In the month of March, 1808, the the king's return to France. MadeDuke of Orleans had left London, in moiselle then accompanied her bro. order to conduct his brother, the ther to Paris, and lived with his famiCount of Beaujolais, to Malta. Thi- ly in the Palace-Royal. ther Mademoiselle d'Orleans was di

Being again compelled by the un. rected to point her course, and ac- fortunate event of the month of March cordingly arrived in Malta in the to leave France, she retired to Eng . month of August, fully expecting to land along with her Royal Highness find her brother already arrived. In the Duchess of Orleans, but returned this, however, she was disappointed, in the course of the year 1816, and is for the count having died a few days now residing with her family. after his arrival, and the duke ha If in a princess whose virtues are so ving been invited to the court of Pa- distinguished, we were permitted to lermo, had already taken his departure speak of any thing else, we might for Sicily. Thither, without hesita- speak of her fine parts, of the graceting, she determined to follow him; fulness of her manners, and of her but as soon as she had landed she extraordinary skill in music and paintlearned that he had set off for Gibral. ing. We might relate the praise tar. Believing that the mission upon which she has received from the most which he was sent to Spain would de- distinguished artists for her execution tain him a considerable time, she fol on the harp, and for her paintings of lowed his steps ; but on arriving at flowers. But we prefer to imitate her Gibraltar, she found that the duke in that modesty which seems to con. had returned to London.

ceal from her own view her many Unsubdued by this new disappoint- perfections, and we will not allow ment, she embarked for England, and ourselves to raise the veil with which having arrived in safety at Ports- she covers the admirable qualities of mouth, had at last the unspeakable hersoul-sensibility, generosity, piety, satisfaction of joining her brother, conjoined with so much sweetness and whom she had sought in vain in almost charity, qualities which render her as every part of Europe. She accom much the model of her sex, as the panied him in several of his voyages; graciousness and dignity of her manin particular, she went with him into ners, render her the model of printhe Mediteranean. After a tedious

cesses. passage, they arrived at Palermo in

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[The two pieces of historical writing which follow, the Account of the Conspiracy of

Arnold, and the Narrative of the Operations of the French Army in America, are translations from the works of two distinguished Frenchmen, who served against the English army during the American war. The author of the former is Monsieur the Count Barbé Marbois; the latter is from the Memoirs of the Marshal de Rochambeau. They have been translated by an American, and published in Ames rica ; but, as they have never appeared in this country, we have thought proper to insert them here, because, whatever may be thought of some of the statements contained in them, (more particularly in the former piece) they are materials of history, and must be hereafter considered by every person who wishes to investi

gate the events of the interesting period to which they refer. The “ Conspiracy of Arnold” has received the highest praises from all the French

critics, and by one of them it is placed on a level with St Real's celebrated masterpiece, the Conjuration de Venise." Its author has at a later period visited the American continent, and has enjoyed abundant opportunities of correcting his narrative, by comparing his own recollections with those of the most eminent men of that country:- In the extract from Rochambeau, there will not be found much that is 'absolutely new ; but it cannot be uninteresting to see, in an English dress, the narrative of an honest and excellent French officer, who was present during the whole of the transactions of which he writes.]




Translated from the French of Count Barbé Marbois.

Preliminary Discourse on the United States, by M. Barbé Marbois.

BEFORE the discovery of America by now flourishes the Republic of the the Europeans, tribes of savages, un.

United States. They lived in the open settled and feeble, occupied, in this air, or inhabited wigwams, that is, hụts great continent, the territory where of the rudest structure. Their only rai

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