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revision and alteration. There were the Chancellor of the Exchequer had various other subjects, unnecessary for expressed a hope that gentlemen would him to allude to at present, which were turn their attention to the accounts equally pressing upon the notice of the that would be laid before them, not House ; he would only instance the in the gross, but in detail, and that state of the poor-laws, as they respect. they would investigate the items. He ed the equalization of rates. All that would promise the right honourable he was desirous of urging upon the no- gentleman that he, for one, would tice of the House at present was, the not only examine them en masse, absolute necessity of redeeming their but would go through every estimate pledge, by immediately entering into and item in all its bearings, in the that enquiry, which was, of all others, humble hope of assisting the right the most important--namely, into the honourable gentleman in his laudable state of the finances, and by thus show- enquiry. Thus the problem might be ing to the country that their condition discussed this session, as to what was was not absolutely hopeless, and that the least farthing of expence in every the promises of parliament were not department, from the establishment of mere empty sounds without meaning. the prince down to that of the com. Before he concluded, he begged to mon soldier, which was necessary for allude to one part of the hon. gentle. the country to pay, consistently with man's speech opposite, and the more its security, and what was the lowest so, because it formed a part of the ad- reduction in our civil and military es. dress under consideration. He meant tablishments which that security could that part which pledged the House to admit of.” measures of economy. That part of A variety of remarks, similar to those the address and speech of the honour- of Mr Brougham, or illustrative of able gentleman must be taken to mean, some of the positions contained in his such a rigorous investigation into the speech, were made by Lord Milton, amount of our enormous establish. Sir Samuel Romilly, Mr Tierney, Mr ments, both at home and abroad, as Coke (of Norfolk), and Mr Horner. would lead to this results-that our But the state of the agricultural classes expences would be reduced to the formed the subject of subsequent and smallest amount possible, consistently far more deliberate discussions, of with our safety. For it was a rob- which we shall soon give an account. bery of the people of this country, it Lord Castlereagh replied, at some was a cruel mockery of their suffer- length, to the speeches of the opposiings, to tell them, after twenty-five tion members. He began with reproyears of distress and misery, and when bating that freedom of language which the long-looked for peace was at length some of these gentlemen assumed, in rearrived, that they were still to endure gard to foreign governments not reprethe expences of war, without the be. sented or able to defend themselves in Debts of peace. And for what pur- the British Senate-house. His lordship pose? For the purpose of securing then proceeded to state, that “though the cession of new islands, of appoint. he expected great differences on all the ing new governors, new secretaries, foreign questions, he still denied 'the new clerks, of establishing new sources accuracy of the assertion that had been of patronage, new causes of alarm to made, that the address now under con. the people, and new quarters from sideration was entitled to support, be-' which danger" may be portended to cause it pledged the House to nothing. their rights. The right honourable The merits of the peace under existing
circumstances would be subject to the ed at. They ought not to turn aside examination of the House on a future either from the view of the general day. He admitted it would then be policy, or that of the internal state of for them to consider whether a wiser the country; and with respect to the peace, or one more advantageous for latter, there was certainly much to be this country, and for Europe in gene. considered ; but he wished to know ral, might not have been made, after what peace could have been made the successes which had crowned the which would not have left much for army of England in conjunction with consideration, how best to conduct the her allies. These were points that country from one situation to a state would be open for discussion, and for so immensely different, as that was to these ministers stood responsible in which we were now coming, from that their characters and in their situa- which we have so long known—from tions; but still it would be seen, that, prosperous war (for even in the war agreeing to the present address, the the marks of prosperity failed not to House acceded to the proposition, manifest themselves, and continue to that there never had been a peace accumulate in every year), to profound concluded for this, or perhaps for any peace. There was no man who could other country, so advantageous, so suppose, at the close of such a war, glorious in all respects, and so com that some indications of calamity pletely accomplishing the most san would not result from the changes guine expectations of the country. He consequent on the transition of the inwas not surprised at the gloomy ap. dustry of the country from the war prehensions expressed by some of the market to the peace market. But, gentlemen who had spoken on the looking at this, he desired that an exother side : remembering, as he did, aggerated view might not be taken of what were their feelings while we were the evils to be surmounted. It was engaged in the prosecution of the war, fit that the country should look them it was not to be expected that these in the face ; to meet them with suc. would be at once removed by the re cess, it was necessary they should turn of peace. Some difficulties were know the extent of the difficulties with to be anticipated; for he should be which they had to contend ; but it glad to know where a peace had been was not from taking an exaggerated made in any part of the world, which view of them that parliament would had left all the community for whom be enabled to supply the proper reit was made without one grievance to medy. While he admitted that the complain of ? He, however, should be difficulties referred to existed to a cerglad to have this peace compared with tain degree, he felt he might even now ару of those which had been pressed congratulate the country on the si. on the attention of parliament during tuation in which it was found at the the war by their opponents, as models close of such a contest—a situation for that which it would be desirable to very different, and gratifyingly differ. gain, and he would confidently ask, if, ent, from that in which it had been among these, any one could be found left at the termination of at all to be compared with the pre- war. If they looked back to the end sent ?
of the American war, would they find “ The attention of parliament must that it was possible for the Chancellor necessarily be soon directed to the in- of the Exchequer of that day, while ternal situation of the country. He seeking for topics of consolation, to wished the question to be fairly look speak of the fourishing state of the
industry, commerce, or revenues of the which had been so much commented country? Was there not a general on, was borne out by facts. The failure in each-a depression in all of British manufactures exported in the them, arising out of the sacrifices three-quarters of a year, ending Octo. caused by the war? and was not that ber 10, 1814, amounted to 37,167,2941. decay in the prosperity of all classes Those exported in the three-quarters, to be lamented which now only press- ending October 10, 1815, amounted ed upon the agricultural interests of to 42,425,3577. This was the amount the country, and he trusted would be of their real or declared value ; and shown on a future day, when the sub. from this comparison it would be seen ject came under the consideration of that the increase which had taken the House, to proceed from temporary place amounted to 5,258,0631. This causes? It had been stated in the ad- addition to our external commerce he dress, that the manufactures, com considered of the greatest importance. merce, and revenue, were in a flourish. The internal state of the country was ing state. To these the word • arts' such, that, deducting the amount of had been prefixed by an hon. and the property.tax, (which was nearly learned gentleman (Mr Brougham). the same as in the preceding year,) the But these were not mentioned in the taxes on the home consumption, down speech from the throne ; and, he pre- to January 5, 1816, notwithstanding sumed, had only been introduced for a falling off to the amount of four or the purpose of amplification. Assu- five hundred thousand pounds in the redly, the circumstances of the coun. customs, the increase in the revenue uptry warranted the assertion referred on the whole amounted to a million and to. He wished not to enter into de- a half. If there was a falling off in the tails at present ; all he wished was, customs, he had the satisfaction to that the country should look with a state, there was not only no falling off steady, manly resolution at the diffi- in the excise, but the excess under this culties with which they had yet to head covered the decrease which had contend, as they had done during those occurred under the former. The war. they had to struggle with during the taxes had kept steady: they did not war. Doing this, they would have mi- vary more than 200,000l. from what nisters ready to go hand in hand with they were last year. There then was them, determined not to resort to a vast increase of the external comthose false expedients which had for. merce of the country; the excise was merly been suggested, and resolved enormously increased, and the revenue to persevere in those solid measures, was generally in a flourishing state, which, founded on sound principles, which proved, that the community had finally brought the war to a suc- possessed, in as great a degree as for'cessful termination. Though not dis- merly, the means of indulging those posed to go into details on this occa tastes and dispositions which caused sion, he thought it might be well that that consumption from which this rehe should describe the present state of venue arose. Though he did not unthe revenue, and by comparing the dervalue the depression complained of amount of British goods exported in by the agricultural interest, he was the three-quarters of a year, ending not discouraged at it, as he trusted it October 10, 1814, with ihose of the would prove temporary. If the agrithree-quarters, ending at the same pe- cultural interest had steadily prosperriod in the following year, it would be ed for a considerable number of
years, seen that the passage in the speech, as it was well knowe it' had,) while
other classes of the community suffer. But great difference of opinion was ed severely, it was not a matter of sur. expressed in regard, first, to the jusprise that it should at length encoun. tice of those principles of general poier misfortune, and it ought not to oc- lity, in virtue of which England was casion despondency, though a remedy, supposed to have concurred with the if practicable, ought to be supplied. allies in aiding the restoration of Louis If parliament met the difficulties of XVIII. to the throne of France; sethe country fairly, and joined to sus- condly, the wisdom of those measures tain the credit of the couetry, this which the allied powers had adopted would be likely to afford the agricul. for the coercion and punishment of turist the most effectual relief." the country in whose internal govern
The House divided upon the amend ment they had thus interfered ; and, ment, which not having been expected, thirdly, the policy of those territorial many both of the ministerial and of arrangements, by which the future rethe opposition members had with- pose of Europe had been provided drawn. The address, in its original for. On each of these points, several state, however, was still carried by a long and eloquent speeches were promajority of 67.
nounced. With regard to the The first subjects which formally we beg to refer our readers to some engaged the attention of parliament, observations on the principles of legi. were the policy of the government in timacy, as applied to monarchical regard to the treaties lately concluded, right; and on the circumstances under and the arrangement of the affairs of which the second restoration of Louis the continent founded upon their pro- XVIII. took place, inserted in the last visions. In discussing these topics, in volume of this Register, * because themselves of so extensive a character, there, as we conceive, the arguments the various speakers, more particularly on both sides of the question have al. those of the Lower House, indulged ready been condensed. The measures in the display of many arguments and of establishing a foreign army of surreasonings entirely extraneous, inso- veillance in France, and of exacting much that the debates were protracted from that country the heavy pecuniary during several successive nights. Upon mulct inflicted by the definitive treaty, the whole, however, the substance of were attackedon many different grounds the views and principles developed in by different members of the legislative the course of these evenings, may be bodies, but were, on the whole, very reduced to a comparatively small com- successfully defended by ministers, pass. On one point, as 'might have both in the Upper and in the Lower been expected from the proceedings House. The speech of Lord Liveron the opening of the session, namely, pool, the first delivered in the House the splendid nature of the exertions of Lords, appears to have comprehend. and successes of our armies, the mem- ed almost every thing that could be, bers of both houses agreed in express. with propriety, advanced. His Lording the same sentiments of patriotic ship began with detailing the events of congratulation. With few exceptions, the campaign terminating in the sethe propriety of adopting the most cond occupation of Paris, and of the vigorous measures on the return of manner in which the exiled monarch Buonaparte, was now, as in the pre- had resumed the exercise of his soceding year, maintained by all parties. vereignty. He then went on to the
• See Edinburgh Annual Register for 1815, Chap. xvi.
ultimate arrangements adopted upon treaty of Triple Alliance, there was the close of these transactions. It likewise a stipulation, that if the gohas been asserted," said he," that no vernment of the house of Hanover examples existed which could warrant were disturbed by any internal plots, the present conduct of England and France and Holland should furnish the her allies with respect to France. It same succours as in case of foreign inwas triumphantly maintained, that no vasion. treaties could be found where the prin. “ Here, then, were treaties and so ciple of such interference had been lemn engagements made under the avowed. How different, it was said, sanction of the parliament of Great were the proceedings connected with Britain, not against foreiga enemies, the accession of King William and of but against internal conspiracy and sethe house of Hanover! In answer to dition. There were indeed some peosuch assertions, he would ask-Had ple who would maintain, that the acthe gentlemen who advanced such ar. cession of the house of Hanover was guments ever looked into the treaties not then desired by the majority of the relative to the accession of these two nation ; and certainly all must allow, houses? He would first call the at. that at the time alluded to, there extention of their Lordships to a treaty isted in this country a most formidable between Queen Anne and the States- party, in wealth, rank, connexions, and General, concluded at the Hague on talent, which was decidedly hostile to the 29th of October, 1709, in the se, that illustrious house. The wiser part cond article of which it was stipula of the nation had, however, demanded ted, that no power having a right to them for its rulers ; and he would ask, call in question the succession of the whether there could be any principle house of Hanover to the throne of which justified the English nation in Great Britain, and to oppose the laws then calling upon foreigners for intermade to this purpose, by the crown ference, which would not now even and parliament of Great Britain, the more amply justify England in her inStates General engage and promise to terference with the internal direction assist and maintain in the said succes of French affairs? No man could be sion, her or him to whom it shall be. less willing to become an advocate for long by virtue of the said acts of par. the house of Stuart than himself ; but liament, to assist them in taking pos- he could not help observing, as to the session, if they have not already got rival dynasties of Stuart and Bruns, it; and to oppose those who would wick, and their probable influence and disturb them in the taking such pos- consequences upon foreign nations, it session, or in the actual possession of could have been of very little importthe aforesaid succession. In the treaty ance to other states by which of the of January 29, 1719, there was a si two houses England might be govern. milar article, where the States-Gene- ed. But here, in the case of France, ral further engaged, after the decease there was no rational hope of internal of the queen, to assist the house of tranquillity or safety to any individual Hanover in obtaining and keeping pos- state of Europe, unless there was a disession of the throne of England. And rect interference with the domestic in the 15th article of this latter treaty, management of France. He knew that it is agreed, that all kings, princes, there were some who maintained, that and states, that desire to come into this the dismemberment of France would treaty, may be invited and admitted have been better than this continued thereunto. In the 7th article of the intermeddling with its affairs; and cer,