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of Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, The last section simply provides that the other source of power has been given to us by and Arkansas, the reservation is of one million officers and employés of the bureau before the people of the States acting through their acres; and I would say in regard to this sec. entering upon the discharge of their duties | Legislatures. The great amendment declares tion that if the bill which has just been reported || shall take the oath prescribed by the first sec- thatfrom the Senate, and which has now gone to a tion of the act to which this is an amendment. "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, ex conference committee, should become a law- || [Some excitement was here manifested among cept as a punishment for crime whereof the party I refer to the homestead law which passed this members.] I hope, Mr. Speaker, that the inter
shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within tho
United States or any place subject to their jurisdicHouse some time ago this section will become ruption caused by the late news from Connec. tion." of no value, and will be stricken from the bill. ticut will not be taken out of my time.
And by its second section confers upon ConThat time will have arrived before, in the reg: Several MEMBERS. What is the news? gress, by direct grant, “power to enforce this ular order of things, this bill shall have passed Mr. ELIOT. I understand the news is that article by appropriate legislation." By this both branches of Congress. If that bill does Mr. Ferry has been elected by both Houses of act alone freedom in every State was by the not become a law, for reasons which I will the Connecticut Legislature a Senator of the people suddenly conferred upon four million attempt to show it is essential that this section United States. [Applause, promptly checked bondmen. Whether military power had effectshould be retained. If it does become a law, || by the Speaker.]
ually wrought its work or not that amendment the provisions of that law will enable the Mr. LE BLOND. I move that business be was effectual. States that had emancipated Department to provide for the freedmen with- suspended to allow members an opportunity to | might reënslave. But that amendment inout the aid of the fifth section of this bill. shout. [Laughter.]
stantly, when ratified, worked perpetual freeThe sixth section, as it is now reported, The SPEAKER. How long a time does the dom. States which had not formally united refers to the Sherman lands, and is substan- | gentleman from Ohio (Mr. LE BLOND] desire? | their fortunes with the rebel government betially altered from the provision of the previous Mr. LE BLOND. Well, say five minutes. came at once subject to the power of that amendlaw. It now provides that when the former Mr. ELIOT. We cair defer that for the ment, and in a moment the bondmen within owners of those lands, which are now allotted present. It will do just as well at another their borders were made free. to the freedmen, and which have been occu- time. I prefer to proceed with my remarks By necessary implication, if the second sec. pied, as it is known, by them under licenses
tion had not conferred it, we should, I trust, from the Government, shall apply for a resto- Mr. Speaker, wherever we turn in our legis- || have found and asserted the power to protect ration, the Commissioner shall procure other lative path we encounter questions of freedmen the freedmen. But there is the grant of power. lands, provided he can obtain them at an av. and freedmen's rights; they faceus everywhere. | And whatever legislation Congress-the sole erage price not exceeding twenty-five dollars No peace can come that will “ stay” until the and exclusive judge in the first instanee, subper acre; that he shall assign them, in lots Government which decreed freedom shallvindi- ject ultimately to the judgment of the highest of forty acres, to the occupants of lands under cate and enforce its rights by appropriate legis- || judicial tribunal of the Union-shall deem to General Sherman's order, requiring them to lation. Absent States may return to their alle- be appropriate to make fairly effective the great pay a fair rental for the lands and permit them | giance pursuant to laws which you enact, but | grant of freedom is thus authorized and en, to purchase, provided they will pay to the Gov- no true welcome will be found until some suffi- joined. A race of men enslaved by force and ernment the full cost which the Government cient measure of justice shall be meted out to kept in bondage for generations, not recog. has incurred for the lands. The provision is the men whom "military necessity'' converted nized as clothed with manhood; héld, clothed, that no sale shall be made of the lands pur- from slaves to citizens. No man, forever here- fed for service; denied education, knowing chased at a price less than the cost to the after, can live upon our continent and be a no relation of husband, wife, or parent, but United States.
slave. That much by_the sword and by the only of master and slave, after two centuries The seventh section very materially changes law has been decreed. During all our national of oppression is declared free--free at one the former law which authorized the purchase ) life, before the slavebolder's rebellion began, moment, free where they happen to be, upon of sites, and the erection of buildings for from time to time, by leading political parties || the plantation, within the homes of their former schools, and the carrying on of those schools; in the free States it was passionately urged | masters, and under the angry eye of owners and it was made a subject of comment that the that somehow or other slavery must be abol- who see their "property transformed into United States ought not to educate. It will be ished. But their action was not persistent and "men," and made citizens by law. Now, what seen, upon an examination of this section that could never have been effective, because at one | legislation do you deem appropriate to enforce all that it is proposed to do here is to procure and the same point both parties stopped, and that act of freedom? Manifestly some is needed; buildings for the schools. The Commissioner that point was short of freedom ; for it was for if the startling facts that come to us from is authorized to coöperate with private benev- believed that Congress could not, under the the recent rebel States, of fiendish oppression olent associations of citizens, and to provide Constitution, act concerning slavery within the and brutal outrage, were wholly undisclosed, proper sites and buildings, for purposes of edu- States, and so this crime, which most of the we yet should know that masters who had cation, whenever such associations shall, with- fathers who framed our organic law detested, | rioted in the lusts of slavery would not let their out cost to the Government, provide suitable was, by contemporaneous construction of that bondmen go in peace; or if they did, we still teachers and means of instruction, and he shall law, placed beyond the reach of national legis. || should know that a race prostrate for generafurnish such protection as may be required for lation.
tions beneath the heel of tyrannous power could the conduct of such schools, and the property The power to adjust what were termed not have their freedom made effectual without shall remain the property of the United States "domestic relations, which were held to our legislative aid. until sales are authorized by law. It will be include the relation between the white master And yet since that great amendment became seen that the object of this section is to provide who owned and the man of African descent a living law we have done nothing, literally school-houses and protect those school-houses, || who was the subject of bondage, was not nothing, to protect them. The Freedmen's while the schools themselves are conducted by regarded as included in the powers delegated | Bureau was a necessity created by military associations of benevolent individuals from the to the United States or prohibited by the Con- | law. It was a law before the amendment was North and West, or from any part of the coun- stitution to the States, and therefore fell among ratified by three fourths of the loyal States. try where associations are formed for purposes the reserved powers of the States. Whether | Now, another condition of facts exists, and of education. I can hardly imagine that any this was right or wrong, it was the accepted every day lost by our inaction adds to the great gentleman can object to a provision of that law, which only secession ordinances and fla- weight we bear of duty undischarged. I rekind. It is perfectly plain that education can- grant war enabled us successfully to overrule, member that we have sent to the President o
one not be secured to these frecdmen unless the
and now by military proclamation, compelled | bill. It had been passed, as I know we all Government, for the present, shall protect the by necessity, but resting upon principles of believed, with his substantial approval, not buildings in which the schools are conducted. eternal justice, and by State emancipation, and of all its provisions, perhaps, but of its scope It is needless that I should occupy time in finally by constitutional amendment, universal and general character. But we were in error. efforts to prove that proposition.
freedom has been ordained. The knot which Let us try again. I do not know that any The eighth section simply embodies the pro- politicians could not untie during eighty years utterance of mine within these Halls can reach visions of the civil rights bill, and gives to the of peace the sword of Mr. Lincoln cut at one the presence of that high officer whom I President authority, through the Secretary of blow. The power to liberate, which is now labored to lift up from among his fellows, while War, to extend military protection to secure confessed, involved the duty to protect, and the men who now attempt to win him from those those rights until the civil courts are in opera
Freedmen's Bureau was its earliest legal recog- who were lis friends, by fulsome praise, were tion. When the civil courts shall again be in nition. I claim for Congress full power to heaping abuse upon him mountain-high, and operation the whole jurisdiction hereby con- protect, by fit legislation, the freedom which that not in loyal States alone, but in rebel ferred ceases. Before that time there is no was thus for the avowed good of the Govern- communities, and among traitors red-handed jurisdiction anywhere except in the military. ment conferred by the Commander-in-Chief with the blood of our slain sons, and armed Until that time there can be no redress of and confirmed by subsequent law. “I do this to take the nation's life. But, sir, if I could grievances and no administration of the rights as an act of military necessity,” Mr. Lincoln be heard I would, in behalf of these freedwhich under the law are now possessed by the said. But when he had done that act, which men, invoke his aid. Our action, without his freedmen but by military aid. But as soon as was rightfully done, according to the laws of cooperation must be partial and of imperfect the civil courts are reorganized and reëstab- war then operating in full force, the duty and effect. Among the thirteen powers conferred lished, then this bill provides that the jurisdic- the
power of Congress were at once disclosed. by the Constitution upon the President the tion conferred upon the officers of the bureau Upon that power, thus derived, the right and 'veto power'' was given as a needful guard shall no longer exist. In other words, it is the duty of Congress to establish the Freed- to the people's rights when laws ill-advised carrying out what has been done since the men's Bureau will be found to rest securely. or rash or contravening the Constitution are organization of the bureau in March, 1865. Since the establishment of this, bureau an- enacted. Such power is itself controlled by a
two-thirds vote of Congress. But this bill, thus States must be immediately removed from Kentucky passed, might be an imperfect weapon in the
to prevent irritation. &c. If all the States were to so
solemnly protest against the presence of United States hands of otlicers even of willing loyalty, be
troops within their borders, and the country should cause every official arm, if it would strike think best to gratify the clamor for immediate and effective blows in this direction, must be upheld
entire removal that wo hear from so many States, the by the moral power of the Executive. I would Government would necessarily be compelled to rent
a parcel of ground in Canada on which to crect bartherefore invoke his aid in behalf of these racks for the accommodation of its withdrawn troops. millions of men who look up to him as the
"I assure you that in no portion of the country is
this bureau more a positive necessity than in many controller of their destiny. 'He knows how
counties of Kentucky; and for the sake of the nation's they are oppressed. Senators who claim to plighted faith to her wards, the freedmen, and in bebe loyal may deny the facts established by the half of humanity and justice, I implore you and the
President to listen to no request for its withdrawal mouth of many witnesses. But the President
from the State until the civil authorities, in the enknows the truth. He knows the slaveholder." forcement of impartial laws, shall amply protect the He has felt the contempt and contumely and
persons and property of those for whose protection
and defense this bureau is set. scorn with which the mean aristocrat knows
I saw with my own eyes our fellow-soldiers, yet how to crush all whom the Constitution desig. clad in the uniform of their country's Army, fresh nates as 6 other " and since the war
from their muster out of service, who within the last persons,
ten days were the victims of tiendish atrocity from for slavery began has had his home made deso
the hands of their former masters in Kentucky. late and bas held life in hand while traitors These returned soldiers had been to their old homes jubilant with assured success have wreaked or their wives and children, and had for this offense
been knocked down, whippeil, and horribly bruised, vengeance upon loyal men who owned no
and threatened with shooting, should they crer dare slaves.
to set their feet on the premises of the old master Yes, sir, he knows these men. Unclothed again and intimate that their families were free." of office, he could not now live in his own old On the 14th of February General Fisk writes home in Tennessee with the military arm of
to the Commissioner of the Bureau as follows: Government withdrawn. Those men stand "GENERAL: Kentucky.-I regret that I am unable before him now with simulated respect. There to report the bureau ailairs progressing as smoothly
in Kentucky as in Tennessee. is no human toady upon earth that crouches so
“The frecdmen ofthe State are very generally dismeanly to the man above him as the tyrant posed to cnter into labor contracts for wages or a who arrogantly puts his foot upon the man be
sharo of the crop, and most of them prefer remaining neath him. The President las verified that
in their own State to cmigration elsewhere. On the
part of a largo majority of the whites I believe there fact in ethics. They solicit and obtain pardon is an honest desire to adjust on a fair basis the new with bated voice, but no repentance has brought relations arising from the abolition of slavery, but
the bureau is not a popular institution with them. forgiveness; and if the concurring testimony
They regard its presence among them as unauthorof loyal men can substantiate any fact, and put ized-denounce its officials as usurpers and despots, it beyond fair denial, it is proved to us that in
and clamor for its immediate removal from the state.
" In obedience to orders, immediately upon the every State where the traitor flag supplanted ratification of the constitutional amendment forever the banners of the Republic, and in Kentucky | abolishing and prohibiting slavery, I extended over none the less, the hatred which disloyal men
the more than two hundred thousand freedoen of have felt toward their Government is finding pointed agents in a few counties only. Superintend
Kentucky the supervision of this bureau, avd apexpression this day upon the head of the un- ents were selected from the citizens, and appointed protected freedman.
upon the recommendations of the best men I could
consult. The Kentucky Legislature bas, by numerMr. Speaker, I propose right here to prore
ous resolutions, called upon Government to rethat statement. General Fisk, in his report to move the bureau frem tho State; propositions to forthe Commissioner of the Bureau, dated Janu- ever disqualify any citizen from holding an office in ary 6, 1866, says:
the State who inight act as an agent of this bureau,
were introduced and discussed. The official State “There are some of the meanest unsubjugated and paper (Louisvillo Democrat) has declared that, by anreconstructed, rascally rebellious revolutionists in the ratification of the constitutional amendment, tho Kentucky that curse the soil of the country. They slavery question has become more unsettled than now claim that although the amendment to the Con- ever, and many of its readers, believing its doctrines, stitution forover abolishing and prohibiting slavery practice accordingly, andstill hold freedmen as slaves. has been ratified, and proclamation thereof duly These influences in opposition to freedom have renmade, yet Congress must legislate to carry the amend- dered it difficult to conduct the bureau affairs in ment into effect, and therefore slavery is not dead in Kentucky with that harmony and efficiency which Kentucky. Others cling to the old barbarisin with have clsewhere produced good results. tenacity, claiming that the Government must pay “More than twenty-five thousand colored men of Kentucky for her emancipated slaves. Thero are Kentucky have been soldiers in the Ariny of the few public journals in the Stato which afford great Union. Many of thein were enlisted against the comfort to the malcontents, but the majority of the wishes of their masters, and now, after having faithpeople of Kentucky bail the dawn of universal lib- fully scrved their country, and been honorably muserty, and welcome the agency of the bureau in ad- tered out of the service, and return to their old hones, justing the new relations arising from the total abo- they are not met with joyous welcome and grateful lition of slavery. I have succeeded in obtaining the words for their devotion to the Union, but in many services of inany first-class, judicious, popularcitizens instances are scourged, beaten, shot at, and driven to act as superintendents at the important points. froin their homes and families. Their arms are taken The Blue Grass' region is in the best of hands. from them by the civil authorities and confiscated General Hay, nt Hopkinsville, was a bad failure. He for the benefit of the Commonwealth. The Union has been removed. I have consulted General Pal- soldier is fined for bearing arms. Thus the right of mer in the appointment of every agent. I return to tho people to keep and bear arms as provided in the Kentucky on the 10th instant, by invitation of the Constitution is infringed, and the Government for Governor, and shall meet the principal planters of whose protection and preservation these soldiers have the State at Frankfort, in convention, on thellth. I fought is denounced as meddlesome and despotic hope to do good unto them, and make the bureau a when through its agents it undertakes to protect its blessing to all Kentucky.'
citizens in a conetitutional right. Kentuckians who
followed the fortunes of John Morgan, and did all in On the 23d of January, after the convention their power to destroy the nation, go loaded down had been held, he writes:
with pistols and knives, and are selected as candi
dates for high positions of honor and trust in the State. "On the part of many of the politicians in Ken- The loyal soldier is arrested and punished for bringtucky thero is a bitter opposition to the bureau. ing into the State the arms he has borno in battle for Govornor Bramlette is most cordial in his expressed his country. approval of my oficial action, and, I think, carnest **That you may have a bird's-eye view of the proin his desire that the Assembly so legislato as to give tection afforded the freedmen of Kentucky by the the freedmen impartial justice. A majority of the civil law and authorities, I have the honor to invite legislators oflicially denounce the bureau, and pro- your attention to the following extracts from comnounce its presenco in Kentucky a usurpation of inunications received from our correspondents in power, and the act of Congress by which it was estab- that State. Jished unconstitutional. Just now there is at Frank- "C. P. Oylor, of Covington, writes as follows: fort a heated canvass for a United States Senatorship "Jordan Finney and family (freedmen) lived in in progress. Candidates for the position vie with Walton, Kentucky; they owned a comfortable home. each other in denouncing the Freedmen's Bureau. Two of the daughters were wives of colored soldiers, Men who have fought zallantly for tbe honor of their and lived with him. Returned rebel soldiers hereincountry's flag are willing to purebase promotion to after named combined to drive this family froin the the United States Senate at the expense of justice to State. They attacked the housc three times, abused thirty thousand of thcir fellow-citizens and fellow- the women and children, destroyed all their clothing, soldiers too. The Legislature makes no progress in bedding, and furniture to the value of $500, and finally the enactment of laws applicable to the new condi- drove them from their homes. The names of the pertion of things, but lengthy resolutions denunciatory petrators, so far as known, are Allen Arnold, John of the bureau, and requesting the President to imme- Arnold. l'ranklin Yowell, Woodford Fry, L. Snow, diately withdraw the odious institution from the and Robert Edwards; all live in Walton, Kentucky. State, are discussed in protractel debate, and voted An attempt was inade to bring these parties to jus. upon affirmatively with astonishing unanimity, Nei- tice, but it failed, as colored testimony could not be ther myself nor any of my subordinates aro accused received. This same inan Finney has a daughter held of much wrong-doing. We are even complimented as a slave by Mr. Widen Sheet, of Boone county, as being just and conservative gentlemen; but the whom he values at $1,000. Sixteen armed men reFreedmen's Dareau and every soldier of the United sisted Mr. Finnoy unu an expressman when thoy went
for the girl, and beat them cruelly with clubs and stones.
An old colored man named Baxter was shot and killed by James Roberts for refusing to let Roberts in his house. The civil authorities will neither arrest nor punish said Roberts, as there is no testimony ex. cept of colored persons. (Roported by Thomas Rice, Richmond, Kentucky.)
" Lindsley Taylor, of Richmond, stabbed a negro on the 30th of January, for no cause save that the negro did not wish Lindsley to search his house. The civil authorities tried Taylor and acquitted him. (
"L.L. Pinkerton,superintendent of Fayctte county, at Lexington, reports that, in his and the opinion of all whom he has consulted, the freedmen cannot receive their just rights without a considerablo military force.'
*C. P. Oyler, Covington, writes: “The civil officers, after the lato action of the Kentucky Legislature in regard to the Freedmen's Bureau, refused to coöperate with me, and manifest a disposition to drive the bureau out of the State. It will be impossible to secure to freedmen their just rights without the aid of a military force. Colored people are driven from their homes and their houses burned.'
- William Goodloo writes: *The counties of Boyle, Lincoln, and Mercer are infested with guerrilla bands. Outrages are mostly committed upon colored persons. The evidence of colored persons is not taken in court I am powerless to accomplish anything without sol. diers.
Peter Branford, a returned colored soldier, in Mercer county, was shot by James Poore, & white man, without causo or provocation.
"Judge Samuel A. Spencer, of Green county, writes: *A great many colored men are beaten, their lives threatened, and they refused the privilege of returning home because they have boen in the Army. I cannot accept the agency on account of the action of the Kentucky Legislature.' ** E. P. Ashcraft, of Meade county, writes: Richard, William, Jesse, and John Shacklett and Martin Taylor, returned rebel soldiers, have on different occagions attacked nezrocs with fire-arms, and say they intend no d-d niggers shall live on this side tho Ohio.' Tho civil authorities are powerless.
"R. W. Thing. of Warren county, writes: 'An old negro was killed by gun-shot while attempting to run from a white boy eighteen years of age, to escape a whipping.'
"A freedman was attacked in his cabin and shot. He and his wife ran to tho woods, with bullets flying thick and fast around them from fire or six revolvcrs. the woman escaping with her life by tearing off her chemise while running, thereby presenting a darkercolored mark.'
"A woman was stabbed by a white woman in the neck, the knife penetrating the windpipe, for giving water to a Union soldier in a tumbler.'
**A woman and her son were horribly cut and inan: gled with the lash and then hung by the neck until so nearly dead that water had to be thrown in their faces to revive them to make them acknowledge that they had set a house on fire.'
*A woman received a severe cut in the head from a club in the hands of a man, who drove her from herhome because her husband had joined the Army.'
"There are several cases of robbery of colored persons by returned rebels in uniform. in Russellville, Kentucky. The town marshal takes all arms from returned colored soldiers, and is very prompt in shooting the blacks whenever an opportunity occurs.'
I have a case in hand to-day where a white man knocked down an old man eighty years of age because he asked for and urged the necessity of his pay for cutting cight cords of wood.'
There has been a large number of cases of women and children being driven from home on account of their
husbands enlisting.' *** It is dangerous for colored people to go into Logan, Todd, Barren, and the north part of Warren counties after their children,'
"A freedman's wite left her former master and came to live with him, (her husband.) She was followed and shot at.'
A furloughed soldier of the twelfth United States colored artillery was murdered at Auburn, Kentucky, while sitting on his bed. The civil authorities do nothing in the caso.'
An old freedman in Allen county, Kentucky, was shot and killed because he would not allow himself to be whipped by a young man.'
Major Lawrence, of the seventeenth Kentucky cavalry, reports that a negro was shot in one of the streets of Russellville last night. Nocause whatever for it. Several negroes came to me to know what they should do, saying they had been robbed by a party of men wearing the confederate States uniform. Thojudges and justices of the peace in almost every instance are rebels of very strong prejudices, who will not even take notice of the most hideous outrages, and if a caso is turned over to them they will not administer justice. The action of the courts in southern Kentucky indicates that the day is far distant when a negro can secure justice at the hands of the civil law.'
“'In Grant county a band of outlawz, styling themselves "inoderators," made an attack upon the colored citizens for the purpose of driving them from tho State. They went late in the night to their homes, took them from their beds, stripped and whipped them until they were unable to walk.'
"Colonel William P. Thomasson, of Lonisville, Kentucky, writes that 'outrages and wrongs upon freedmen are numerous, especially upon returned colored soldiers. A few nights since a colored soldier just mustered out, with his money in his pocket and a new suit of clothes on his back. was waiting for the cars at Deposit station, a few miles from Louisville; four or five young rowdies of the placosct upon him to
rob him. He was a light-colored man, and one of the robbers said to his fellows, “lois a white man; let him alone." A dispute arose as to his color, and he was taken into a grocery, a lamp waslit, and the question of his color settled. He was then robbed of his money, arms, and clothing, was stripped to his shirt, and toid to run. He did run, and was shot at while escaping, and the shot took effect in his hand.'
"I am in daily receipt of similar reports from our superintendents, judges, sheriff's, and military officers. Some of the writers dare not be known as giving this information, fearing assassination as theconsequence.
For narrating at a freedmen's cominission anniversary meeting in Cincinnati, on the 13th ultimo, what I had myself seen of brutalities in the Blue Grass,' I have been denounced in the Kentucky Legislature as a liar and slanderer. A committee has been appointed to investigate the matter. I have furnished them the names of witnesses, and requested that their powers be enlarged, and they authorized to investigate the condition of the freedmen throughout the State; but I have good reason for believing that the cominittce will simply mako a report that General l'isk is a great liar, and should be removed from office, &c. It is well to remember that a more select number of vindictive, pro-slavery, rebellious legislators cannot be found than the majority of the Kentucky Legislature. The President of the United States was denounced in the Senate as a worse traitor than Jefferson Davis, and that, too, before the bureau tempest had reached them.
The entire opposition is political, a warfare waged against loyalty, freedom, and justice.
* I have endeavored to administer the affairs of the bureau in Kentucky precisely as in Tennessee; have studied to be conciliatory in every particular, and not to interfere in the least with the civil affairs of the State, except my duties and orders imperatively demanded it. As yet, tho Legislature bave enacted no laws securing impartial liberty and right, and I very much fear they will not at this session. The late letter of Major General Palmer, on Kentucky affairs, is truthful and candid. I wish her good people would heed his counsel and her lawmakers follow his wise suggestions.
* There are many old, infirm, and sick, and orphans in Kentucky who have been thrown upon the Government for support. Rations were issued to this class in December at a cost of $4,993 56, eightfold the cost of sustaining the same class of persons in Tennessee the same month. In the latter State the peoplo have much more generously treated the unfortunato freedmen, especially the families of fallen soldiers, than have the Kentuckians: hence the cause of the increased expense to the Government of providing for the destitute freedmen. Every effort is being made to secure homes for the widows and orphans in other States. A large number have been kindly received and provided for in Ohio and Indiana. The Western Freedmen's Aid Commission havo rendered me valuable service in locating this class in comfortable permanent homes.
“In making this extended report of Kentucky affairs I wish nothing to 'extenuate or aught set down in malice.' It is best that you understand the case fully. I rejoico that there are so many persons in the State who treat the freedmen justly and generously. Outlaws in different sections of the State, encouraged by the pro-slavery press, which daily denounces the Government and its officials, make brutal attacks and raids upon the freedmen, who are defenseless, for the civil-law officers disarm the colored man and hand him over to armed marauders. In neither Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, nor Arkansas, where I have had an opportunity of observation, does there such a fiendish spirit prevail as in some portions of Kentucky. I trust that ere long the better portion of tho people will rise in their indignation and demand that justice be done to all the citizens of the State.
“It has fallen to my lot to officially stand by the death-bed of slavery in the United States. Kentucky's throes are but the expiring agonies of the great barbarism.
"I trust the Government will insist upon strict justice for every man, woman, and child who through the Red sea of civil strife has marched from slavery to freedom.
"I will try to do my whole duty, regardless of denunciations, jeers, and threats of assassination. I will give cheerful heed to your admonitions and counsels.
"While I remain in this position I desire the power to protect the poor, the weak, and the ignorant, who confidently look to this burcau for the protection which the State, made rich by their unrequited toil, yet fails to afford them."
Brigadier General Sprague, assistant commissioner for Arkansas, on the 10th of January, 1866, writes to the Commissioner:
"I see by the act of Congress organizing the bureau that its existence is limited to one year after the war. If it should not be extended, there is no hope for the freedmen of Arkansas, Texas, and that portion of the South remoto from railroads and telegraphs. They will be starved, murdered, or forced into a condition more horrible than the worst stages of slavery. Our peoplo's wrath over dcfcat would be poured upon the heads of the helpless ones once their slaves. I say this sorrowfully of our people, yet I know it is but too true-their prejudices give way slowly. By extending the cxistence of the bureau, what education and thought failed to do might be supplied by an influx of liberal-minded people.
* This is the language of a citizen whose intelligence and opportunities for judging entitle his statements to consideration. Ilis statements are corroborated by all the testimony that reaches me from other parts of the State, and what is said of the southwestern portion is in the main true of the whole Stato.
I give it as my deliberate opinion that if the military was withdrawn from the State not a school for colored children would be allowed within its borders, and I doubt if an unspoken Union man would be allowed to remain. In this sparsely settled and isolated country the process of 'reconstruction will necessarily be slow, and I am sorry to add that the influence and example of some of the men who have received special pardon was much better before their pardon than since, yet there is a perceptibleimprovement in the temper and sentiment of the people at large."
Inspector General William E. Strong, in his report of action and observation in Texas, says:
“In the interior of the State, one or two hundred miles from the prominent cities, away from the influence of Federal troops and Federal bayoncts, at points where our Army has never penetrated, and where the citizens lave but little fear of arrest and punishment for crimes committed, I assure you there is a fearful state of things. The freedmen are in a worse condition than they ever wercas slaves. When they were held in bondage they were, as a rule, treated well; cases of extreme cruelly were very rare; it was for the interest of the master to take care of them, and not to ill-treat them. Now it is quite different; they have no interest in them, and seem to take every opportunity to vent their rago and hatred upon the blacks. They are frequently benten uninercifully, and shot downlike wild beasts, without any provocation, followed with hounds, and maltreated in every possible way. It is the same old story of cruelty, only there is more of it in Texas than any southern State that I have visiteul. I could cite many cases of cruelty that came under my own observation if it were necessary to do so. The planters generally seemed discouraged, and insisted that the system of freo labor would never answer; that the negroes were idle and worthless, and showed no disposition to work, and were wandering about the country utterly demoralized, and were plundering and stealing indiscriminately from the citizens.
" It was also generally reported by the white people that the freedmen failed wholly to fulfill their contracts, and that shen they were needed most to save the cotton crop, they would stop their work and leave them without any cause whatever. After a careful investigation, I do not find these charges against the freedmen to be wholly true. "The entire crop raised in Texas-cotton,corn,sugar, and wheat-was gathered and saved by the 1st of December. Most assuredly no white man in Texas had anything to do with gathering the crops, except perhaps to look on and give orders. Who did tho work? The freedmen, I am well convinced, had something to do with it; and yet there is a ficrce murmur of complaint against them everywhere that they are lazy and insolent, and that there is no hope for a better condition of affairs unless they can be permitted to resort to the overseer, whip, and hounds.
"Two thirds of the freedmen in the section of country which I traveled over have never received one cent of wages since they were declared free. A few of them were promised something at the end of the year, but instances of prompt payment of wages are very rare. Not one in ten would have reccived any compensation for the labor performed during the year 1865 hadit not been for the rigorous measures resorted to by Colonel De Gruss, provost marshal general of the district of Houston, who scuds into the interior frequently two hundred miles and arrests the parties who have been guilty of cruelty to the freed people, and where they have violated their contracts with them compels them to make fair and cquitable settlements. Colonel De Grass has a small command of cavalry under his control, and he keeps it in motion constantly through the country, searching for parties who havo murdered or maltreated the freedmen. I cannot speak too highly of the course pursued by the colonel. He displays the same carnestness of purpose and fearlessness in the discharge of his duty that ho did in the old army of the Tennessee, and although his life has been threatened by the chivalric citizens of the country, yet he is not deterred by their threats from discharging his duty as ho understands it. lle is a true friend of the black people, and will not sco them ill-used. I know that some of the lessons which he has taught the citizens in tho vicinity of Houston will not soon be forgotten.
"I saw freedmen cast of the Trinity river who did not know that they were frecuntil I told them. There had been vague rumors circulated among them that they were to be free on Christmas day, and that on New Year's there was to be a grand division of all the property, and that one half was to be given to the black people.”
In closing his report, General Strong says: "In order to correct abuses and regulate the labor system thoroughly throughout the country General Gregory should have fisty good officers to assist; and if these could be placed on duty at the principal villages in the interior, for three hundred and fifty miles north of the coast, and a small forco of troops sent with each assistant to enforce law and order, it would be but a short time before a decided improvement would be observed.
* It is the opinion of every staunch Union man with whom I conversed, and with nearly every officer on duty in the State, that if the United States troops were removed froin Texas no northern man, nor any person who had ever expressed any love for northern institutions or for the Government of the United States, could remain with safety, and the condition of the freed people would be worse beyond comparison than it was before the war and when they were held in bondage."
Brigadier General Tillson, acting assistant
commissioner for Georgia, writes from A11gusta under date January 15, 1866, as follows:
"In almost every case, as heretofore reported, the withdrawal of troops has been followed by outrages on the freed people; their school-houses have been burned, their teachers driven off or threatened with death, and the freed people by fraud, and even by violence, made to enter into unjust and fraudulent contracts. The responsible and cducated classes are ashamed of these outrages, and loudly and justly claim that they should not all be judged by the people who are inean and cruel enough to practice these wrongs; but the convictions of the former never take form in action-seldom in a manly, open protest. It requires the most careful nursing and culture to keep alive even a show of justice toward the freed people.
"Nearly all the fomales and young men, and all the blacklegs and rowdies, are open and defiant in their expression of hate for Yankees and negroes. The simple truth is, that the only public opinion which makes itself felt is as bitter and malignant as over.
*** These are the facts, and any theory or policy which disregards or ignores them is of little account, no matter by whom advocated or sustained. Unless wo keep a firm, just, kind hand upon these peeple, all our past labor will be thrown away.
"A large number of troops is not required; but the State is one of the largest, and unless small garrisons aro kept at many points, most unfortunato results will certainly follow; labor will be insecure and untrustworthy, and industrial operations will be sadly interfered with. Some of the unpleasant consequences to be anticipated are already exhibiting theinsclves; as, for instance, the recent attack on tho garrison at Brunswick.
“The people who have something to lose begin to appreciate the insecurity which follows tho withdrawal of garrisons, and are asking to have them sent back.
"The highest and best interests of the State, as well as of the freed people, require an addition to the force now in the department."
Brigadier General C. H. Howard, specially appointed to examine into the condition of affairs in Georgia and Florida, in his report dated at Charleston, December 30, 1865, states at the close of his carefully prepared communication to the Commissioner of the bureau, as follows:
"As the result of this tour I beg leare to submit the following general considerations:
"I. Agencies of the United States Government, of some sort, similar to the existing bureau agencies, are for the present indispensablo in every part of the two States visited.
"1. Great suffering and starvation would ensuo among the refugees and freed men in some sections were all Government aid withdrawn.
"2. Public sentiment is such that even should tho laws be made impartial the negro could not obtain redress for wrongs done him in person or property.
“3. There seems to be a moral incapability with the white residents to treat him fairly in the ordinary transactions of business, as, exempli gratiâ, in making contracts. His own inexperience in such things, therefore, renders necessary some agency to guard bis interests.
7. Existing theories concerning the education of laborers and the prejudice against the blacks aresuch as absolutely to prevent the establishment of schools for the freedmen, even though the expenses be paid by the benevolent associatious of the North; and the many successful schools now in operation would be broken up in most places on the withdrawal of tho Government agencies. The same general observations will apply to all missionary work by northern agents; and from special inquiry and investigation of this subject I am convinced that very little in the way of moral and religious instruction for the freed people is to be expected at present from the members and ininisters of the southern churches. On the other hand, it is for the interest of the whites for the agencics to remain, and the better class of thinking inen expressed themselves unhestatingly in favor of it.
*(1.) The prevailing want of confidence on the part of the freedmen in those who have been slaveholders makes it necessary to havo a third party and a United States official is better than any other) to induce the freedmen to enter into contracts. Many of the white residents told me that no contracts would have been effected but for the bureau officers.
* (2.) Such agents are needed often to secure the fulfillment of contracts on the part of the freedinen, both in explaining the exact meaning and force of the contract and enforcing it by different motives and means.
“(3.) For the protection of the whites against any hostile combinations of the blacks. This will be needed as long as the present public sentiment of the whites continues, insuring a corresponding distrust and hostility on the part of tho blacks. Our agents have done much to allay such ill-feeling: and however unreasoning and ignorant the freedmen may be in any community, and however much thcir nuinber inay predominate over the resident whites, they will generally heed and be governed by the advice of United States officials.
"II. In order adequately to protect the persons and property of the freedmen, and promote their education, as well as for the proper regulation of labor for the benefit of all concerned, the present number of ugents should be increased.
"III. United States troops are at present absolutely necessary as auxiliary to the agents.
"1. There is no other means of executing orders and insuring justice to the freedmen.
"2. In many sections United States agents would matter before the department commander, and am
Extract from report of J. W. Alvord, inspector of observation, I am led to conclude,
finances and schools, dated March 17, 1866, Washing**3. That the troops should remain for protection
ton, District of Columbia: of northern residents and to encourage emigration. “On my route from Richmond to Washington I
"4. As desired by the better part of the whites, to fell in with a striking instance of the persecution of maintain good order and pcaco.
loyal men in the South. A company of seventy-five “5. Wherever United States troops are withdrawn Quakers, old people, men, women, and little chila militia organization at once springs into life, which dren, were on the train, fleeing from Randolph county, invariably tends to disturbances between whites and North Carolina, to homes they expected to find in blacks, and to the latter is, I am convinced, an un
the more quiet West, One hundred and twenty-five mixed cvil."
of their number, as they told me, were to follow them.
They had been settlers in that county for many years; General Gregory, in writing from Galveston, peaceableand prosperous. But their young men when Texas, December 9, 1865, says:
conscripted into the rebel army refused to go, and
fled as refugees to the mountains. Now, as they come “In some portions of the State, and especially is it back to peaceful employinents the returned rebels the case where our troops have not been quartered, persecute the wholecommunity in every possible way, freedmicn arc restrained from their liberty, and sla- disturbing their social comfort, vexing them with very virtually exists the same as though the old sys- petty lawsuits, threatening violence, and in some tem of oppression was still in force. The freedmon cases inflicting it. Their proverbial, patience had do not understand their true status, and their former become so exhausted and the fears of their women masters, although acknowledging them to be free, and children so excited that they could endure it no practically deny the truth by their acts. With this longer. Farms and pleasant homes could not be sold class of men and a few of the editors who still con- under such circumstances, but were abandoned, and tinue to nisrepresent the object for which this bureau with the little money saved by their frugality they was instituted) we have more difficulty than any other hope to reach their destination in the State of Indiana. as they refuse to pay the laborer his hire, and it "The whole story of this honest, simple-hearted seems almost impossible for them to deal justly and people was very touching, enlisting decply the symhonestly with him. This is owing; perhaps, to the pathy of their fellow-travelers. Their means were fact that heretofore they have had his labor without evidently very scanty and their hearts were sorrowcompensating him therefor. In this respect, how. ful. Aged women, unaccustomed to hardship, spent ever, there are evidences of improvement, and I the night, from Acquia creek, on the deck floor of the trust that in the future there will be less cause for crowded steamer, while little babes wailed themselves complaint on this account. They must pay them, to slumber in the arms of mothers without their acif they cxpcct to employ laborers worthy of their customed nourishment. hire,
"There can be no mistake in such a case. These "Owing to the vast extent of territory embraced in staid, excellent people have not left their chosen and my district, I find great difficulty in procuring a suf- long-cherished homes without suficient reason." ficient number of officers who can render mo that assistance, as sub-assistant commissioners, which is
NORTH CAROLINA. necessary to a proper discharge of my oflicial duties. From the general report for the month of But few, comparatively, feel and manifest that interest in the advancement of the freedinon that they
February, 1866, of Colonel E. Whittlesey, should."
assistant commissioner, the following paraMr. Speaker, I present some more
graphs are extracted : recent proof, drawn from the official records
“The instances of petty annoyance and interference
with the industry and enterprise of freedmen who are of the bureau.
trying to do well are numerous. Their horses and Extracts from a report of Brevet Major G. B. Carse,
mulcs are stolen, their fences torn down, their pigs
killed, their arms taken away.' dated Lecinglon, Virginia, March 18, 1506 :
"The apprenticing of children has given rise to "I have the honor to report that during the month many abuscs and hardships. In somo instances the of February I investigated upward of fifty cases, of civil authorities have undertaken to execute articles which many were of considerable importance. Some of indenture. At a single session of the county court of assaults made upon the frocdmen, others in regard in Sampson county several hundreds, it is reported, to non-payment of wages for services rendered, &c. were 'bound out to their former masters, in many
"The great difficulty seems to be caused by the instances the older children only being selected for Whites not being willing to pay for the labor after they this service, leaving the young children to be sup: have agreed to do so.
ported by their parents. I have directed the assist"I find some cases in which the former owners of
ant superintendent of that county to proclaim all such these people have taken the whole amount of last indentures as are contrary to the regulations of this year's hire from the parties to whom they hired their bureau pull and void." slaves during the hiring season of 1861 and 1865. In "The freedmen are not yet free from apprehension all cases where I have found this to be the case I have that their liberty will prove but a dream. They see ordered that payment be made to the freedmen from so much ill-feeling oxhibited toward them and hear the 10th day of April, 1865, at thesame rates for which so often that they are an inferior race and must always they were hired previous to the surrender. Many of expect to be, that they are afraid to trust the whites. the contracts at that time, i. e., previous to the sur- Could they be sure of full protection everywhere they render, were made payable in graip, and I have inva- would excrt themselves more earnestly to acquire riably causcd grain to bo paid or its equivalent. property and toimprove their condition. Even now,
An ex-member of the Virginia State Legislature with all the discouragements under which they labor, drew half of last year's hire for one of his slaves from there are many cheering signs of progress.” a man named Teaford, to whom he had hired his slavo provious to the surrender, and he has tried to get tho
SOUTH CAROLINA. balance, but the case was brought to my notice, and I have ordered Mr. Frazier (ex-member of the Vir
In a report made on the 28th of February, ginia Legislature) to pay back the grain taken by | 1866, by Lieutenant Colonel John Deveraux, him as hire from the 10th of April until the 1st of acting sub-assistant commissioner for Edgefield July, and also ordered Mr. Teaford to pay the freed
district, to Brevet Major General R. K. Scott, man the full amount of grain due from the lst of July until the time the freedman in question ceased to
assistant commissioner, it is stated as follows: work for him. "I have bad a case reported to me in which a col- | nineteen enlisted men of the twenty-fifth Ohio Vet
"1. The total military force in Edgefield district is ored man was struck thirty-nine lashes by his former eran volunteers, commanded by a lieutenant, keven owner because he got an order or statement from
men of which force are stationed at Edgefield CourtGeneral Darall last June and took it to his master to House and twelve at Hamburg. Edgefield being one prove that he was a free man. I will report the facts of the largest and most unruly districts in the State, in the case as soon as I have heard them from both
this small force is entirely inadequate to exact the partics.
proper respect for the United States authorities.
consisting of eight men and the other of thirteen men,
present raiding this district and committing with im"Unless there is a better disposition on the part of punity the most fiendish outrages on Union men and the citizens and their sons, and tho cadets and stu- negroes. They havo murdered a number of negrocs dents, I will have to send for troops. It seems im- and one white man without provocation, and robbed possible for these people to understand that the laws and driven from their homes several northern men of the United States are supreme here. They seein who have property here. Coleman, the leader, is a to think nothing should occur or be said that does not desperate charactèr; he has exbibited to several peraccord with their ideas of right and wrong, and that sons whom I saw, eight ears cut from colored peran officer of the Government is a thing only to be
sons: he carries them in an envelope and shows them tolerated."
as tropbies." "There does not seem to be any disposition on the " It is my decided opinion that nothing will restorc part of the whites to help the aged and infirm the supremacy of the laws and render the lives of freedmen."
Union men or freedmen safe in this part of the coun
try but the hunting down and extermination of these An official letter of Colonel E. Whittlesey, desperadoes by a respectable force of cavalry, as they of date March 23, 1866, speaking of North are inounted in the best manner and belong to the Carolina, says:
class miscalled (in the South)gentlemen, and no doubt
aro harbored and kept well posted by many of the "In this connection I may add that under my Cir- inhabitants." cular No. 1. several cases of petty larceny have been tried by civil courts, and the old barbarous punish
From an official brief (made up from reports ment of whipping been inflicted. I have brought the received from the acting sub-assistant commis
sioners and agents of the bureau in South Carolina) transmitted on the 16th instant by Brevet Major General R. K. Scott, to the Commissioner, the following extracts are taken:
COLLSTOX DISTRICT. “Here a planter had a man, his wife, and two boys updor contract. They taking the small-pox through being placed in a house wbere the diseaso had prevailed, the planter sent them in a rain storm two miles into the woods, and then left them without food or clothing to die, although at the time he was in debt to them. They remained in the woods threo weeks in great suffering until they were accidentally discovered by a colored man, who took them home and provided for them."
NEWBERRY DISTRICT. "The freedmen are subjected to barbarous treatment by a band of outlaws. In one instancctwo freedwomen were taken from their houses, ravished, and otherwise maltreated. It is believed that regularly organized bands of outlaws infest soine portions of the country for the express purpose of persecuting the freedmen. Their operations being carried on at a distance
from the garrisons, which are infantry, it is very difficult to detect and arrest them, and tho freedmen seldom dare to complain for fear of greator cruclties." *
“A letter just received from the post commander at Greenville Court-Hlousc, shows a horrible
state of affairs in that district."
* "With but fer. exceptions, and those due to the presence of the United States troops, the freedmen were turned off the plantations without pay for last year's work. Tho contracts for this year show a disposition on the part of the planters to reduce wages to the lowest possible figure, and in very: many cases to obtain, by deceit, the services of freedmen on terms far worse than nothing." *
“Cruelty and even death of freedmen at the bands of white civilians, are not uncommon occurrences. One party boasted to prominent men of the district that he had shot twenty-eight freedmen since the surrender' and offered his services to kill others if there were any particularly offensive to the commu
One boy coming back to tho plantation after having been away with United States troops, was in the presence of the other freedmen of the place deliberately shot, but he being only wounded thereby, a rope was placed round his neck when he was choked until dead."
GEORGIA. From a letter received February 7, 1866, by the Commissioner from General Tillson, assisiant commissioner, the following paragraphs are extracted:
“The people of the State, who generally at first were strongly opposed to giving reasonable wages, influenced by the judicious course of the bureau, aro exhibiting a readiness to pay the freed people fair wagcs. Very many say that their prospects wero never so good before, and that the freed people were doing admirably."
"Whenever it could be brought to bear on such people(i.e., planters complained of in remote parts of the State)
withqut an exception, the kind, conciliatory, but immovably firm course pursued by the bureau has induced them to cbange their intentions and act in a just and sensible manner."
FLORIDA. Accompanying Colonel Osborne's (assistant commissioner) report of the condition of freedmen's affairs in Florida, for the month of Feb. ruary, is a report from Lieutenant Quentin, sub-assistant commissioner in charge of bureau affairs for the counties of Madison, Taylor, and La Layette. From the record of Lieutenant Quentin's report the following is extracted:
"This officer makes a generally favorable report of the condition and disposition of the freed people, and states that the better class of whites seem to be very well disposed toward the freedmen, although the lower class of wbites are found to be quarrelsomo toward their laborers, as well as abusive and greedy.
“There is so wide a difference between employer and employé in respect to their ability to transact ordinary business and to comprehend the force of a contract, and so great a desire rapidly to repair losses aud regain fortunes, and withal so little desire on the part of employers to see the freedmen rise in any respect, that unless an enlarged bencvolence is to goyern in the settlements at the close of the year, little will have been accomplished for tho colored man cxcept to arouso hin from a not too trusting. confi. dence to an unpleasant and unconquerable suspicion."
LOUISIANA. From a report made March 9, 1866, to Brevet Major General Baird, assistant commissioner, by James Cromie, captain and brevet major twelfth Veteran Reserve corps:
“I would also respectfully report that the number of colored persons in this (Calcasieu) parish beforo the passage of the ordinance of secession in this Stato was sixteen hundred, and from the information which I have received I believe there are at the present time twelve hundred. There are some white inhabitants who still insist upon holding these freedmen in their former state of bondage. Those citizens remaining in Lake Charles and vicinity dosire very much to have an agent of the bureau sent to them in
order to regulate the employment of freedmen, and
"I have the honor to report that from all sources information comes of encouraging results from the efforts of this bureau, Complaints are few, and its beneficent results frequently and frankly acknowledged. Fault-finding and accusation come only from that class of men who are but slowly learning to respect law, justice, and the rights of man, and who sullenly chafe under the restraints of a Government that sets motes and bounds to their unbridled wills.'
* "There are no indications of an increase of loyal sentiment in the State, though there is a visible abatement in the number and harshness of those cases of outrage and maltreatment coming under the cognizance of the bureau.”
MISSISSIPPI. The following are extracts from a report submitted January 12, 1866, to Colonel Samuel Thomas, assistant commissioner, by Captain J. H. Matthews, sub-assistant commissioner, stationed at Magnolia, Mississippi:
"On the 15th day of December,1865, a negro reported at my office and informed me that his former master, Mr. Felix Allen, of Pike county, had sent him into Amite county, Mississippi, on business, and that he would call and see me on his return. On the ensuing day he returned to my office, most shamefully beaten, and stated that after ho bad performed his mission with Mr. Allen's son-in-law, he lodged for the night in the quarters on the place by direction of Mr. Allen's son-in-law: that while in bed about eleven o'clock p. m. some six or seven white men came and bursted into the house, and with pistols drawn asked him what he was doing there, when he informed them that he was sent there by Mr. Allen, his master, and that if they would go with him to the white folks' house he would prove his statement; but 'no,' they told him, 'we don't care a damn for that, we want you to go with us.' When they had taken this man about a mile they were met by about fifty armed mounted men (supposed to be militia, and commanded by a man they called 'lieutenant') who ordered them to take him (the negro) off from the road and give him a flogging; and when they had proceeded about fifty yards from the road they threw him down and six or seven of them jumped into his face and bosom with their hcels, stamping and kicking him.
"When this old negro (he was apparently sixty or sixty-five years old) returned to my office, he presented a most frightful appearance, his breast bone broken, and he spitting blood."
“I respectfully invite your attention to a murder committed by one John H. McGee, some nine months since, which would challenge the world for an equal in studied brutality, which was reported to me some time since, but for want of facts I did not feel warranted in reporting before. The negro was in urdered, beheaded, skinned, and his skin nailed to the barn. Should this affair be investigated, I would refer you to Mr. Bunkly, at Bunkly's Ferry, who can give the names of parties knowing to the facts."
"Should they (the freedmen) remain where they are, under existing circumstances, their condition will not only be rendered worse than slaves, but thosafety for the lives and the hopes for the future of this unfortunate race will depart forever."
The following report is dated Washington, March 27, 1866, from the assistant commissioner, General C. H. Howard, to Major General 0. 0. Howard, concerning Maryland :
GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the following partial report, in compliance with your circular dated March 2, 1866, concerning the status of the freedmen in Maryland :
Statute discriminations against the negrocs on aocount of color.
1. No colored witness can testify in cases involving conflicting interests between white and black.
2. A negro convicted of an offense the punishment of which if committed by a white man would bo confinement in the penitentiary, may be at the discretion of the court sentenced to receive not exceeding forty lashes.
3. A negro hiring to a white man for a term and refusing to enter his service, but hiring himself to another, unless it appear that his wages would be insecure, or that he received improper treatment from the first, two fifths of his wages in the hands of his second employer shall accrue as a licn to the first.
4. For a negro to belong to any secret society is a felony-the punishment a fine of fifty dollars.
5. No education of colored apprentices is required. (Practically, too, the provi of the law requiring that the parents of children shall be summoned, and their consent to the indenture obtained, or that their inability to provide for their children is shown, is in
majority of cases ignored.) 6. In Anne Arundel and Somerset counties, license to deal in merchandise cannot be obtained by a ncgro, unless recommended by a certain number of respectable freeholders. No white person, the partner of a negro, shall be granted a license; and if a white man employ a colored clerk, the ponalty is fifty dollars. 7. In Charles county, no negro shall havo or use
any sail or row boat without license from a justice were no freedmen excepting those made such
by State action or by the proclamation of Mr. grocs" that leave the counties and return shall be
Lincoln. What control or supervision does punished by fine and imprisonment.
that law in its terms authorize over men sub9. In Prince George county, (fifth district,) negroes are not to assemble under pretense of public worship,
sequently declared free but who were then in except on certain days named in the statute, and gen
bondage? It is not a sufficient answer to say erally it appears that the organic law of the State that from the necessity of the case it has been is not such as to prevent discrimination against the
demanded of the Government that all freedrights of the negro, by county or other local authorities. A State oflicial writes from Annapolis, Feb
men should be deemed to be under the care of ruary 14, 1866, as follows: "The colored people have the bureau. So, indeed, in the absence of legisno protection; the white rowdies pick a chance when lation it was demanded. No sane man can no white person is about to maltreat the freedmen, and because the colored people cannot testify against
doubt that in Maryland and in Kentucky it was them, the rowdies go free. Where the negro is con- the duty of the Government to stand between cerned it is very difficult to find a jury to convict the the freedınan and those who would oppress aggressor if he be a white person. I think the jurisdiction of the bureau should be extended to Mary
him. land as soon as possible."
Now, Mr. Speaker, upon examination of the At the last sitting of the grand jury in Annapolis a magistrate was indicted for putting a white man who
existing law it will be found that in its terms it had assaulted and beaten & colored woman under was designed to apply to those persons who bonds to keep the peace, on the complaint and afli- were made free by military proclamation. davit of the woman, who came with the scars of the
“Freedmen from rebel ates or from any disbeating upon her person. At the same place, in November, 1865, a colored woman was sentenced to be trict of country within the territory embraced sold for two years for persuading her children to leave in the operations of the Army." No persons their former master, to whom they were apprenticed. were such freedmen who had not been held in The children had secured places to work, and their wages for the year would have amounted to $400. bondage by traitor owners in arms against the
In Prince George county 2 colored man named Jor- Government, or who had not been declared don Diggs had four of his children taken from him
free within the terms of Mr. Lincoln's proclaand bound by his old master, against his consentand protest. The names of the children were included in
mation. Freedmen of Kentucky, Maryland, a contract to labor for the present year, the wages Missouri, and of such portions of Louisiana amounting to $300,
and Tennessee as were declared free by law, January 17, 1866, Charlotte Turner, colored, makes affidavit that Willinm Preston, of Howard county,
and not by military order, would not be emholds her children, Frank and Charles, aged respect- braced within the direct provisions of that law. ively ten and nine years, illegally and against her
The supervision and care of these men have consent.
February 5, 1866, Amos Hunt, a white resident of been purely military and outside of the pro-
now that Congress can act, clothed as they are daughter; that on his arrival at the place Henson with the power and loaded with the duty conwas met by threats of violence and death by the man ferred and imposed by the second section of the with whom his daughter is living, and was compelled
It is a work which Congress to return without seeing her.
Richard Butler, colored, of St. Mary's county, tes- ought to regulate and direct. How can we
fully ignore our duty toward these men? preserve the peace,
Mr. Speaker, I conjure the members of this February 7, 1866, Essex Barbour, colored, lato a House to examine the law and to consider this soldier in the thirtieth regiment United States colored troops, makes affidavit that on the 3d of the same
årgument I present to prove the necessity of month he was assaulted and beaten at Chaptico, St.
further legislation. Mary's county, by four white men, one of whom is a But this
argument does not stand alone. The returned rebel soldier, and makes it his business to ipjure colored people, more especially colored sol
existing law gives to the bureau the management diers, at all times and places. "I have defended the of “all abandoned lands;'' and the fourth seccountry in the field, and most respectfully request tion is as follows: that I may be protected at home." February 17, 1866, Richard Speake, colored, of Şt.
“SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That the ComMary's county, complainsof his employer, who on the
missioner, under the direction of the President, shall 16th of that month, assaulted and beat him seriously.
have authority to set apart, for the use of loyal refuMarch 19, 1866, Maria Hutchinson, colored, com
gees and freedmen, such tracts of land within the plains and testifies thatat Nottingham, Prince George
insurrectionary States as shall have been abandoned, county, on the 9th instant, her husband, Henry
or to which the United States shall have acquired Hutchinson, late a colored soldier, wasassaulted and
title by confiscation or sale, or otherwise; and to seriously beaten by several white men; that her hus
every male citizen, whether refugee or freedman as band gave no cause of offense except asking one of
aforesaid, there shall be assigned not more than forty the men if he had accused him of stealing, and that
acres of such land, and the person to whom it was so her husband is now confined in jail at Marlborough
assigned shall be protected in the use and enjoyment
of the land for the term of three years at an annual to answer a charge of having threatened the life of one of his assailants.
rent not exceeding six per cent. upon the value of Philip Brown, colored, complains under oath that
such land as it was appraised by the State authorihe was assaulted by a white man, in Montgomery
ties in the year 1860 for the purpose of taxation; and county, on the 22d instant, while crossing the farm
in caso nosuch appraisalcan be found, then the rental of the latter, and that he was shot at and wounded
shall be based upon the estimated value of the land in the head by the same white man while riding qui
in said year, to be ascertained in such manner as the etly along the public highway on the evening of the
Commissioner may by regulation prescribe. At the same day. He has been a soldier; and when shot he
end of said term, or at anytime during said term, the heard a companion of the man who shot him say,
occupants of any parcels so assigned may purchase "Shoot the d-n son of a b-h; he is nothing but a
the land and receive such title thereto as the United Union soldier."
States can convey, upon paying therefor the ralue The above are specimens of many similar affidavits
of the land as ascertained and fixed for the purpose regardingoutrages in Maryland received at this office.
of determining tho annual rent aforesaid." The present civil law and its administration are found Under this section, most of the abandoned to be practically, and it may be said totally, inadequate to protect the negro in his rights of person and
property which had been held by Treasury property. For example, often in these assaults upon agents, and the confiscable lands and aban. the negro by the white man colored witnesses only doned plantations, were placed, by order of are present, and the testimony of colored men is not received when a white man is involved. Hence an
the President, under the care of the bureau, indictment of the guilty party in the case is impos
The law intended that lands should be leased sible.
or sold to refugees and freedmen. The prop: The opposition to the efforts to educate the colored
erty was to be controlled by the bureau, and peoplein Maryland is bitter and wide-spread. Teachers have been stoned and blackened, and indignation held not only as a means of support to freed. meetings held and resolutions passed to drive them men but of revenue to the Government. It out. School-houses have been burned: colored
wa's intended that this bureau should sustain churches, too, have been destroyed to prevent colored schools being opened in them.
itself; and those men who knew most about Respectfully submitted,
the willingness of freedmen to work and the C. H. HOWARD,
lands abandoned, felt asBrevet Brigadier General, Assistant Commissioner.
sured that not one dollar of money would be And now, Mr. Speaker, I will show that the
lost to the Government by the operation of the existing law is not sufficient for the protection | bureau. The Commissioner, in his report at of these men. I have already said that the
the beginning of the session, says: law was passed before the great amendment of
“From one to ten thousand acres in cach of the the Constitution was ratified and made effect- several States have been used as colonies for vagrant ive. It applied to those who were then freed- and destitute freedmen. In South Carolina, Georgia, men from rebel States or from districts em
and Florida some land, the exact amount of which
has been reported, has been actually divided and braced in the operations of the Army. There assigned to freedmen as contemplated in the act es