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know why a captain if he is a worthy man should or term of service, while captains seeking pro- would be made in this country, if the system not be placed in the same category with field motion must bave a different rule applied to proposed by this bill should be adopted withand general officers.
He is in the same cat- them. This is, in my judgment, an unfair and out incorporating in the bill anything else to egory the moment he gets above the rank of illiberal distinction.
assimilate it to the system in the French army. captain; why should he not be before, if you Mr. BOYER. Mr. Speaker, I fear very In the French army the promotions for merit want to promote a meritorious line of officers? much that in the present temper of the House are made upon the recommendation of a board
Mr. SCHENCK. When you speak of the this section is likely not to receive that atten- of officers of the army. That part of the French grade above the grade of captain, of course tion which I think its importance demands. system is not incorporated into this bill. you mean the grade of major, for that is the It proposes to make a radical change in the If hereafter promotion by selection is to next grade above. Therefore all these promo- whole system of promotion in the Army. The embrace all ranks above that of captain, or, tions will take place in the ordinary way, by system wbich at present exists has not, I be- as proposed by the amendment of the gentleseniority, while officers are yet young, unde- lieve, been found so deficient in its workings man from Ohio, [Mr. GARFIELD,] all below as veloped in character, and in some degree un- as to call for so radical a change as this. well as above that grade, I think the injurious developed in capacity. But when they become We are about to organize the Army upon effects of this system should be obviated by field officers and reach the grade of major, pro- the basis of a peace establislıment; and I trust | incorporating into it that which is deemed motions will be made by selections according that many years may elapse before it will be
necessary for its proper, efficient, and beneto merit.
called into active service in the fieid. It is a | ficial working in the French army. Let, then, As a matter of course, when a man has been serious question whether it would be an im. a board of officers be established, (composed promoted from captain to major, if he be a provement upon our military system to make i of officers of the Army, not of politicians,) young major, even the last captain promoted, promotions below the grade of colonel by selec- l empowered to recommend their juniors for proif he manifests unusual ability and fitness for tion instead of by seniority. How is the merit motion. Let the men selected by a disintergoing higher up, he will be eligible for selec- of the otlicer to be determined? Among the ested and capable board like that be the pertion for that purpose. That is the whole mean- various captains, majors, and lieutenant colo- sons promoted by merit, if merit alone is to be ing of the provision. It is adopting in our nels, it will be very difficult to decide, from the criterion. But as it is the practical result military system what, as I have shown the the manner in which they perform their duties will be that the professed object of this section House, has prevailed in the military systems in garrison or upon the parade ground, which of the bill will be defeated.
Instead of proof all other countries. I do not say that the of them are entitled by merit to be promoted motion by merit it will be a system of nepotism first grade above that of captain is the best over the heads of their seniors.
and favoritism throughout. I am therefore point at which to make the line. Perhaps you In time of war military genius makes its way; l opposed to this section, and also to the amend. might say above the grade of major, or above and during actual hostilities our old system did ment of the gentleman from Ohio, [Mr. GARthe grade of lieutenant colonel or colonel. But not prevent those who occupied subordinate FIELD,) and if it be in order I will now make the committee thought that after an officer had positions in the Army from rising in the course the motion that this section be stricken out of served as a subaltern, and as the commander of a few months to the very highest rank. That the bill. of a company, and had got his first promotion system did not smother the genius of a Sher- The SPEAKER. It is in order to move above the grade of captain, and was made a man or a Grant. Why, then, shall this radical that the section be stricken out. major, he ought after that to expect promotion change be made now? Wbat is there in the Mr. SCHENCK. Before the vote is taken only according to the efficiency, ability, and experience of the past to recommend it as a on the motion to strike out, the vote will of fitness for higher and more serious and impor- necessary measure?
course be taken on the amendment of my col. tant commands which he should inanifest.
I fear that however beautiful the system of league. Mr. WRIGHT. Does not the promotion of selection by merit alone may appear in theory, Mr. BOYER. I do not make the motion general or field officers depend upon the arbi- it will be found in, practice to be a system of now, and of course do not wish to cut-off any trary will of the appointing power?
political favoritism, under which officers will amendment to the section. Mir. SCHENCK. Not now.
be promoted, not on account of their military Mr. SCHENCK. Mr. Speaker, the gentleMr. WRIGHT. While a captain has to merit, but because they happen to have a friend man from Pennsylvania has spoken of that depend alone upon his merits.
at court. I fear that under this system the which is the objection to this system which I Mr. SCHENCK. Not at all; it is just the officer stationed at some remote place upon the propose, and I admit it is to a limited and to
In all the staff corps promotions are western frontier, having no relatives or friends à certain extent true of the present system. hereafter to be made without regard to the in Congress or in the Cabinet, will be likely to Like all other changes, the question is whether seniority of commission or date of appoint- remain in obscurity with his merit undiscovered; the result is loss or gain by departing from the ment; that is, they are to be by. Înerit, and it while some more fortunate officer much his
present condition of things. "If, on the one is proposed that the same rule of promotion, junior, who has been enjoying for many years hand, you make promotion in any part of the by merit alone, shall apply to all officers of à soft place here in the city of Washington, Army by selection made upon men's merit it the line above the grade of captain ; that is, will, because he happens to have an uncle in is liable to the possible abuse of which the to majors, lieutenant colonels, and colonels. the Cabinet, or a brother in Congress, be pro- gentleman speaks, that there may be partiality, Promotion by seniority will be confined to moted over the head of his meritorious senior; but so far as examinations are concerned, if those who have not got to the grade.above that and that will be called a selection by merit! he will look at the thirty-fourth section he will of captain, to all below the grade of major. If you could determine the value of men as find we have provided promotion below the
Mr. WRIGHT. I am aware that many staff you determine the value of jewels, by their luster rank of colonel shall be on examination by a officers have the rank of lieutenant. But in or their color; or if you could gauge their value board of officers as he recommends, not of regard to the promotion of line officers, I know by their weight per pound, like so many bullocks, politicians, not of outsiders, but a board comof no reason why the captain of a company | it would be easy to distinguish which man was posed of members of the Army. should not have the same chance of arbitrary entitled to the most consideration, and then The answer to that objection which may be selection and promotion as field and general you
could make selections, as this section pro- made, the objection of promotion being made officers.
poses they shall be made, exclusively by merit. through partiality, is that in every human sysMr. SCHENCK. If I understand the gen. But what man ever discovered in General Grant tem we must trust somebody. Everything rests tleman aright now, he would have this rule of when he was a simple lieutenant in the Army | somewhere. The necessity of obedience to law promotion by selection extend through all the the merit which would entitle him to be com- is with those who are to carry it out. You may grades.
mander-in-chief of the Army of the United devise every expedient you can, and you will Mr. WRIGHT. Why not?
States? What man ever discovered in General be scarcely able to get rid of that. While there Mr. SCHENCK. For the simple reason Sherman, when he was the principal of a mil- is a fear of partiality and abuse on one side, which I have already stated, and there must itary acaderny in the Southwest, that he was look at what may be considered a greater disbe some reason in the rule, since it is one which the man to lead the forces of the United States advantage if you do not have some rule of this has been adopted in every country where they through the very heart of the rebellion ? kind, found expedient to be adopted in every kave military systems which have been built It was the merit alone of these men that en- country which has had a successful military up through centuries. It is for the reason that abled them to gain the distinction which their system except our own. The difficulty into junior officers, subalterns and company offi- country ultimately bestowed upon them. But, which you run, if you do not make it limited, cers, are not presumed to be men who have sir, it was under the old system that this was is this: if all promotion is to be by seniority, become developed; it is not to be presumed achiered. And, sir, when we have before our the oldest captain will be major in his turn, the that any
of them will be able to make such eyes these illustrious examples of selection by l oldest major lieutenant colonel, and the oldest show of preëminent ability above their fellows merit, why are we to change the whole system, lieutenant colonel, as a matter of course, coloof the same grade as those in other and higher to reverse the whole order of things in the nel; and so all the way through, step by step; ranks, and therefore they are to be promoted Army? I believe, sir, that there is nothing i and inefficiency and incapacity are by seniority alone. That is, where there is a which would be more calculated to demoral- result. vacancy for major, it is to be filled by promot- ize the Army than this very measure.
The gentleman was unfortunate in his illusing the oldest captain. Above that grade it Allusion has been made to the practice of trations, I think. drawn from experience during is proposed to make promotions according to foreign countries; and among others that of the last war, which experience has aided us in merit.
France has been cited. I happen to know, | bringing our attention to this particular subMr. WRIGHT. My objection is this: that however, that the selections which are made ject. He referred to Grant and Sherman and in the appointment of regimental staff officers, for promotion in the French army are made others who have distinguished themselves as they may be selected without regard to seniority very differently from the manner in which they ll great leaders in the war, prominent above all
There is argu
others. How did they come to have their ser- vices before a board of three general officers, or The great success of Napoleon Bonaparte vices secured in these high places? Most of officers of his corps or arm of service senior to him
was due, mainly, to the fact that he utterly these gentlemen had left the Army, these two
ignored the rule of seniority. It is true, he particularly had, while others remained in the It will be perceived that this board is to de- paid this much deference to the rule, that if regular Army. They got appointed as field cide upon the fitness of officers for promo- he wanted a corporal made a captain he proofficers, some as colonels, some as lieutenant tion. But they do not decide as to the respect- moted him to be a sergeant one day, a second colonels, both these officers as colonels, and ive merits of the different officers who may lieutenant the next day, a first lieutenant the were found on trial to develop such qualities | appear before the board, but only in general next, and a captain the next; but he went they were speedily made general officers, and terms as to the fitness or unfitness for promo- through the form only out of respect to a timefrom general officers of subordinate positions | tion. Having received the certificate of such honored castom. I affirm, and I wish it unders advanced by development of capacity over all an examining board, a young officer may grow stood by every gentleman, that no great and others until they became chosen the leaders of gray before he receives the promotion for which successful army was ever called into the field the war. And thus men far below in age, in they certify he is fitted.
in the history of war, but what had its officers previous rank, and in date of former commis- Now, one of the great evils which will per- selected in defiance of the rule of seniority, sion, by the very exigencies of the service and vade this system thus sought to be introduced and upon the principle of merit. by force of this rule which we propose you into the Army, will be that whenever a vacancy Now, the only difference between the chairshall now adopt to a certain extent throughout occurs there will be a strife among the various man of the committee and myself is that I do the Army, are brought at the head who are officers as to who is entitled by merit to pro- not think he has gone far enough in the appliadmitted on all hands to be those who ought motion to fill the vacancy.
cation of his rule of merit. I think the rule to be at the head.
In a regiment, for example, where a col- should be made to apply to captains and lieuThe illustration is not a good one for the lonelcy is to be filled, every captain in the regi. tenants as well as to officers above them. gentleman's argument, it seems to me, but it ment will consider himself entitled by merit to And for the purpose of effecting that object sustains precisely what I am saying. And supersede not only the other captains but the I desire to modify my amendment so as to make * without extending the argument further, I major and the lieutenant colonel; and thus, it a motion to strike out the words above the would say that we have learned, I think, by || in every regiment where a vacancy occurs, and grade of captain." That would make the rule sad experience a great deal during this war as often as it occurs, there will be a scene of of promotion by merit alone universal throughwith all its lessons and among other things we jealousy, strife, and intrigue calculated to lead out the Army; and that is what I desire. have learned that there is good reason and eventually to the demoralization of the Army, Now I desire to say one word on that point good cause for the adoption of this rule of and to the destruction of that esprit du corps before I yield the floor. The gentleman has promotion by merit and selection, above cer- which it is absolutely necessary should be pre- said that we cannot always judge what a man tain grades at least, as it exists in other armies, served if we desire that our Army shall con- will be until we have had time to test him. and we would do well, perhaps, to introduce it tinue to be in the future what it has been in Therefore when a man has risen by seniority into our own.
to the grade of captain, we cannot tell whether * The gentleman says it is, to a certain extent, Mr. GARFIELD. I wish to call the atten- there is anything in him or not. Now, wy a radical change. I admit it. tion of the House for a moment to the point in
answer to that is, that in the thirty-fourth secment on both sides, and the gentleman has
debate. The gentleman says that, notwith- tion of this bill it is provided that there shall presented very fairly the argument against it. standing the proposition made by the commit- be competitive examinations for officers even But I submit to him and to the House whether
tee in this bill, we have seen notable examples below the grade of major, and they are to be there is not more to be gained than to be lost during the late war in which the old system
promoted only as they shall show themselves by the change; whether the danger is not, if has given us the very best talent in the coun- to be proficient. And I want that principle we continue with a still larger army, as we try. I answer that by a single faet, and that adopted here. have heretofore, when it has not been so much fact is, that all the examples he has given have
Another point: the gentleman says we want felt, with a very small army in time of peace, been in defiance of the old custom in the Army men in the Army awhile before we can decide making promotions step by step, by seniority and under special legislation that broke the old upon their merits. I know that it has under alone, we may not find a large number of those rule of promotion by seniority. If the rule of
the old rule sometimes taken a man twenty highest in command among the worn-out, effete, seniority had obtained throughout the war, not years to reach the grade of major by the rule of and imbecile officers of the Army, instead of one of the leading men who occupied, and are
promotion by seniority. At the time of the comthe most vigorous, best, and most gifted. occupying, high places in the Army could have mencement of the late war there were many
Mr. BOYER. I cannot admit, as the gen- occupied those places. Half a dozen of those captains in the Army who had been tweniy tleman from Ohio (Mr. SchENCK] seems to
who are major generals would have been majors years in the service. Their inerits had become think, that I have been unfortunate in my
yet but for the fact that the rule of seniority perfectly well known. illustrations. The cases of Generals Grant
was entirely overlooked. It was found neces- As we are now entering upon a time of peace, and Sherman were cited by ine for the purpose sary in the progress of the war to enact a law a man will probably be a second lieutenant on of illustrating the fact that even under our that the President might assign a junior officer
an average for four or five years, which certainly present system of promotion by seniority, great to the command of his seniors. It became will allow time enough to discover all the capaand shining merit could find its way to the sur- absolutely necessary.
We had some men who city there is in him. If young men who are face. In time of war the regular system of had grown old in the service, and it would not
commissioned second lieutenants do not make promotion by seniority is to a great extent dis
do, according to the old custom in the Army, sufficient improvement in the vigor of their regarded, as it has been throughout the whole
to let a junior officer command them. Con- | youth, when they can best improve themselves, course of the late war. And I was willing to gress, therefore, passed an act providing that during the three, or four, or five, or ten years admit, too, that if we were always to be at whenever the President of the United States that they are company officers, they certainly war, then the system proposed by this bill is the
saw fit he might assign any general officer, | ought not to be promoted. very one which ought to be adopted. Amid the without regard to his rank, to the command of I hope, therefore, that the principle of prostorm of war military merit makes itself evi
a department or an Army corps, and that officer | motion by merit or examination will be applied dent, and enables us to distinguish truly when might command his seniors. Thus, the rule to all, and I modify my amendment to that the junior should command the senior.
of seniority was broken down regularly and effect. But we are now preparing an army for a systematically by law, to enable us to get hold Mr. STEVENS. I am not sure but I shall peace establishment, and I say that it is not a of the best intellects of the country and put vote for the amendment of the gentleman from good general rule in time of peace to select for them into the service.
Ohio, [Mr. GARFIELD. ] Iought perhaps in modpromotion otherwise than by seniority.,
Observe another thing. This rule of senior. esty to recite the old Dutch maxim — is it? And I do not think there is much weight, with ity has always been broken down by great Non nostrum inter vos tantas lites componere." all due deference to the argument of the gen- commanders wherever great emergencies of [Laughter.] I think that is Latin. [Renewed tleman, in the suggestion that we are likely to war were upon them. For instance, in 1798- | laughter.] Í do not know that I ought to mingle be overburdened with inefficient and incompe- || 99, when we expected war with France, Wash in this quarrel between these high generals, havtent officers; for you have your examining and ington was appointed General-in-Chief of the ing never been anything more than a second retiring boards to enable you to rid the Army | Army, and he made it a condition to his lieutenant myself. But I want to make this of all that sort of material under the operation acceptance of that position that he, himself, suggestion, that the system of giving promotion of the existing system.
should have the selection of his leading offi- by seniority of rank comes from the old Eng. Then again, the section which the gentleman When he came to make his selection lish system, and is founded, I think, upon a from Ohio [Mr. SCHENCK] points out as the he made Alexander Hamilton, a man taken vicious principle. In England, by means of remedy of the evils which are complained of from civil life, and who had never been higher || purchasing commissions, a nobleman who has as likely to result under the system which he than a colonel in the Army, first in the rank of younger sons, and desires to place them where would introduce, namely, section thirty-four, major generals; he made Pinckney, of South || they can secure a support for life, with a cerdoes not provide at all, as he asserts it does, Carolina, second in rank, and he made Gen- tainty of promotion, purchases commissions for a board of examiners composed of Army | eral Knox, who had been a commander of for them at from two to three thousand pounds officers to make selections for promotions, but division in the war of the Revolution, third in each. Those commissions are salable" by the it provides in these words:
rank; thus absolutely reversing the order, and officers holding them. Now, it would not do That ng officer of the Army below the rank of cola | placing those men in that order solely on the to have these vested rights broken in upon by before having passed a satisfactory examination as ground of merit, and not on the ground of || allowing promotions or even appointments 10 to his fitness for promotion and record of past sor- seniority.
be made for merit alone, and hence, until you
get to the higher grades in the British army, of a majority of the council is not adverse in the case colonels have not been selected for any such
of any officer, he shall thereupon be immediately promotions are never made for merit, but only
command, being supposed to be not quite so marked on the Army list to be retained in the service by seniority. That is a system devised by the in the position or rank which he is then bolding, of
well fitted as their juniors, or not quite so nobility for the support of those for whom they which lue notice shall be given in general orders ; young, and capable as it was desirable they have purchased commissions. But it is a but if the majority of the council report that in their
should be for the efficiency of the service.. opinion, and for reasons which they shall assign, the system with which we in America ought to have
case of any officer ought to be further inquired into. | Now, these gentlemen who may apply for colnothing to do.
We cannot afford to make our he shall thereupon be suminoned, by order, to ap- onelcies, or any higher grade of position in original appointments by the sales of commis- pear before a board, to consist of three general ollicers or officers of his corpsor arm of the service, senior
the extension of the Army, do not wish to be sions; nor can we allow those who hold com. to him in rank, to undergo further examination. On
examined by officers senior to them in rank missions to transfer them by sale, and thus make such examination, besides other inquiry as to his who did not serve during the war, and whose a large amount of money out of them. That capacity and qualifications, mental, moral, and phys
cal, the officer shall
be allowed, if the case requires sympathies would not probably be with them. being the case, there is but one other system it, full and reasonable opportunity for explanation
Mr. WRIGHT. I ask the gentleman from which we can adopt, and that is the system of
and defense, and may produce witnesses and other Ohio whether he is not taking away from the promotion by merit, and I think we ought to testimony to meet any objections or charges made
President and Senate their prerogative to against him. If the board thereupon report that he apply the system to the lowest ranks.
is not qualified to reinain in the Army, for reasons appoint, nominate, and confirm. The gentle. I hope I shall be excused for venturing to other than any which involve bad moral character, man refuses to answer, and I hope the section make these remarks upon a qestion that I may he shall be placed on the retired list, as is provided
will be voted out. in other cases for the retirement of Army officers, and be supposed to know nothing about, and I am on the same conditions; but if he be found unfit for The amendment was agreed to. willing to confess it. As I am requested to the service on account of moral disqualifications, he
The Clerk read as follows: call the previous question, I will do so.
shall at once be dropped from the rolls of the Army.
And in making such investigations into the fitness of Sec. 35. And be it further enacted, That no person The previous question was seconded, and officers to be retained in the service the said military shall be appointed an officer in the line or in any staff the main question ordered; which was upon
council and such boards as may at any time be ap- corps of the Army until he shall have passed a satisthe amendment of Mr. GARFIELD.
pointed and organized under the provisions of this factory examination before a board, to be convened
section, shall take into account the cases of any who under direction of the Secretary of War, who shall The question was taken ; and there were- inay have been employed in no active duty in the inquire into and take account of the services renayes thirty-two, noes not counted.
field during any part of the late war, and shall in- dered during the late war, as well as the capacity So the amendment was not agreed to.
quire specially into the reasons for their not being so and qualifications otherwise of the applicant; and
employed; and any officer whose absence from active such appointment, when made, shall be without reThe question recurring on the motion of field service during the war sball be decided by a gard to previous rank, but with sole regard to qualiMr. Boyer, to strike out the twenty-eighth
board of examiners, after full hearing, to have been fications and meritorious services.
on account of his sympathy with the rebellion or his Sec. 36. And be it further enacted. That for the pure section, it was not agreed to.
unwillingness to serve actively against the so-called pose of promoting knowledge of military science The Clerk read as follows:
confederate States, or any particular State, or the among the young men of the United States, the Pres
people of any State engaged in rebellion, shall be ident may, upon the application of an established Sec. 29. And be it further enacted, That the Presi- reported the same as if found morally disqualified for college or university within the United States, with dent is authorized to transfer officers of the Army of the service.
sufficient capacity to educate at one time not less the United States from the line to the general staff,
than one hundred and fifty male studenis, detail an and from the general staff to the line, or from one Mr. SCHENCK. The Inspector General's
officer of the Army to act as president, superintendstaff corps of the general staff to another and differ- department is not represented in the council ent, or professor of such college or university; that ent staff corps, or from one arm of the service to anof officers according to the present provisions
the number of officers so detailed shall not exceed other; but an ollicer on being so transferred shall
twenty at any time, and shall be appointed through only take such rank in the staff or corps in which he of the section. I move, therefore, to amend
the United States, as nearly as practicable, according is placed as he held by commission in the staff or line by inserting after the word department,', to population, and shall be governed by general before his transfer. SEC. 30. And be it further enacted, That the age for where it occurs the second time in the tenth rules, to be prescribed from time to time by the Pres.
ident. the admission of cadets to the United States Military line, the words "and one officer of the InAcademy shall hereafter be between seventeen and spector General's department,'' and by strik
Mr. GARFIELD. I move the following to twenty-two years; but any person who has served two years as a volunteer in the Union Army, in the
ing out in the same line the word " and;" so come in as a new section : late war, may be eligible to appointment up to the that the.clause will read:
And be it further enacted, That whenever troops are age of twenty-four years. Sec. 31. And be it further enacted, That cadets at
Which council shall be composed of three general
serving at any post, garrison, or permanent camp, the Military Academy sball hereafter be appointed officers of the Army, three officers of infantry, two
thero shall be established a school where all enlisted one year in advance of the time of their admission, officers of artillery, two officers of cavalry, two offi
men may be provided with instruction in the common
English branches of education and especially in the except in cases where by reason of death, or other cers of the medical department, one officer of the
history of the United States; and the Secretary of cause, a vacancy occurs which cannot thus be proAdjutant General's department, one officer of engi
War is authorized and directed to detail such comvided for by such appointment in advance; but no neers, one officer of ordnance, one officer of the quar
missioned and non-commissioned officers as may be pay or allowance shall be made to any such ap
termaster's department, one officer of the subsistence pointee until he shall be regularly admitted on examdepartment, one officer of the pay department, and
necessary to carry out the provisions of this section. ination, as now provided by law. And in addition
one officer of the Inspector General's department. Mr. Speaker, I only ask to say a word on to the requirements necessary for admission as pro- The amendment was agreed to.
that subject. One of the greatest evils known vided by the third section of the "act making further provisions for thecorps of Engineers," approved April
The Clerk read as follows:
in standing armies is the evil of idleness, the 29. 1812, candidates shall be required to have a knowledge of the elements of English grammar, of descrip
Sec. 34. And be it further enacted, That no oficer || parent of all wickedness, and especially the
of the Army below the rank of colonel shall hereafter ignorance connected with it. I hope we will tive geography, particularly of our own country, and of the history of the United States,
be promoted to a higher grade before having passed be able to do something to eradicate that evil
a satisfactory examination as to his fitness for proSec. 32. And be it further enacted, That the Superintendent of the United States Military Academy motion and record of past services before a board of
from our Army, and to do something to make three general officers or officers of his corps or arm it a patriotic Army. In the wearisome months may hereafter be selected, and the officers on duty
of service, senior to him in rank; and should the at that institution detailed, from any arm of the ser
spent in camp and at posts and garrisons there officer failat said examination, he shall be suspended vice; and the supervision and charge of the Academy shall be in the War Department, under such officer from promotion for one year, when, if he still desires
is nothing for them to do but to indulge in some or officers as the Secretary of War may assign to that
promotion, he shall, upon application, be reëxam- deviltry. It is a great evil in the Army. I duty.
ined, and upon a second failure shall be dropped want the enlisted men to have opportunities
from the rolls of the Army: Provided, That if any Mr. SCHENCK. I move to amend by in- officer be found unfit for promotion on account of
for culture, and I ask that the Secretary of War serting the following as an additional section : moral disqualifications, he shall not be entitled to a
shall detail officers fitted for that purpose. I reëxamination. SEC. And be it further enacted, That no officer
think such a section will relieve the Army from of the Army, in time of peace, shall be dismissed
Mr. SCHENCK. Mr. Speaker, some rep
this evil. It has been drawn hastily, but I think the service unless in accordance with the provisions resentations have been made to me by officers will commend itself to the country. of this act or by sentence of a court-martial duly of the Army who have distinguished themselves
One word more. approved.
If it were in my power I The amendment was agreed to. during the late war as to the possible working
would make a law that every man and woman of this section, and the propriety of an amend- in the United States should study American The Clerk read as follows:
ment to guard against possible injustice. In | history through the period of their minority, Sec. 33. And be it further enacted, That immediately | conformity with the suggestions made to me, We cannot do that throughout the United after the passage of this act the President of the United States shall convenea councilof officers to assem
I move to amend by striking out in the sixth States generally, but we can enforce it to some ble at Washington city, which council shall be com- line the words, "senior to him in rank,'' and extent upon the privates in our Army. posed of three general officers of the Army, three inserting in lieu thereof the words, “ who have Mr. SCHENCK, I have no objection to officers of infantry, two officers of artillery, two officers of cavalry, two officers of the medical department,
served as seniors to him in rank during the late | incorporate this section into the bill. I only one officer of the Adjutant General's department, one war against the rebellion ;'' so that the clause advise the House and the gentleman who offers officer of engineers, one officer of ordnance, one ofli- will read:
it that I have a long bill proposing a radical cer of the quartermaster's deparment, one officer of the subsistence department, and one officer of the pay
That no officer of the Army below the rank of col- change to take place gradually in our whole department; all to be selected for their high charac
onel shall hereafter be promoted to a higher grade system. The purpose will be indicated by ter for intelligence, discretion, justice, patriotism, before having passed a satisfactory examination as
reading its title. It is an act to establish a and professional ability, and who, being thus selected, to his fitness for promotion and record of past services shall be retained on the Army list. It shall be the
before a board of three general officers or officers of system of education in the regular Army of duty of this council to inquire into and consider the
his corps or arm of service, who have served as the United States, and provide that all pronocapacity, character, record of services, and fitness to seniors to him in rank during the late war against
tions therein shall begin from the rank and file. be continued in the military service of every ollicer
the rebellion. below the grade of brigadier general who may be in
As this is not to be presented now, but a matter
I will state the reason for proposing this the Army at the time of the passage of this bill; and with a view to this they shall be furnished with all
for future consideration, I do not object to the amendment. Some officers who formerly | amendment. information, papers, records, and other documentary served as captains or majors, or held other evidence they may require from the War Depart
The Clerk read as follows: ment. As they proceed with this investigation, they subordinate positions in regiments, have acted
Sec. 37. And be it further enacted, That any person shall, from time to time, report all their conclusions as brigadier and major generals during the late
applying for a commission under the authority of this in each case to the Secretary of War. When the report war, while their former colonels or lieutenant
act, and having permission to appear before a board
of examiners, shall be entitled, in case of passing the Mr. SCHENCK. I understand the gentle- would be if this bill should become a law, and examination and being appointed or commissioned, man's amendment not to propose any increase to receive mileage from his place of residence to thó
the Army be eventually reorganized under its place of examination, or such portion of that dis
provisions. tance as he may actually travel, the same as is paid Mr. WRIGHT. None whatever.
I have here some tables, which I will not to officers traveling under orders, but shall be paid Mr. SCHENCK. Simply a badge. no other compensation.
detain the House by giving in detail, but which Sec. 38. And be it further enacted, That the allow
Mr. WRIGHT. Simply that we may know contain some interesting statistics in relation ance now made by law to officers traveling under who are band-masters in the United States to this subject, and such as may perhaps be orders, where transportation is not furnished in kind, | Army. sball be increased to ten cents per mile.
new, even to many members of the House. The amendment was agreed to.
Let me take, in the first place, the present Mr. ROLLINS. I move to amend by inserting the following as a new section, to come in
Mr. ANCONA. I offer the following amend
staff corps of the Army. It consists, including after section thirty-eight:
ment, to come in as an additional section after | general oflicers, of a total of three hundred and the section which has just been passed :
twenty-seven. Of those, two hundred and fiftyAnd be it further enacted, That the provision in sec
six in the different staff departments are gradtion fifteen of the act approved July 5, 1838, giving
And be it further enacted, That there shall to certain officers an additional ration per diem for be an instructor of sword exercise with the rank,
uates of the United States Military Academy. pay, and emoluments of a lieutenant colonel of caveach five years of service, shall be construed to apply
They are divided in this way: alry; that said instructor of sword exercise shall be to all officers or soldiers of volunteers who may be commissioned in the regular Army, and the dato of a thorough practical swordsman, conversant with
In the Adjutant General's department, where the original entrance of the officers or soldiers in the
both cavalry and infantry sword drill, and be dis- there are twenty-one officers, three are not volunteer service shall be the date from which the
tinguished for capacity, efficiency, and experience graduates, and eighteen graduates.
as an instructor; that he shall carry out such regulaperiod of five years shall be reckoned. tions for perfecting the officers of the Army in the use
In the quartermaster's department there are I understand that the committee have no of thesword as the Secretary of War may prescribe. twenty-six who have not been educated at West objection to this amendment. The object of The amendment was agreed to.
Point, and thirty-nine who have been. it is to secure a credit to the gallant men who
In the subsistence department, out of twentyhave served in the volunteer Army during the
The forty-first section was then read as
nine as a total, two have not been graduates, follows: war if they shall be appointed in the regular
or are not now on the Army list, while twenty
Sec. 41. And be it further enacted, That nothing in Army, so that they may obtain the additional
seven have been. this act shall be construed to affect in any way the ration. I think it is just and proper that they Burcau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned
I may here remark that this list was taken should have the credit. They will have been Lands, as now established by law.
from the present Army Register of the 1st of in actual service for some years, and deserve Mr. GRINNELL. I offer the following to
January, 1866, and it should contain the names the credit that this amendment proposes. come in as an additional section:
or two other officers who have been appointed Mr. SCHENCK. If section thirty-eight SEC. --. And be it further enacted, That nothing
in the subsistence department from among the remains in the bill I have no objection to this herein contained shall be construed as affecting the
commissaries of volunteers. So that there are amendment to it. It has been my purpose,
existing law respecting the rank, pay, and allowances really four who are not graduates.
of chaplains of the Army, but the same shall remain however, to move to strike out that section as now established by the act entitled "An act to
In the pay department seventeen are not altogether, and for this reason: it relates to amend section nine of the act approved July 17, 1862, graduates, and ten are. pay and allowances, and that very provision is
entitled 'An act to define the pay and emoluments of In the Engineer corps the whole number
certain officers of the Army,'and for other purposes,' contained in another bill that we have reported approved April 9, 1864.
employed are graduates of West Point.
And so on until we reach the total which is called the pay bill, which has been made a The amendment was agreed to. special order in this House. Both the thirty
given as I before recited it. eighth section and the amendment which the
The forty-second and last section of the bill Among the general officers in the Army, as
was then read as follows: gentleman proposes would be very appropriate
it now exists, we have a lieutenant general, in that bill.
SEC. 42. And be it further enacted, That all laws and who is a graduate of the Military Academy, Mr. ROLLINS. It is the safest course to put
parts of laws inconsistent with the provisions of this five major generals, all graduates, and nine
act be, and the same are hereby, repealed. it in this bill.
brigadier generals, eight of whom are graduMr. BLAINE. If that bill should not pass
No further amendments being offered, the || ates, and one of whom, General Terry, is not I would rather have the amendment in this bill.
bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a a graduate. The list which I have here show's The amendment was agreed to.
third time; and being engrossed, it was ac- only eight brigadier generals; being taken from cordingly read the third time.
the Army Register of last January it does not The Clerk read the following sections:
Mr. SCHENCK demanded the previous ques- contain the name of General Terry. Thus it SEC. 39. And be it further enacted, That in construing tion on the passage of the bill.
will be seen that the staff departments proper, this bill, officers who have heretofore been appointed or commissioned to serve with United States colored
The previous question was seconded and the with the exception of the quartermaster's detroops shall be deemed and held to be officers of volmain question ordered.
partment to a considerable extent, and the pay
Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois, demanded department and ordnance department to some Sec. 40. And be it further enacted, That officers of the regular Army, who have also held commissions as
the yeas and nays on the passage of the bill. extent, are made up of those who have been officers of volunteers, shall not on that account be
The yeas and nays were ordered.
educated at the Military Academy: held to bo volunteers under the provisions of this act. The SPEAKER. The gentleman from Ohio But a change has commenced in the line,
Mr. SCHENCK. I propose after section is entitled to one hour to close the debate, if he and is extending upward through the different forty to insert as an additional section the foldesire to do so.
grades of officers; and it may astonish gentle. lowing:
Mr. SCHENCK. I desire to submit some men to learn that as the Army now stands, of And be it further enacted, That nothing in this act
little explanation of the bill before the vote is a total of eleven hundred and twenty-four offishall be construed to authorize or permit the appoint- taken. I do not propose to debate it at length. cers of the line, in the three arms of the serment to any position or office in the Army of the
There has been enough of incidental debate in vice-cavalry, artillery, and infantry-only two United States of any person who has served in any capacity in the military or naval service of the so
its progress through the House. The bill, as hundred and eighty-four have been graduates called confederate States during the late rebellion, reported by the committee, has not been in any of the Military Academy; while eight hundred but any such appointment shall be held illegal and respect materially altered by any of the amend- and forty have been appointed from among volvoid.
ments that have been made. Its general scope The amendment was agreed to.
unteers or directly from civil life. and purposes remain about the same as I in- But there are vacancies which are not inMr. WRIGHT. I have an amendment to dicated they were when the bill was first intro- cluded in my list, which have recently been offer as a new section:
duced and submitted for consideration; and it and are now being filled, of a number of first And be it further enacted, That all leaders of bands
cannot be pretended that full and fair oppor- and second lieutenants, which will make the of music in the United States Army, who now have tunity for amendment and discussion has not relative proportion still different. Of five hunthe pay of second lieutenants, shall be styled band- been allowed upon each section of the bill in dred and sixty-four vacancies to be filled, the masters, with the privilege of wearing the shoulder straps of a second lieutenant with a lyre thereon its progress through the House.
whole of them are to be filled by appointments to indicate their position: Provided, That notbing The bill, it will be remembered, is one wnich from volunteers. The bill before the House, herein contained shall add to the rank, pay, or emol- provides, now when the time has arrived for without reference to what the Army will be uments of such band-masters.
us to determine what our Army shall be in the when these five hundred and sixty-four vacanI have the honor to submit this to the chair. future, for an establishment to consist of fifty || cies are filled, provides for six hundred and man of the committee. I presume that in the thousand men, capable of expansion to eighty- || thirty subaltern officers, who will also all be reorganization of the Army, apart from the two thousand, as the ultimate or maximum taken from the volunteers. general matters that attract the attention of number. The bill, in its various provisions, Thus going on through the different items in the House, some minor details are necessary. is a most liberal one in relation to introducing this table, I find as the general aggregate, if This does not increase the rank of these per- into this Army those who have served with this bill shall pass, that the whole number of sons, who are really officers, drawing the pay fidelity and efficiency in the late struggle for the officers, in all arms of the service, will be two of second lieutenants, but their pride, I pre- preservation of this Government. It throws thousand seven hundred and eighty, of whom sume, might be gratified and their position | the doors wide open for the admission of vol- two thousand four hundred and thirty-two, known by the wearing of a shoulder strap with unteers.
being the entire number with the exception some of the insignia of military office upon it. Perhaps gentlemen are not fully aware of l of three hundred and forty-eight who are gradIt does not, I admit, amount to much, but we what is the present character, even with the | uates of the Military Academy, will be apare all of us men, and the poorest among us changes already made, of the regular Army of pointed either directly from civil life or for have some personal pride, and therefore I the United States as it relates to the material the most part from among those who have would like to have this amendment adopted. Il of which its officers are made up, or of what it Il served as volunteers in the late war.
Non--08. STOS.CO Graduates.
The following are the tables to which I have hundred and one white volunteers and eighteen have nobly defended our institutions and the referred :
thousand three hundred and fifty-eight colored integrity of our Government. THE STAFF CORPS.
volunteers, or a total of thirty thousand five Sir, I do not propose to extend these reNumber of officers in the several staff corps of the Army hundred and fifty-nine volunteers, out of an marks. I wish merely to call-the attention of according to the Army Register för 1865.
army of one million fire hundred and sixteen the House to these two propositions: that, in men which we had in the service at the close the first place, the army which we propose to of the war.
create is an army 110 greater than is proporLet me restate it. At the close of the war we tioned, according to the judgment of all those Corps or department.
had an army of regulars and volunteers of one best qualified to judge of the inatter, to the needs million five hundred and sixteen men. Of these, of the country in its extended interests; and in
fifteen thousand were regulars, leaving a total the next place that this army in its component Adjutant General's department... 18
of volunteers in service at the close of the war character is made up of those who have served Qurtermaster's department... Subsistence department..
of nine hundred and eighty-five thousand five the country faithfully, and who thus have been Pay department..
hundred and sixteen. Of these there have imbued with such sentiments of devotion to Corps of Engineers. Ordnance department...
been mustered out to the 18th of last month, the country and its flag and all its highest inBureau of Military Justice...
until the number remaining was only thirty terests as will make them the best possible Inspectors General...
thousand five hundred and fifty-nine. And material from which to select such an army. General Officers : 242
Mr. Speaker, I now call for the previous 71
since the 18th of April there are known to Lieutenant general..
have been mustered out of service because of question on the passage of the bill. Major generals
expiration of terms of service and of orders Mr. BOYER. Mr. Speaker, would it be in Brigadier generals..
already issued about fifteen hundred men. order now to move to postpone ? Total.
256 71 | 327 Perhaps another five hundred should be added The SPEAKER. It would be if the previous
to that number for the past week, for these sta- question should not be seconded. The Army Register for 1865 shoos that there are eleven tistics are a week old. But counting these Mr. ROSS. Would it be in order to move hundred and twenty-four ollicers of all grader in the
fifteen hundred only, it will be seen that the to recommit with instructions? cavalry, artillery, and infantry regiments of the United States Army, divided as follows:
volunteer force of the Army, including colored The SPEAKER. If the call for the previous as well as white troops, has been reduced to question should not be sustained, that motion twenty-nine thousand and fifty-nine men. can be made.
This leaves, therefore, scarcely anything to On seconding the call for the previous ques. be relied upon except the regular Army, and tion there were-ayes 57, noes 28; no quorum nothing whatever to be relied upon after a few || voting. weeks more. It is natural, therefore, thatthose The SPEAKER, under the rule, ordered.
having charge of the military service of the tellers; and appointed Messrs. Schenck and In the six regiments of cavalry, all
country should be turning their eyes anxiously | BOYER. grades....
54 154 208
in the direction of Congress to see what is to The House was again divided; and the tellIn the five regiments of artillery, all grades..
be done in order to provide a sufficient army 135 237
ers reported-ayes sixty-six, noes not counted. In the nineteen regiments of in
for all the needs of the Government, whether So the previous question was seconded. fantry, all grades..
128 551 679
on the frontier or throughout the interior of the The main question was then ordered to be pnt. 284
Mr. BOYER. I move that the bill be laid 810 1,121
country, or upon our widely-extended coast, The following vacancies existed wherever garrisons are kept up.
upon the table. (January 1, 1866.) in the same
The present strength of the regular Army, Mr. TAYLOR. If this bill be laid upon the regiments, and have been filled, or are now being filled, by officers
in consequence of the more rapid enlistments table, then what will be the position of the of the volunteer service, namely,
since the discharge of the volunteers, is about Senate bill? cavalry, 56; artillery, 98; inthirty thousand. There can be an extension
The SPEAKER. The Senate bill is before fantry, 410...
564 534 The bill now before the House pro
altogether to the number of from forty-two to the Committee on Military Affairs. vides for eighteen new regiments
forty-three thousand, which is the entire limit Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I hope ofinfantry, to be officered exclu
of the present regular Army. "In the course of the gentleman will withdraw tle motion to lay sively by appointinents from the volunteer service.
a few months, or even weeks, we shall find our. upon the table, and let the vote be taken on In the fifty-four companies to be
selves entirely destitute of any volunteer force the passage of the bill, on which the yeas and added to the twenty-seven bat
whatever under the operation of the orders nays have been ordered. talions of intantry now in the service, all officers of the grades
already existing, and unless some bill be passed Mr. BOYER. I withdraw the motion to lay of first and second lieutenants to continue in service the colored troops and
upon the table. are to be from officers of volun
other troops, we shall find ourselves with an The question was taken; and it was decided teers.
108 108 Two thirds of all other grades
army which at its maximum can be only a little in the negative-yeas 36, nays 83, not voting from volunteers.
64; as follows: In the six new regiments of cav
Now, sir, admitting the necessity of a mili- YEAS-Messrs. Anderson, Delos R:Ashley, Bundy, alry, there will be 264 officers, divided as follows: all first and tary establishment, extended to meet the re
Reader W. Clarke, Cobh. Deming, Donnelly, Driggs,
Garfield, Henderson, Holmes, Asahel W. Hubbard, second lieutenants and two
quirements of the country, and equal to that Chester D. Iubbard, Ingersoll, Longyoar, Lynch, thirds of all other grades from
which we are told from the headquarters of the Marvin, Mokce, Miller, Moorhead, Morrill, Paine, volunteers.....
34 220 264
Patterson, Plants, Alexander II. Rice. Rollins, Sav
yer, Schenck, Scofield, Sinith, Stevens, Stilwell, Rob318 2,432 2,780 is absolutely essential, the next question is crt T. Van Horn, Elihu B. Washburne, Welker, and whether this is an appropriate time for creat
Williams-36. The object of this bill, therefore, it will be | ing such an army. I hold that this is a pecu
NAYS-Messrs. Allison, Ames, Ancona, James M. seen, is to make a volunteer Army as it were,
Ashley, Baker, Baldwin. Beanan, Benjamin, Bergen, liarly appropriate time. We are now in the Bidwell, Boutwell, Boyer, Brandegee, Broomall, so far as deriving the material which is to transition state from war to a peace establish- Buckland, Chanler, Sidney Clarke, Coffroth, Conko compose the number of its officers is con- ment. We have now in the country an abun
ling, Cullom, Darlins, Dawson, Detrees, Delano, Dencerned. I mention this matter, because ob
ison, Dodge, Eluriilge, Farquhar, Ferry, Finck, Glossdance of skilled officers and skilled soldiers.
brenner, Grider, Grimnell, Aaron Harding, Abner C. jection is made to an extension of the Army We have above all a proposition to embody Harding, Hart, Higby, Hotchkiss, James R. Hubbell, at this time, or to the creation of an Army | into an army system a number of officers con
Hulburd, James M. llumpurey, Jenckes, Juliau, at all.
Kasson, Kelley, Kelso, Lailin, William Lawrence, Lo stituting the great bulk of that army, who will Blond, Loan, Marshall, McClurg, McRaer, Morris, Now, in regard to the extension of the Army, enter the new organization fresh from this war Moulton, Newell, Niblack, Noell, O'Neill, Orth, I have only to say, it has become, in the opin- to suppress the rebellion, and full of all the Perham, Pike, Samuel J. Randall, William H. Ranion at least of those who have charge of the sympathies, all the sentiments, all the love of
dall, Raymond, John H. Ricc, Ross. Shanklin, Shel
labarger, Sitgreaves, Spalding, Strouse, Taylor, military affairs of the country, and of the country, and all the zeal to maintain at all Trowbridge, Van Aernam, Waru, Warner, Henry D. Department presiding over those military af- hazards the honor of the flag and the integrity
Washburn, James F. Wilson, Stephen F. Wilson,
Windoi, Winfield, and Wright-83. fairs, an absolute necessity to have something of the country in all time hereafter, which they NOT VOTING - Messrs. Alley, Banks, Barker, done which shall increase our regular Army, learned in their experience and in their noble Baxter, Bingham, Blaine, Blow, Bromwell, Cook, and put it upon that more extended footing service during the late war.
Culver, Davis, Dawes, Dixon, Dumont, Eckley, Egwhich it is to have if the wants and needs of
gleston, Eliot, Farnsworth, Goodyear, Griswold,
I hold, therefore, that adopting as we do a Hale, Harris, Hayes, Hill, logan, Hooper, Demas the Government are to be supplied.
system of examinations so that officers shall Hubbard, John II. Hubbard, Edwin N. Hubbell, The House may not be aware of the gradual || be thoroughly tried as to their merit, including
James Humphrey, Johnson, Jonęs, Kerr, Ketenam, diminution of the volunteer Army. I have
Kuykendall, Latham, George V. Lawrence, Marston, their efficiency and fidelity in the service in McCullough, McIndoe, Mercur, Myers, Nicholson, statistics upon the subject, which I will state which they have been so lately engaged, we Phelps, Pomoroy, Price, Radford, Ritter, Rogers, briefly. Even while we have been progressing can select no better time to put into the inde
Rousseau, Sloan, Starr, Taber, Thayer, Francis
Thomas, John L. Thomas, Thornton. Trimble. Upwith this bill volunteers have been necessarily | pendent position of officers who will hold their son, Burt Van Horn, William B. Washburn, Wentmustered out of service from the expiration of offices during good behavior a body of men worth, Whaley, and Woodbride-61. their terms of enlistment and the necessity of || thoroughly adapted to maintain and defend
So the bill was rejected. treating them at the close of hostilities as enti- our institutions through all time to come, than During the roll-call the following announce tied to their discharge, until there remained now when we can make up that army from ments were made: on the 18th of April only twelve thousand two men fresh from the field of war, on which they Mr. BAXTER. I am paired with my col.