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to Oswego than to Buffalo, we find that this opment, that I have been drawn further into witnesses its execution and a blessing to our route will cheapen the transportation on every the debate than perhaps prudence dictated. whole people. bushel of wheat nearly four cents, which of Now, sir, when I look forward twenty and“ Mr. Speaker, I now yield ten minutes of itself is no small item for western men to ex- fifty years, which is but a span in the life of a my time to the gentleman from Illinois. amine in connection with this question. The nation like ours, and contemplate what our Mr. ROSS. Mr. Speaker, from the cursory same thing is true with reference to all arti- country is to be, in the light of the remarks examination I have been able to give this cles of western production seeking our eastern made the other day by my friend, the distin- measure, I am inclined to look upon it favormarkets,
guished gentleman from Massachusetts, [Mr. ably. I have not examined the minutiæ of Now, I submit whether this is not a measure BANKS,] I confess I am filled with pride and the provisions of the bill, but the general that demands the serious attention of all sec- satisfaction.
objects which it contemplates are so different tions, and claims an unqualified approval from All our broad expanse of country from ocean from those which ordinarily are presented for Representatives of all portions of the country, to ocean will be filled with free, intelligent, and the consideration of this House that they cerfor all are deeply interested in the general ben- | enterprising people, living in and controlling | tainly commend themselves to my judgment. efits to flow from its success. There are sev- States with institutions calculated to lift them I regard this as a measure in the interest of eral outlets for the trade that reaches Lake up to the highest point of civilization, and fill peace, a measure in the interest of commerce, Ontario : the Oswego and Erie canal, to Troy, our whole land with blessings and happiness. a measure in the interest of the prosperity of and the Hudson river, besides two railroads at Railroads and canals, fostered and aided by the the whole country. It is not like many measSyracuse, and another in contemplation; the Government when and where necessary, reach- ures which have been pressed upon the conCape Vincent, the Rome and Watertown rail. ing out their long lines across the continent, sideration of this House during the last few road, which now receives large consignments | and interlocking with each other, ramifying in months. It is not a measure to appropriate of lake produce, and delivers the same in New every direction, through every mountain pass, cleven or twelve million dollars for the purYork by Central railroad, or Erie canal at or piercing the mountain's side, along the riv
pose of feeding, clothing, and building schoolRome. The projected road from the Hudson ers, over the prairies, upon the very
thresh- houses for lazy, indolent negroes who will not to Lake Ontario, by the way of Saratoga, is olds of all our towns and cities, bringing ocean work. It is nothing of the kind. It is not a being rapidly pushed forward, and will form near to ocean and making near neighbors of measure for the purpose of raising the comanother important avenue for western produce. the most remote sections of our united and pensation of the heads of some of the bureaus The road from Ogdensburg to Boston is in suc- happy land ; all pouring into our Treasury who are hanging about at the skirt tail of cessful operation, and supporting large lines untold wealth, and making us complete mas- members and of employés about this House, of steamers in trade with the western States. ters of the whole earth in every material point || who beg to get into a public position, and who By this route large amounts of produce are also ofview. What a sublime field for contemplation || spend all the time afterward in trying to get sent to New York by way of Lake Champlain || and thought! It remains to be seen whether their compensation increased. and canal. Oiher routes to the East are sug. we shall be worthy of such a destiny, whether I am aware at the threshold that the disgested and doubtless will be constructed, for we fully comprehend the duties of the hour, tinguished gentleman from New York [Mr. J. the commercial energy of our people is unlim- and whether we are ready to grasp the occasion M. HUMPHREY] enunciates the grave doctrine ited, and will constantly increase as the demands and secure these great advantages.
to this House that this is an unconstitutional for outlet increase. One of the most promi- Every such work as this bill proposes to au
My friend behind me says that that nent is a water communication with the lakes, thorize tends to bind our people together in is a played-out question. I do not so regard by way of a canal from Montreal, through Lake a common interest, and adds one more link to it. I claim to be a strict constructionist of the Champlain, and canal to the navigable waters the bond of union, and increases each man's Constitution. Still I do not believe in the of the Hudson, a distance of only sixty miles. Il capital stock in his country's good name and doctrine that you can put your arms into the But the success of all or any of these routes honor.
public Treasury and take millions of money of communication, which are bound to be com- When our great and unequaled lines of com- from the people of the great West to expend pleted before very long, in which I insist the munication are all opened between the Pacific upon the sea board of the East, and that there whole country is interested, depends entirely || and the Atlantic, Asia will be compelled to pay no constitutional right to make appropria. upon an opening between Lake Ontario and us tribute and send her products across our tions for the purpose of improving the great our western lákes by way of a ship-canal. | continent, through the Atlantic cities to their inland seas of the West. There is no other as cheap, as proper, and as destination. It has been well said that “we The gentleman tells us that we are infringing feasible. Shall we have it on the Ameri- are yet to dictate laws in the arts, sciences, upon the rights of New York, that we are going can side, or shall we continue to pay tribute and finance to the whole world, as well as be to take her precious soil without her consent. to Canadian skill and enterprise? More than || acknowledged the commercial, agricultural, || Why, sir, I suppose we would have to make a three quarters of all the commerce of the upper and manufacturing center of the whole earth."" little hole in the rocks around the falls of lakes is American, and hence it will be seen Among the means used to secure this grand | Niagara. But that is not the secret of the genthat we are keeping up the Welland canal by result is the work proposed by this bill. It asks tleman's opposition to this bill. He tells us our enterprise and capital. We have paid for but a small favor compared with what has been about the large expenditures that have been it and continually support it, and unless we granted and will yet be granted to other pro- made at Buffalo in the way of warehouses for move in the construction of a canal ourselves jects equally meritorious and worthy of consid- the purpose of taking charge of the products we shall furnish the means for its speedy | eration. The millions of money given to the of the western country that are sent to the eastenlargement and its continued support and Pacific railroad, for which I had the privilege ern market. He knows full well that thonprosperity.
of voting in the Thirty-Seventh Congress was sands of his constituents live upon this busiBut if the East and middle States will per- a wise investment; and others of the same ness of transporting products from the West, sist in their opposition to this measure, the nature will do as much toward bringing about || reshipping them at Buffalo. That is the secret West and Northwest will be compelled, and be the condition of things to which I have referred. of his opposition to this
bill. justifiable, too, in making such arrangements They develop: quicken, and push forward enter- It so happens, Mr. Speaker, that this is a as will meet their interests and take their im
prise, labor, intelligence, and skill, all of which measure that is in favor with the people. It mense surplus of productions by way of the in their turu enrich and cover over our land is a measure in behalf of the toiling millions Ottawa canal, to be constructed, to the St. with wealth and prosperity.
scattered throughout the length and breadth Lawrence, and fise that river as an casement This work is entirely national in its charac- of our country, who do not throng the lobbies to the ocean. I am glad that the West is so ter. We owe it to ourselves to aid in its con- and ask for the passage of measures for their unanimously in favor of this measure, and hopestruction, and thus secure it speedily. We owe particular benefit. And now I want to see how that any unwise and selfish policy of any sec- it to the bold, enterprising men who have in- the Representatives of the people will respond tion may not lossen their devotion to the grand || vested their property in commerce, and who to this call that is made by their constituency idea of developing our own resources by means are among the bravest of our people and the at home with reference to this measure of great of improvements like this within our own terri- most patriotic of our citizens, that we open up and paramount interest. tory and under the control of our own people. this way of trade, and no longer compel them Mr. DELANO. Will the gentleman yield ? Open up this connection between the lakes, to pay tribute to those who have for us but Mr.- ROSS. For a question ? and it will not be long before the New York little sympathy and respect, as the last few Mr. DELANO. It is not a question. canal, in her locks at least, will be enlarged years of our trial have clearly shown. Our Mr. ROSS. I cannot yield; I hare but a to meet the demands upon them. Whether brave and loyal citizens engaged in service on few minutes left. This is a measure in which this canal be made or not, such an increase our lakes ought not, any longer than it will the whole country is interested, unless it is the will be accomplished, but this is no reason why || take to construct our own ship-canal, be com- constituents of the gentleman froin Buffalo, this work should not be done, as I have clearly | pelled to use theirs in the prosecution of their | [Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY,] who want to have a shown, as all the additional facilities will be legitimate business; and Congress and the Gov- portion of the products of our farms stick to indispensable, and furnished from some quar- ernment ought to give their early attention to their hands in transit through the city of Bufter if not by us.
the construction of the work that is now pro- falo. Why, sir, it reduces the price of the But, Mr. Speaker, I have detained the House posed. Like many other works of the past few | commodity to the consumer and it enhances much longer than I had intended to do in this years and present, it would stand as a monu- it to the producer. It is mutual in its benefit. debate; but the question opens up such inter- ment to the intelligence, patriotism, and energy The distinguished gentleman from Massaesting fields of contemplation in connection of the men and the Government who nobly chusetts [Mr. Eliot) yesterday gave us some with the future of our country, and the vast came up to and met the struggles of the present valuable statistics in relation to the products transactions of its future commercial, agricul- day amid the darkest storms and greatest obsta- of the great Northwest, especially of the State tural, and manufacturing prosperity and devel- cles. It would be an honor to the age which ll which I have the honor in part to represent on this floor. But strange enough, after he had inserted in the bill by which Congress is em- STEVENS)--and I believe we are the only two gone through with the advantages of naviga- powered to regulate the rates of tolls and members of the House of whom this can be tion and pointed out the fact that we had to charges upon this proposed canal, to the end said-that we have not, upon this or any other give three bushels of our corn to get one to that to the extent of the contribution of the subject, any prejudice whatever that we can be market, he had nothing in his river and har- General Government this canal shall be free called upon to surrender. [A laugh.] Therebor bill for the improvement of the Illinois to the people of the United States. I shall fore we shall vote together on this bill. river, one of the great arteries which is neces- therefore vote for the bill, and forego the op. He is situated somewhat differently from sary to complete this line of communication position which I had intended to make to it. myself in this regard. I come from the city around the Niagara falls, so that the people Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I now of New York, where, in common with the great of New England who have been fed on cod- yield to the gentleman from Pennsylvania, (Mr. | portion of the northern Atlantic sea-board, our fish and herring may be furnished with the || STEVENS.]
interest is to procure cheap food; and that will corn, pork, and beef of the western States. Mr. STEVENS. I merely want to say that as time rolls on become more and more the [Laughter.]
I regard this bill as constitutional, not un- great interest of all the northeastern States. Sir, in my judgment this is a measure that der the war power particularly, but under the On the contrary the interest of the great West, should commend itself to the House. It is said power in the Constitution to regulate com- which is becoming more and more the grainto be a war measure. Well, it may be neces- merce between the States. Although the pro- | producing portion of this continent, is to sary as a precautionary measure. It may be posed canal is entirely within the limits of one obtain access to those who wish to purchase proper in view of the contingency of a war, but | State, the commerce which it is to convey is || the food which the western States have to I do not regard it in that aspect. I am not in between a great number of separate States; || sell. This project is part of a grand scheme favor of the proposition now pending before therefore I have no difficulty in overcoming of works upon which this Congress must at the House to create a large standing army at any difficulty or scruple about internal im- some day or other enter, to facilitate comenormous expense to the people. This is a provements; especially when I find the gen- munication between the grain-producing and very different measure. Gentlemen could vote tleman from Illinois [Mr. Ross] overriding || the grain-consuming portions of this country, this morning eleven or twelve millions for the his old prejudices and his old constitutional As a measure looking toward this great object Freedmen's Bureau easily enough, but when objections against works of internal improve- I favor the bill now before us. you ask for a loan of $6,000,000 to make a great ment by the General Government.
I beg leave to say, furthermore, that I shall, national work in which the whole people, con- I shall go for this measure, as I did for one to the extent of my ability, favor every meassumers and producers, are equally interested, the other day which was intended to bring to ure that may be brought before the House proconstitutional objections spring up at once, the East the products of the great West. It || posing to facilitate communication between the My worthy friend from New York (Mr. Ward) will take some time to build this canal; and great West and the Atlantic sea board, and fallwanted to strike out this appropriation of before it is built this great Northern Pacific ing within what I may deem the scope of the $6,000,000 for this great national work, but he railroad will have settled and brought under constitutional provisions on the subject. In had no objection to eleven or twelve millions cultivation millions of acres of our land, which my judgment the facilitating of all such comfor the Freedmen's Bureau.
will send its produce down Lake Superior and || munications, the cheapening of food for tbe If my friend from New York [Mr. Van the other great lakes, and there must be some East by opening communications with the marHorn] who has this bill in charge will only | outlet provided for it; for the canals now made kets of the great West, is hereafter to be one infuse a little vigor in it there will be no diffi- || cannot carry the present commerce of the coun- of the great works to which this Government is culty in its passing the House. But because | try. And that railroad bill will pass before many to give its attention. it is a measure in behalf of the farmers, the days.
The eastern portion of the country is drifting producers and consumers of the country, I Now, I beseech the gentlemen from Illinois, || rapidly into the condition in which England fear that it may receive the cold shoulder in who had such strong constitutional objections | found herself before the repeal of the corn laws. this Congress. I trust that the time has come to the Pacific railroad bill, to give up their | At the time of the adoption of the repealing when those who represent the great Northwest, objections and go for this bill. And if we act, her protective policy which she had pursued which has been talked so much about here, could persuade the members from Illinois and for centuries was abandoned under the pressure will come to the rescue of her interest, and the members from Wisconsin and my friend of the great and paramount necessity of obtainshow by their votes that they are in truth in who lives in Cleveland, that beautiful city upon | ing cheap food for her people. That necessity favor of a measure of this character,
the lakes, [Mr. SPALDING,] to give up their broke down her prejudices, reversed her settled In my judgment, this will never be any bur- scruples, we might carry the bill through the l policy, and inaugurated an entire change in the den upon the Treasury of the United States. House. I do pray that they will lay aside those whole course of her legislation. A similar If I understood the amendment which was prejudices or that they will no longer exist. occurrence inust sooner or later take place with offered this morning, it proposes that the Gov- I ain glad my friend from Illinois (Mr. Hard- respect to the eastern portion of this continent. ernment shall receive ten per cent. of the gross ING] who has just spoken has yielded his preju- Whatever, therefore, tends to facilitate comearnings of this canal. If such is the case dices for a moment to the convincing argument || munication between these two great sections most unquestionably every one who is con- of the gentleman upon the other side, (Mr. of the country, tends to consolidate-not to versant with the vast amount of business which | Ross,] who seems to have forgotten his prin- reconstruct, for it is not needed in that regard, will necessarily be done upon a canal of this | ciples of yesterday. And I am glad that he but to consolidate the Union of the States, character will know that the Government will || has, and I only hope he will never remember and make that Union perpetual, because it be amply remunerated for every dollar that it them again. And I should be glad if my friend tends to make it one in interest, as it will be shall expend in aid of this work.
from the Pittsburg district [Mr. MOORHEAD] one in destiny. I know there are interests adverse to meas- and others in his neighborhood would forego I have not examined this bill, so far as its ures of this character. But they come from their prejudices and vote for this bill.
details are concerned, with any care; but I Buffalo; they come, perhaps, from interested Mr. MOORHEAD. I will.
have the greatest confidence in the committee individuals in the State of New York who de- Mr. STEVENS. He says he will. I tell which has had it in charge, and in my colsire to impede the commerce and trammel the you the millennium day is coming; [laughter;] || league, [Mr. Van Horn,) who has taken it prosperity of the country.
blind eyes are opened, and deaf ears are un- under his particular supervision. Mr. DRIGGS. I am disposed to favor this stopped, [renewed laughter, ] and I do not know Mr. DELANO. As the gentleman says he bill, for I regard this as a great national meas- where this blaze of glory will end.
has not examined the bill in its details, will he I recollect that last year when the Gov- I know the gentleman from the Galena dis- | permit me to call his attention to one of its ernment built one of the cutters ordered for trict [Mr. WASHBURNE] would like to see this features? the lakes, after it had been completed at Os- bill pass if it is likely to do any good. But Mr. RAYMOND. Yes, sir. wego, they were not allowed to take it through his record is such that it is impossible for him Mr. DELANO. Does the gentleman know the Welland canal. I have only to say to the gen- to do anything but make a short speech against how much money the bill proposes to take out tleman from Illinois (Mr. Ross) that while he it. And if he should speak against it, it would of the Treasury? opposed the Northern Pacific railroad the other be in a voice of thunder, denouncing the terri- Mr. RAYMOND. If I am correctly inday because it passed through certain locali- ble extravagance of those who thus vote away formed, it proposes to take no money out of ties, he favors this one because he considers the public money merely to improve the coun- the Treasury; but it proposes to lend the credit it may promote the interests of his own par- try for the present generation and for future || of the Government to the extent of $6,000,000; ticular locality. I favor it, as I believe all the ages.
and I beg to say that I consider it in that remembers from Michigan will do, because I 'I trust, sir, that this bill may pass.
sup- gard the best appropriation of $6,000,000 upon consider it a great national measure.
port it with sincerity. I believe it contemplates | which this Congress will be able to cougratuMr. HARDING, of Illinois. With the per- a great and a good work. If it were defeated late itself. mission of the gentleman from New York, [Mr. || I should grieve, if it were only on account of Mr. DELANO. Is the gentleman aware that VAN HORN,] I will say that I am decidedly in the noble man who has it in charge and who one of the sections of the bill looks directly to favor of improving the great national high- never fails to act liberally,
the Government assuming the whole thing after ways of the country; and I deem the proposed Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I yield || the company has been permitted to go on borcanal by which it is proposed to avoid the the remainder of my time to my colleague, (Mr. || rowing at the rate of ten per cent. interest? obstructions of Niagara falls to be one of that RAYMOND.]
Has the gentleman looked at the details of character. I had at first intended to oppose Mr. RAYMOND. Mr. Speaker, in view of this monstrous measure at all? I do not be. this bill, because I am opposed to appropria- what has just been said, it is perhaps proper lieve he has; nor do I believe that the House tion of moneys by Congress to the use and ben- that I should congratulate myself, in common
understands what it is about to do in the pas. efit of corporations. But a provision has been with the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr.
sage of the bill.
POST-ROUTE BRIDGES. On motion of Mr. HARDING, of Illinois, Senate bill No. 236, to authorize the construction of certain bridges and their establishment as post routes, was taken from the Speaker's table, and ordered to be printed.
PAY DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY. Mr. RICE, of Massachusetts, by unanimous consent, introduced a joint resolution to carry into immediate effect the bill to provide for the better organization of the pay department of the Navy, and asked its consideration at the present time.
The bill was read a first and second time, ordered to be engrossed and read a third time, and being, engrossed, it was accordingly read the third time and passed.
Mr. RICE, of Massachusetts, moved to reconsider the vote by which the bill was passed ; and also moved to lay the motion to reconsider on the table.
The latter motion was agreed to.
And then, on motion of Mr. FARNSWORTH, (at four o'clock and forty-five minutes p. m.,) the House adjourned.
Mr. RAYMOND. The gentleman's skepti. During the vote, cism in regard to the extent of my knowledge Mr. COOK stated that he was paired with may or may not be well founded. I say again, Mr. Blow, and that the latter would vote as I said before, that I have not considered the | against the bill while he would vote for it. details of the bill; but my impression is that I Mr. LAWRENCE, of Pennsylvania, stated am quite as well informed as the gentleman that he was paired with his colleague, Mr. seems to be in regard to its general scope and MILLER, and that the latter would vote for the bearing upon the present and future prosperity bill while he would vote against it. of the country. On this general conviction I Mr. GRINNELL stated that Mr: Price, who am quite willing to act. I am responsible for was absent by leave of the House, would, if no 0:e's vote but my own, and that will be present, have voted for the bill. given most cheerfully for the passage of the bill. Mr. TAYLOR stated that Mr. THAYER, who
Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. How much would have voted against the bill, was paired time have I left?
with Mr. WENTWORTH, who would have voted The SPEAKER. Two minutes.
for it. Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I yield Mr. ELDRIDGE stated he understood from them to my colleague, [Mr. Dodge.]
Mr. Rogers that he was paired with Mr. HulMr. DODGE. Mr. Speaker, I simply wish to say in regard to this as a new work, that not- Mr. HULBURD stated that he had reserved withstanding the fears of the canal commis- the right to vote on this bill. sioners of the State of New York, I shall vote Mr. CHANLER stated that his colleague, cheerfully for the bill, because I believe the Mr. HUBBELL, was paired with Mr. BALDWIN, prosperity of the city and State of New York of Massachusetts. is identified with the prosperity of the West. I The vote was then announced as above believe just in proportion as Illinois and the recorded. other western States are able to produce and Mr. VAN HORN, of New York, demanded get profits on their products, not to dispose of the previous question on the passage of the them merely at cost, but as they can make a || bill. profit on their productions, will they traffic The previous question was seconded and with the city of New York, and use our canals the main question ordered. and railroads so as to make them permanently Mr. ANCONA demanded the yeas and nays. prosperous. I shall vote for this bill under the
The yeas and nays were not ordered. firm conviction that the prosperity of the coun- The bill was passed. try is the prosperity of the city of New York. Mr. VAN HORN, of New York, moved to
On motion of Mr. VAN HORN, of New reconsider the vote by which the bill was passed; York, Mr. MILLER was granted leave to pub- and also moved that the motion to reconsider lish as part of the debates some remarks he be laid upon the table. had prepared on the pending measure. [The The latter motion was agreed to. remarks will be found in the Appendix.]
On motion of Mr. VAN HORN, of New Mr. DELANO. I move that the House do
York, the title was amended so as to read, “A now adjourn. We have too thin a House to
bill to incorporate the Niagara Ship-Canal consider so important a measure. Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY demanded the yeas
MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE. The yeas and nays were not ordered.
A message was received from the Senate, by The House refused to adjourn.
Mr. Forney, its Secretary, notifying the House The question recurred on the substitute of Mr. that that body had adopted the report of the Van Horn, of New York, and it was agreed to.
committee of conference on the disagreeing The bill was then ordered to be engrossed votes of the two Houses on House bill No. 238, and read a third time; and being engrossed, it
to amend an act entitled “An act relating to was accordingly read the third time.
the habeas corpus and regulating judicial proMr. DELANO moved that the bill be laid ceedings in certain cases,' approved March 3, upon the table, and on that motion demanded 1863. the yras and nays.
ENROLLED BILL SIGNED. The yeas and nays were ordered.
Mr. TRUWBRIDGE, from the Committee The question was taken; and it was decided
on Enrolled Bills, reported that they had exin the negative-yeas 32, nays 85, not voting
amined and found truly enrolled House bill 66; as follows:
No. 197, to provide for the better organization YEAS-Messrs. Ancona, Benjamin, Bergen, Boyer,
of the pay department of the Navy; when the Buckland, Chanler, Dawson, Delano, Deming, Denison, Eldridge, Finck, Glossbrenner, Grider, Aaron
Speaker signed the same.
LEAVE OF ABSENCE.
leave of absence for his colleague, Mr. Kerr,
of absence for Mr. Price for one week. Dawcs, Defrees, Dodge, Donnelly, Driggs, Eliot, Farns
BARRY AND HIGGINS. worth, Ferry, Garfield, Grinnell, Griswold, Abner C. Harding, Henderson, Higby, Ilolmes, Hotchkiss, Asa- Mr. RICE, of Maine, by unanimous consent, hel W. Hubbard, John H. Hubbard, Hulburd, Ingersoll, Jenckes, Julian, Kasson, Kelley, Kelso, Kuy
from the Committee on Public Buildings and
to be printed, and recommitted to the Com-
Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY, by unanimous Wasuburn, James F. Wilson, Windom, and Woodbridge-85.
consent, introduced a joint resolution authorNOT VOTING-Messrs. Anderson, Delos R. Ash
izing the Secretary of the Treasury to grant
American registers to certain vessels ; which
Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY, by unanimous
Secretary of the Treasury to refund money
improperly collected, which was read a first So the House refused to lay the bill upon and second time, and referred to the Coinmitthe table.
tee of Ways and Means.
PETITIONS, ETC. The following petitions, &c., were presented under the rule and referred to the appropriate committees :
By Mr. ELDRIDGE: The petition of Allen Pierse, for amendment of the onstitution so as to provide that the President and Vice President shall hold their offices twenty years, &c.
By Mr. FARNSWORTH: The petition of Hon. L W. Lawrence, and others, citizens of Boone county, Illinois, for increased duties upon wool.
By Mr. GARFIELD: The memorial of several New York and Connecticut manufacturers of sheetbrass, brass and copper wire, and German silver, asking for increased protection.
Also, the petition of 75 citizens of Portage county, Ohio, asking for increased protection to American wool.
By Mr. HARDING, of Illinois: A memorial for survey of a canal to connect Rock river and Lake Michigan.
By Mr. HOLMES: The petition of Henry Ten Eyck, and others, citizens of Madison county, New York, for increase of tariff on wool.
By Mr. JULIAN: The petition of 73 citizens of Randolph county, Indiana, praying an amendment of the Federal Constitution prohibiting any distinction among citizens of the United States on account of race, color, or descent.
By Mr. KELLEY: The petition of J.J. Giers, and others, citizens of Alabama, praying Congress for iminediate relief for the destitute and suffering poor of the mountain district of that State.
By Mr. MORRILL: The petition of S. R. Batchellor, and others, citizens of West Braintree, Vermont, praying for increased protection on wool.
By Mr. RAYMOND: Joint resolutions of tho Legislature of New York, in favor of the passage of a bill to equalize bounties paid to soldiers.
By Mr, WARD: The petition of citizens of Wirt, Allegbany county, New York, in favor of increasing the tariff on wool.
WEDNESDAY, May 2, 1866.
The Journal of yesterday was read and approved.
PETITIONS AND MEMORIALS. Mr. HARRIS. I ask leave to present the petition of William Johnson. It appears that this petitioner, who is described in his military papers as a man of dark complexion, with black hair and eyes, enlisted as a private in the four. teenth regiment of New York heavy artillery, and served as a private until his regiment was mustered out. He was mustered out with the regiment, but he was paid only seven dollars a month, being treated by the officers of the Government as a colored man. He now asks that an act of Congress may be passed giving him the same pay as other privates of his regiment. I move that the petition be referred to the Committee on Military Affairs and the Militia.
The motion was agreed to.
Mr. FESSENDEN presented the petition of Ezra Carter, jr., late collector of the customs of the district of Portland and Falmouth, praying to be allowed a balance due him on account of certain moneys expended for ri pairs to the custom house, the vouchers for which were
FUNDING OF THE NATIONAL DEBT.
destroyed by fire; which was referred to the from its further consideration; which was to have the benefit of such a codification. I Committee on Claims. agreed to.
propose to refer the resolution to the CommitHe also presented ten petitions numerously Mr. MORRILL, from the Committee on the tee on Commerce in order that they may consigned by producers, traders, and operators of District of Columbia, to whom was referred a sider the subject. the oil regions of Pennsylvania, representing bill (S. No. 246) relating to public schools in The PRESIDENT pro tempore. It will be that the tax on crude petroleum is oppressive, the District of Columbia, reported it without so referred. impolitic, and unjust, and in its operations | amendment.
PRIVATE CLAIMS. is fast crushing out all new developments of He also, from the same committee, to whom territory, closing up wells of moderate yield, was referred a bill (H. R. No. 183) concerning || orders upon the Calendar reported from the
Mr. CLARK. There are several bills and and paralyzing every branch of business in that the fire department of Washington city, re
Committee on Claiins. The Committee on section of country, and praying that the tax ported it without amendment.
Claims have asked of the Senate no time in may be repealed; which were referred to the He also, from the same committee, to whom Committee on Finance. was referred a bill (S. No. 253) to incorporate | sion; and I propose to ask of the Senate a little
regard to these matters during the present ses. Mr. HENDERSON presented additional the First Congregational Society of Washington,
time on Friday next, if they will give it to me, papers in relation to the claim of Washington reported it without amendment. Crosland for compensation for losses accruing
to consider some matters reported from the
He also, from the same committee, to whom from the seizure and use of his property by the was referred a bill (S. No. 264) to grant cer
Committee on Claims. Friday used to be a day Government of the United States; which were tain privileges to the Alexandria and Wash
set apart every week for the consideration of referred to the Committee on Claims.
private claims, and I now propose to ask a little ington Railroad Company in the District of Columbia, reported it without amendment.
time next Friday, if the Senate will allow it.
He also, from the same committee, to whom On motion of Mr. POMEROY, it was was referred a bill (S. No. 247) donating cer- Mr. SHERMAN asked, and by unanimous Ordered, That C.C. Hutchinson have leave to with
tain lots in the city of Washington for schools draw his petition and other papers from the files of
consent obtained, leave to introduce a bill (S. the Senate.
for colored children, reported it with an amend. No. 300) to reduce the rate of interest on the REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. ment.
national debt, and for funding the same; which
Mr. MORRILL. The same committee, to Mr. WILLIAMS, from the Committee on
was read twice by its title. Claims, to whom was referred the petition of
whom was referred a petition of citizens of Mr. SHERMAN. Before this bill is referred
the United States, praying for an appropria- || I desire to make a statement as to some of the Eli W. Goff, praying for compensation for
tion for the establishment of an industrial norproperty rescued from him while inspector of
provisions of this bill for public information. customs for the district of Vermont, submitted
mal school and farm and workshops in the Dis- It provides in the usual form for a five per cent.
trict of Columbia for the education of compean adverse report thereon; which was ordered
thirty-year loan, to be called the consolidated to be printed.
tent teachers in agriculture and the mechanic debt of the United States, and to be disposed
arts, have instructed me to report that legis- | of at not less than par, and to be applied to the Mr. WILLEY, from the Committee on the
lation is inexpedient; and I move that the payment of the existing national debt other than District of Columbia, to whom was referred a petition be indefinitely postponed.
United States notes commonly known as green: bill (S. No. 281) to authorize the Chesapeake The motion was agreed to.
backs. There are two provisions of the bill Bay. and Potomac River Tide-Water Canal Company to enter the District of Columbia,
Mr. VAN WINKLE, from the Committee || likely to excite opposition, one of which grows reported it with an amendment.
on Pensions, to whom was referred the petition out of the question of taxing property in UniMr. CLARK, from the Committee on the of Mrs. Jane D. Brent, praying for a pension,
ted States securities. It cannot be denied that Judiciary, to whom was referred a bill (H. R.
submitted a report, accompanied by a bill (S. a strong feeling grows out of the exemption No. 473) to extend the jurisdiction of the Court
No. 298) granting a pension to Jane D. Brent. from State taxation of so large an amount of of Claims, reported it without amendment. The bill was read, and passed to a second read- property, and various propositions have been
made to subject them to increased taxation by Mr. LANE, of Indiana, from the Committee | ing, and the report was ordered to be printed. on Pensions, to whom was referred a bill (H.
He also, from the same committee, to whom the United States. While they bear interest R. No. 493) granting a pension to Mrs. Joanna
was referred the petition of Mrs. Jane E. Miles, at a rate equal to that allowed in most of the Winans, reported it without amendment. widow of William D. Miles, praying for a pen
States on notes and securities subject to tax, He also, from the same committee, to whom
sion, submitted a report, accompanied by a this feeling of inequality will continue and inwas referred a petition of unmarried daugh
bill (S. No. 299) granting a pension to Jane crease. They are now subject to income tax ters of revolutionary soldiers, praying that they
E. Miles. The bill was read, and passed to a levied by the United States, but owing to the may be granted the same pension that was
second reading, and the report was ordered to $600 exemption, now proposed to be increased received by their mothers while living, asked be printed.
to $1,000, and also to the large amount held to be discharged from its further consideration,
abroad which cannot be reached, and the readiand that it be referred to the Committee on On motion of Mr. MORRILL, it was
ness with which the tax is evaded, it yields to
the United States less than one tenth of one per Revolutionary Claims; which was agreed to. Ordered, That the report of the Committee on RevMr. SUMNER, from the Committee on For- olutionary Claims on the petition of Sarah L. Spring
cent. on the aggregate debt. In consideration eign Relations, to whom was referred a message
and Harriet Spring, of Waterville, Maine, heirs of of the voluntary reduction in the rate of inter
Captain William Barker, deceased, of the continental est from six and seven and three tenths per cent. from the President of the United States, com- establishment of the revolutionary army, praying municating a report of the Secretary of State, Congress to grant to them the pension that their
to five per cent., this bill proposes to extend the and papers relative to the claim on the Gov:
grandfather would have drawn from the time of his present exemption from State taxation to the
discharge to the time of his death, or the half pay, income tax, and will in effect secure to the ernment by the owners of the British vessel with interest thereon, to which he was entitled by
United States a reduction of one sixth of the Magicienne, reported a bill (S. No. 297) for law, bo recommitted to that committee.
present interest paid, with but the trifling loss the relief of the owners of the British vessel
of the income tax. The saving thus made, with Magicienne; which was read and passed to a second reading.
Mr. HOWARD asked, and by unanimous a further sum, sufficient annually to amount to Mr. JOHNSON. I am instructed by the
consent obtained, leave to introduce a bill (S. thirty millions, it is proposed to apply to the
No. 301) regulating the service of final process payment of the principal of the debt. "If uninCommittee on the Judiciary, to whom was
in suits at law and of orders and decrees in terrupted this will be accomplished in thirty, referred the bill (S. No. 75) to amend the act entitled “An act to reorganize the courts in equity of courts of the United States in places
The effect is to pay the national the District of Columbia, &c., and for other
out of their jurisdictional limits; which was debt by the saving of interest.
read twice by its title, referred to the Com- The second provision grows out of the option purposes, to report that they have had it under
mittee on the Judiciary, and ordered to be given to the holders of the seven and three consideration and are of opinion that it should printed.
tenths notes to demand payment in money at not pass. I move that the bill be indefinitely
Mr. MORGAN asked, and by unanimous their maturity in five-thirty bonds. This option postponed. The motion was agreed to.
consent obtained, leave to introduce a bill (S. will compel the Secretary to accumulate vast
No.302) for the relief of the Mercantile Mutual sums for a contingency that may not bappen, Mr. POLAND, from the Committee on the Insurance Company of New York; which was and place him at the mercy of sudden contracJudiciary, to whom was referred a joint reso- read twice by its title, and referred to the Com- tions whenever the notes mature, as they do lution (S. R. No. 39) to refer the claim of the mittee on Claims.
in large sums at specified dates. To avoid administrator of Richard W. Meade, deceased, Mr. GUTHRIE asked, and by unanimous | this, this bill applies the common custom and to the Court of Claims, asked to be discharged
consent obtained, leave to introduce a joint res law of requiring a reasonable notice by the from its further consideration, and that it be olution (S. R. No. 82) to provide for codifying || holders of this option. The same principle referred to the Committee on Claims; which the laws relating to the customs; which was was applied to the option in the demand notes was agreed to. read twice by its title.
of 1862, and to an ordinary hiring of a house Mr. NYE, from the Committee on Naval Mr. GUTÉRIE. When I was in the Treas- or a servant from year to year. If no option Affairs, to whom was referred the petition of ury Department I reported to Congress a codi- is taken then it is held to be a choice of money, A. L. Fleury, praying for the appointment of a fication of the revenue laws. I deemed it and the Secretary will have six months to precommission to visit London to investigate the necessary at that time, but Congress did not invention of the so-called Zopissa board with act on it. It lies in the Treasury yet upacted I will not discuss the bill further. It is a view of purchasing that invention for the use upon and undisposed of. In a conversation approved by the Secretary of the Treasury and of the United States Government, reported with the Secretary of the Treasury, this resolu- has been partially considered by the Commitadversely thereon, and asked to be discharged I tion was prepared, and I know he is anxious tec on Finance. It will be objected that the
pare for it.
holders of the present bonds will not convert Union require the admission of every Stato to its dence will have sacrificed the great objects we
self, not only in an attitude of loyalty and harmony,
The amendment proposed is right enough, And it is the confident belief that this clean cannot be questioned under any constitutional or if the reconstruction committee can get any loan on a reduced rate of interest will be so legal test.
southern State to accept it. But unless they fair an adjustment between the conflicting in- I ask the consent of the Senate to say a few do so, it is of course only a shot in the air, terests of the bond-holders and tax-payers words in explanation of my views on the sub- which may be right and true, but will hit nothat it will be accepted by both, and thus rep- ject.
where-unless indeed it falls upon the heads of resent the consolidated debt of the United What the country expected from Congress the gunners. Is it not far wiser for Congress to States. All the advantages proposed by the was a practical scheme for hastening the reës- make sure of what it has done; to cry “ Enough bill will be more properly considered when it tablishment of all the States in their full con- for this time;" to be content that it has secured is reported to the Senate. In the mean time
stitutional relations. This report produces a the supremacy of law and justice in all our terit is but right to submit it to the impartial test | plan which must inevitably put off this end, ritory; and to admit at once to their seats all of the public judgment, for it affects the in- so strongly desired and demanded. Does any Representatives and Senators who can take the terest of every one who pays taxes or holds one believe that the southern States will ac- prescribed oaths? national securities.
cept the proposed constitutional amendment? One Congress cannot bring about the millenI move that the bill be referred to the Com- | Certainly they will decline. They will say, nium; there are years to come in which we mittee on Finance.
“Let us see what the next elections in the may all join upon a platform of larger liberty, The motion was agreed to.
North develop. This Congress may recom- and argue the questions and urge the reforms
mend the amendment; the next Congress, RECONSTRUCTION.
which still remain. For this time we have rea: which is to be chosen in the fall of the present son to be content; for we have put down armed Mr. WILLIAMS. I ask leave to introduce
year, and which may meet on the 5th of March, resistance to the laws, and Congress has given at this time, for the purpose of having it printed, || 1867, may be of a different mind. It may re. us, in the civil rights act, a guarantee for free an amendment to the bill (S. No. 292) to pro- peal all that this Congress has enacted; we had speech in every part of the Union. It is our vide for restoring to the States lately in insur- better wait."
own fault if, having thus secured the right to rection their full political rights.
The “restoration of the States to their pracMr. POMEROY. I ask for the reading of || tical relations in the Union,'' as Mr. Lincoln
argue, we do not enlighten prejudice and mere
opposition, and show that equal liberty is the the amendment.
happily phrased it, is therefore put off, if this best for all. The PRESIDENT pro tempore. It will be report is accepted, for at least another year; What I have read seems to me so wise and read if there be no objection.
and the practical result of the labors of the just, that I have adopted it as the best expresThe Secretary read the amendment, which
reconstruction committee will be to have made sion which I can make of my own views. It is was to strike out section one of the bill and to
up a platform on which those who choose to the leading editorial article in the New York insert the following in lieu thereof:'
stand upon it may go before the country at the Evening Post of May 1, a journal which cer; That whenever any one of the States lately in in- fall election. That is all; and in our judg. tainly is not excelled in ability, patriotism, and surrection shall ratify the above proposed amendment, as required by the Constitution of the United
ment that is not enough to satisfy the country. influence by any newspaper in this country. States, and shall conform its constitution and laws It is hardly worth while to discuss the merits Coming from such a source, I cannot but hope thereto, the Senators and Representatives from such of measures which to be valid must be accepted that these wise, calm, and statesmanlike views State, after the 4th day of March, 1867, if found duly elected and qualified, shall, upon taking the required
by communities which are sure to reject them; may have some influence even in this body, as oaths, be admitted into Congress: Provided, That but we may remark that it is not probable so they certainly will have among the intelligent Şenators and Representatives from Tennessee and heavily taxed and so poor a people as those of people of the United States. They express, in Arkansas, respectively, shall be admitted, if elected and qualified as aforesaid, when either of said States
the southern States will assume the payment of my judgment, the calm and resolute convictions shall ratify, as aforesaid, said proposed amendment. the enormous and wastefully contracted rebel of thinking men, and will, so soon as public Mr. WILLIAMS. Mr. President, I beg per
debt, and that no party would ever dare to go opinion can legitimately declare itself, take mission to say that this amendment embodies before the people of this country with a propo- the form and be clothed with the authority of
sition for the United States to assume this debt, the views I presented to the committee, and I
public law. introduce it at this time so that it may be
whose certificates are held chiefly by foreign Leave was granted to introduce the joint printed and examined before the Senate pro
speculators upon our national ruin. Further, resolution (S. R. No. 81) providing for the ceeds to the consideration of the bill. I invite
that it is scarcely probable the people who have | representation of the several States in the Conattention to the fact that by this amendment
a majority in the South will voluntarily disfran- gress of the United States; which was read Senators and Representatives from the so
chise themselves; and that the extremes to twice by its title. called confederate States are not allowed to
which partisan passions have been inflamed in Mr. FESSENDEN. I wish to make a sintake their seats in Congress until the 4th day | Tennessee by the disfranchisement of the greater | gle remark upon the proposition of the honorof March, 1867, with the exception of Tennes
part of the population there, does not encour- able Senator from Connecticut. He thinks see and Arkansas, giving the loyal States an
age practical men to look for the fruits of peace that the remarks which he read from the New opportunity, if they desire so to do, to make from such a policy enforced elsewhere. York Evening Post are so very wise, so very the proposed constitutional amendment a part
Even the reconstruction committee ac- just, that he has some hope, to use his own of the Constitution of the United States before I knowledge that it is expedient that the States language, that they may not be without their that time. Should the loyal States adopt that || lately in insurrection should, at the earliest effect even upon the members of this body; amendment, I have little doubt that it would | day consistent with the future peace and safety | thus, I suppose, intending to intimate that the be adopted by enough of the other States to
of the Union, be restored to full participation last place where wise and just views could be make it a part of the Constitution before the
in all political rights.” Now, what have we expected to have any effect would be upon the 4th of March, 1867; but if the loyal States
already to secure future peace and safety?'' members of this body; Sir, we have not given should refuse to adopt the amendment and say
In the first place, we have the civil rights act, ourselves over to the keeping of the honorable that they do not want the guarantees and se
under which any citizen who is denied justice Senator from Connecticut, or those who act curity for which it provides, then, so far as I by local or State courts is empowered to ap- with him. We do not pretend to any very am advised at present, I can see no good rea
peal to the United States court, which is com- particular wisdom or any particular sense of son for refusing any longer to receive repre
manded, with all its machinery, to interfere in justice; but we who were on the joint commitsentation from these insurgent States. Ten
his behalf, and if necessary, to use the mili- tee of fifteen, and who are most immediately nessee and Arkansas are made exceptions.
tary power of the United States to secure him touched by the remark, feel that at any rate we Their Senators and Representatives are to be
justice. Surely no citizen need suffer wrong have tried to do our duty. We have been in received as soon as they ratify this constitu
while this act remains. In the next place, session a considerable length of time but not tional amendment; and I believe, from the
we have a form of oath, prescribed by Con- || longer than we deemed it absolutely necessary condition of their people and the character of gress, which makes it impossible for any one in order to reach a conclusion, and in reaching their constitutions and laws, that they are en
who voluntarily engaged in rebellion to enter that conclusion we have been obliged to take titled to a precedence over the other States
Congress or to hold any Federal office without into consideration a great many things: first, that have been in rebellion. I believe that this committing perjury, for which he may and what it would be wise and just to do, and next amendment is better in all respects than the ought to be indicted and punished. Finally, what, if it is wise and just, we can do; what original section; but if the Senate, after con
we have the Freedmen's Bureau for a whole would be acceptable in the first place to Consideration, decides otherwise, I shall cheeryear, during which, with a wise and concili
gress, and in the next place what would be fully acquiesce in its judgment.
atory policy, we may hope the labor question acceptable to the people. Unquestionably in The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The order
in the South will assume something of its nor- the committee there was very considerable to print will be entered if there be no objection. mal condition.
difference of opinion. That difference of opinMr. DIXON. Mr. President, I ask leave to
But let us not forget, on the other hand, the || ion had to be reconciled. I do not suppose give notice of my intention to offer, by way of
dangers which attend impracticable measures. that the scheme as presented would be exactly amendment to the bill and resolutions reported | Suppose, going before the people on this plat- in all particulars what would suit perhaps a by the joint committee on reconstruction, and
form, built by the congressional committee, large number; but the question is one beas a substitute therefor, the following joint
we are beaten. In that event we may be sure yond mere personal opinion, and mere adherresolution:
that the next Congress will not only refuse to ence to personal opinion or personal feeling of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives it will most probably repeal the civil rights act ation, came to the conclusion that its duty was
make the demands which this one makes, but either; and the committee, after much deliberThat the interests of peace and the interests of the and the test oath; and thus our own impru. to agree upon that which seemed to be the best