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be the facilities of transportation of the western same system, in all its parts, is required. The road the report was mades make it necessary to in. products, with a population of 50,000,000, when or canalcan scarcely be designated which is not highly
crease this estimate somewhat, and accordingly all the lines of transportation are inadequate to
usefulfor military operations, and which is not equally
the sum is now fixed at $6,000,000. carry off the surplus produce of 10,000,000 the country."
Can the loan of the credit of the Government people to-day.
It gives no weight to the argument against be constitutionally and properly given to this Think of it for a moment, and reflect upon
the constitutionality of this bill to declare that work as a work of military necessity? We have astounding fact, that but a few years ago this the chief feature of the work is in its commer- been called upon at this session to appropriate great Northwest was but one vast wilderness! cial value to the country. No matter how ben: very large sums of money for the erection and
Washington, the Father of his Country, when | eficial it may be in a commercial point of view repair of fortifications along our Atlantic seaIllinois was inhabited by the wild savage,when if it is also in a military point of view a necessary
board, and to some extent upon the lakes. I the entire Northwest was marked on the map. means of defense to the country, then it is con- do not question the propriety of such approprito a great extent as a region unknown, had a stitutional for Congress to make the appro- ations, and I think that it can be demonstrated deep appreciation of the future grandeur and || priation for the construction of such work. that the principle which would justify them glory of our country. Speaking of the western I will simply add in this connection, that the would justify the passage of this bill. To illuscountry, eighty years and more ago, he used || Constitution, in section eight of article one, in trate this: we very properly appropriate a this language:
addition to the powers already referred to, sum of money to repair and garrison à fort at “For my own part, I wish sincerely that every door | provides that Congress shall have power to Oswego, for instance. Now this is wholly for to that country may be thrown wide open and com
provide for the general welfare of the United the defense of that city and harbor, and is mercial intercourse with it rendered as free and easy as possible. This is in my opinion the best if not the
States. This is a very broad and comprehen- wholly unnecessary except in case of hostilionly cement that can bind these people to us for any sive power, and might, if needed, be quoted
ties with Great Britain-no other enemy could length of time, and we shall be deficient in foresight as a justification of the constitutional power of ever reach that point-and the appropriation is and wisdom if we neglect the means of effecting it. Our interest is so much in unison with this measure Congress to pass this bill, for if there be any
made. But in the event of hostilities with that nothing short of that misjudged parsimony and one enterprise which is calculated to promote Great Britain or her American dependencies contracted way of thinking which intermingles so much in our public councils can counteract it."
the general welfare of the United States, it is this ship-canal would be a thousand-fold more It is said to be unconstitutional for the Gov.
an enterprise which involves an increase of the is available for the defense of the country than
facilities of transportation from the great West Fort Ontario. We have nearly or quite three ernment to construct a work of this character. to the great East.
thousand miles of lake coast. The whole line I have no time to enter into an elaborate con
But we are not driven to this stress to defend of this coast is studded with flourishing cities, stitutional argument on this question, but I
this bill under the Constitution. We have a the marts of business and the avenues of commust say a few words. The Constitution de
complete vindication, so far as the constituclares that Congress shall have power, first,
We have upon the lakes some four tional power of Congress is concerned, in that thousand vessels. to establish post offices and post roads; sec
An enemy in command of clause of the Constitution which declares that the lakes could do us more injury than would ond, to regulate commerce with foreign na
Congress shall have power to provide for the result from the reduction of any one place in. tions and among the States and with the Indian tribes; third, to raise and support || for the talent or the honesty of a man who common defense. I should have little regard the country. The whole trade and commerce
carried on in the four thousand vessels of the armies and provide for the common defense; and fourth, to make all laws which shall be
should contend that a ship-canal around the lakes would be at the mercy of an enemy who
falls of Niagara, connecting Lake Erie with could place a superior force upon their waters. necessary and proper to carry into execution the foregoing powers.
Lake Ontario xanot necessary for the common The damage that would result to the business defense of the country.
interests of all parts of the country in such an If the power of Congress could be questioned under the first and second powers above quoted,
That great man Albert Gallatin, as long ago event can scarcely be calculated. as 1808, in his celebrated report said :
By treaty with England we are prohibited how could it be questioned under the third, which declares that Congress shall have power
“The opening of an inland navigation from tide- from maintaining upon the lakes more than water
to the great lakcs would immediately give to a single vessel-of-war, to be armed with a sinto raise and support armies and provide for the great body of lands bordering on those lakes as the common defense ? Congress can provide great value as though they were situated at a dis
gle gun; and we have no war vessels upon tance of one hundred miles by land from the sea
Lake Ontario or the St. Lawrence. It is true for the common defense without either an army coast.'
that the British Government is also limited to or navy, and consequently may neither raise
He appreciated the importance of this work, a single war vessel, but it has facilities within an army nor build a navy, and yet it may pro- and urged with great earnestness and ability a its own territory for the concentration of fleets vide for the common defense by other means.
plan upon Congress for its construction. and material of war upon the lakes. The If it is necessary to provide for the com
The most enlightened and comprehensive Canadian canals are so constructed as to be mon defense of the country to build a fort, statesmen of our country have from the ear- available for this purpose. The British Govthen it is constitutional to build a fort. If it
liest period of our Government been in favor ernment is prepared, in the event of war, to is necessary to provide for the common de. of extending aid by the General Guvernment assert an entire supremacy upon the lakes, for fense that we should have cannon and cannon- in the construction of this great work, and they l she can send the necessary naval force from balls, then it would be constitutional for Con
never were at a loss to defend the constitu- the St. Lawrence to do so ; while we have not gress to establish a cannon foundery wherein to tionality of their views in the comprehensive a naval station on the lakes where a single ves. cast guns; so we might establish a dozen or a language of the Constitution itself.
sel could be promptly fitted out, nor a fortifihundered founderies, and so we might work the
Congress is the only power under the Con- cation that could withstand a modern iron-clad iron-ore bed to get the material wherewith to stitution authorized to judge and determine as vessel. What vast public and private interests cast the cannon. It is a question, in the first to the necessity of the measure in providing are thus left defenseless. Surely the constituplace, of necessity, and in the second place a for the defense of the country, and it is also tional right to erect a fortification anywhere is question of means.
the only power which has the constitutional right || not plainerthan is the right to construct upon our The extent of the necessity is not measured in to determine what means shall be made use of side a canal through which vessels-of-war can the Constitution, and the character of the means to secure that protection except in time of war. be transported from the upper to the lower is not specified. Under this power in the Con- [Here the hammer fell.]
lakes or from the Mississippi to Lake Ontario. stitution we have established arsenals, dock- The SPEAKER. The gentleman has spoken But the point to which I respectfully and earyards, navy-yards, military academies, naval
fifteen minutes, the time which was allotted to nestly ask the attention of the House is this : academies, and done many other things to pro- him.
the work is essential to us of the West to ena. vide for the common defense of the country. Mr. INGERSOLL. I yield ten minutes to ble us to bear the burdens which have been laid Under this power we educate men in military my colleague, [Mr. Cook.]
upon us in the shape of taxation, direct and schools and pay for their education out of the 'Mr. COOK. Mr. Speaker, this question was indirect. We are an agricultural people. In public treasury. Congress is to judge of what so fully discussed in the House during the last the State of Illinois we have but one commeris necessary to provide for the common defense, | Congress that I do not expect that anything | cial city, properly so called. The great leadand Congress is also to select the means whereby that I can say will shed any new light upon it; | ing interest of the State is the agricultural inthe country is to be defended. If a ship is and yet, as it is a question of so much interest terest. We produce an immense surplus of necessary we build it; if a fort is necessary we to the people of my own State, in common with food, which must find its way to the eastern build it; if an arsenal is necessary we build it; those of other western agricultural States, I markets. It is the only commodity which we and if Congress determined that a ship-canal is have been, forced to consider it with care, and have to exchange for the manufactures of New necessary to the common defense, it ought to I wish to submit a very few suggestions upon England; for the coal, iron, and oil of Pennbe built, and unless Congress provided for the it to the House.
sylvania. The facilities of transportation are building of that canal it would be derelict in its The proposed work is shown to be practi- || wholly inadequate. We have a magnificent duty to the country.
cable. The report of Captain William G. Wil- water communication between Chicago and The Secretary of War, in 1824, made use of liams, of the United States Engineer corps, Buffalo, sufficient for the transportation of any the following language in his report:
House Document 214, Twenty-Fourth Con- amount of the products of the West, but at "Many of the roads and canals which have been gress, first session, made by an officer of high | Buffalo our troubles begin. There is a barrier suggested are, no doubt, of the first importance to professional attainments, demonstrates the which we cannot pass. The amount of freight the commerce, the agriculture, and the manufactures and the political prosperity ofthe country, but are not practicability of the enterprise.
offering for shipment from Buffalo eastward is for that reason less useful or necessary for military The cost is small. The report of the engi- so great during the season of navigation that purposes. It is, in fact, one of the great advantages neer fixes it at from three and a half to five the owners of boats can and do demand and of our country, enjoying so many others, that whether we regard its internal improvement in relation to
millions, according to the route chosen. The receive almost any amount of freight they military, civil, or political purposes, very nearly the increase in the price of labor and material since choose to ask.
I ask attention to one fact which I will state words "after the aforesaid three days;" so that the portion of my time to some other gentlemen and which will show the interest which our section will read:
who desire to be heard briefly upon the subject.
Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That John C. people have in this ship-canal. There are five Dore, of Illinois; Philo Chamberlin, of Ohio; El
Mr. Speaker, in presenting this measure to routes by water and by rail from Chicago to the bridge G. Merrick, of Michigan; David Dows, Abra- the House and the country, I do it with the sca-board, and yet the demand for transpor- ham P. Grant, James D. Cooper, of New York; James Little, of Massachusetts; and Edward H.
greatest confidence that the appeal in its behalf tation last fall was so great, such vast quanti- Brodhead, of Wisconsin, shall be commissioners to
will meet with a warm and generous response. ties of agricultural products were waiting to go open books for subscription to the stock of said cor- It is not a new measure, and perhaps every forward, more than all the lines could transport, poration, on which shall be paid at the time of sub
member of the House is familiar with its object, scription ten per cent. thereof, and they shall open that the price of transportation from Chicago such books on or before the 1st day of August next,
its plans, and details. For very many years it to the sea-board was fixed by the dearest route at such places as they may appoint, having first given has attracted more or less attention from the of all, and flour or pork or beef could be as notice of the time and place of meeting for that pur
Government and the people, and been received pose by publishing the same once at least in each cheaply transported by Fort Wayne and Pittsweek for four weeks successively in a public news
with more or less favor. Amid the general burg and over the mountains of Pennsylvania, paper printed and published in the city of New | indisposition to do nothing for public improveas by the great water route. The price of our
York; Chicago, in the State of Illinois; Detroit, in ments by the party in power for many years
the State of Michigan; Milwaukee, in the State of agricultural staples is almost wholly consumed Wisconsin; Cleveland, in the State of Ohio; and
prior to the war, this great project shared in getting to a market. I know that men Boston, in the State of Massachusetts. The afore- the fate of others of like nature and importanswer this appeal by saying, establish manu
said subscription books shall be kept open at the ance, and was not undertaken. Both branches
places designated for at least three days. A majority factures among yourselves and consume your of said commissioners shall constitute a quorum for
of our national Legislature, however, have agricultural products at home. This is easy to the transaction of business, and they may adjourn acted upon it in various ways, by favorable say, and I trust may one day be accomplished, from time to time, and after the aforesaid three days, | reports, by ordering surveys, and in the last but it is not presently practicable. Our soil,
to such places as they may think fit, until the requi-
Congress by passing a bill providing for the the cheapest and most productive in the world, case a surplus of shares shall be subscribed for they construction of this work. Upon the files of invites to agriculture. We have not the capital may apportion them among the subscribers in such
Congress are petitions, memorials, and resolu. at command to establish manufactures on so
manner as they shall think for the interest of the
tions from the people, Boards of Trade, and large a scale. We appeal, therefore, to the men of New England to aid us in transporting that amendment. I have no disposition to
Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I accept
Legislatures urging the construction of the
work this bill proposes to provide for, and to them the food which they require, and which prolong this debate, and unless some gentle
instructing Senators and Representatives to we are anxious to exchange for the products of men desire otherwise, I will now move the
endeavor to secure it if possible. Full reports their manufactories, and thus confer a real and previous question.
upon the whole question, covering the surveys lasting benefit upon both sections.
Several MEMBERS: Close it now.
and estimates, and showing the great imporIt is a fact that the employment of a farmer
Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. For the
tance of the works are on file, one of which I at the West is less remunerative than almost
had the honor to present in the Thirty-Seventh any other. There is now more real reason for
purpose of testing the sense of the House, I
Congress, to all of which I direct the attention complaint. I ask gentlemen to consider that,
Mr. WARD. I ask my colleague to allow
of the House. however carefully and skillfully and honestly me to offer an amendment.
This bill provides for the appointment of you may arrange the various systems of direct
Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I will hear proper engineers by the President, who shall and indirect taxation, tariffs, and internal revwhat the amendment is.
make the necessary surveys and reports, upon enue laws, the burden of the tax must to a
Mr. WARD. I desire to move to strike out
which the route of said canal shall be detergreat extent fall upon the consumer. consumers of the manufactures of the country. the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first sec
mined upon its merits, taking into the account Our interests are not directly protected in your tions. They are the sections which appropri
the twofold purpose of military and commertariff laws, but we could bear all public burate the money of the Government to defray the
cial advantage. The President is directed to
procure the right of way by negotiation if posdens easily and cheerfully if it were not for the
expenses of this work.
sible; if not, by application to the court for difficulty of reaching the markets of the world with the bu yield for that purpose.
the appointment of commissioners to appraise products of our farms. If this Mr. WARD. If that is not done I cannot
damages, and determine all cases of difference canal is constructed, by opening a new route vote for the bill.
that may arise. by water to the eastern markets and to the
Mr. ELDRIDGE. Cannot a separate vote
It further provides that the Government shall markets of the world, it will not only reduce the price of freight by affording new facilities for be required on the appropriation, under the
loan $6,000,000 to this company, of twenty.
year bonds, in consideration for which the Unitransportation, but will create a competition rules, on the demand of one fifth of the memby which freights on established lines will be bers present?
ted States is to have forever the practical ownThe SPEAKER. That rule applies to cases
ership of the canal for all military and naval reduced to reasonable limits. When a vessel of one thousand or twelve hundred tons can be where there are various appropriations in the
purposes whatever, and ten per cent. of all the bill, as was the case with the river and harbor
tolls of said canal are to be paid into the loaded in Chicago, and can reach the ocean without breaking bulk, the day of the prosbill passed yesterday.
Treasury of the United States on the 1st of Mr. ELDRIDGE. Does it not apply to
January of each year, to be applied toward perity of our great agricultural interest will have dawned. I believe that very rarely have "appropriations of money for works of inter
the payment of the money so loaned for the
construction of the work. we the opportunity offered us to accomplish so
nal'improvement of any kind or description ?''
It is further provided that the United States great a good at so small an expense as by the rule 121, which is to be found on page 189 of
may at any time enter upon and purchase said passage of this bill. Barclay's Digest. The Clerk will read it.
canal by paying ten per cent. in addition to its MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE. The Clerk read as follows:
actual cost. All the necessary provisions and
safeguards for the protection of trade and A message from the Senate, by Mr. FORNEY,
"121. Upon the engrossment of any bill making appropriations of money for works of internal improve
commerce against exorbitant tolls and negits Secretary, informed the House that the Sen
ment of any kind or description, it shall be in the lect in keeping it up and in perfect repair and ate had passed a joint resolution (S. R. No.80) power of any member to call for a division of the
order are inserted, and believed to be ample extending the time for the completion of the
question, so as to take a separate vote of the House Union Pacific railway, eastern branch ; and a
and just to all. upon each item of improvement or appropriation
contained in said bill, or upon such items separately, The grounds of the opposition made to this bill (S. No. 203) to enable the New York and and others collectively, as the members making tho bill by my colleague [Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY] Montana Iron Mining and Manufacturing Com
call may specify; and if one fifth of the members
are not new by any means. While he argues ase a certain amount of the pub- Speaker to make such divisions of the question, and that it is inexpedient and unjust to open up this lic lands not now in market; in both of which put them to vote accordingly."
communication, for the reason that it might he was directed to ask the concurrence of the The SPEAKER. That rule has always been | interfere somewhat with the rights and interests House.
held to refer to cases like the river and harbor of New York, he takes the old ground that the NIAGARA SHIP-CANAL-AGAIN.
bill which passed yesterday. Where there are General Government has no right to take such Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I propose || improvements, there can be a separate vote on various appropriations in a bill for a variety of care upon its hands and aid in the construc
tion of such works. to submit the question to the House whether
each appropriation on the demand of one fifth they will order the main question to-night and
Sir, this policy has vetoed all the great close this discussion, or let the bill go over
of the members present. But the Chair rules measures of improvement and internal devel. until to-morrow for another hour's discussion.
that this being an appropriation for a single opment that have been pressed and desired in Mr. DAWES. Before the gentleman calls
object, a separate vote cannot be called for on the past, and put a check upon the enterprise the separate sections of the bill.
and industry of our people. The country the previous question I desire to offer an amend
Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I demand ment to his substitute.
owes to the great national party of the present the previous question.
and the past few years a debt of gratitude it Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I yield The previous question was seconded and the can never pay for arresting this narrow-minded for that purpose. main question ordered.
and weak policy of opposition to public im. Mr. DAWES. I offer the following amend- Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. Mr.
provement and fostering of great national ment to the substitute:
Speaker, I have not taken up much of the enterprises like this, and introducing our peoIn section ten, line seventeen, after the word "Mas- time of the House this session, but having re- ple to a broader, more comprehensive, and sachusetts," insert "the aforesaid subscription books ported this bill, and feeling great interest in it, eminently national system of aiding such enshall be kept open at the places designated under aforesaid notice for at least three days. And insert
desire to occupy a portion of the time allot- terprises, as a means of developing national after the word "and," in the nineteenth line, the ted to me by the rules, and then I will yield a life and national prosperity and wealth. As
to the power of Congress over these matters | culty. All this is very well, and I should favor view cannot be overestimated. This conclu. I am obliged to differ with my colleague, while such a move in such an event, but we have sion was arrived at in a time of peace, when I have great respect for his opinion, but as my found that there are uncertainties connected there was no prospect of war, but was the result time is limited I shall not be able to discuss with war as with other matters, and that it will of careful and intelligent understanding of the at any length the constitutional question in not do to rest all upon a single expedient, but | advantages of such a work in a time of war, volved; besides, other gentlemen have said all be prepared for any emergency.
and is worthy of our highest consideration. that is necessary to be said upon this part of Again, it would be a very easy thing to so lay According to the treaty of 1817 we were the subject.
waste such a structure before it fell into our restricted to one vessel not exceeding one hụnThis denial of right to Congress over these hands, if, indeed, it should, rendering it of very dred tons, with a single gun, for Lake Ontaquestions and the action of the Government in little practical use when taken possession of. rio, which is the key to all the great chain of the same direction, defeated under the admin- Besides, actual difficulties between foreign lakes on our border; and also confined to two istration of Mr. Buchanan the Pacific railroad Powers do not spring up in a day, but are
of like size and armament for all the upper bill, which has since received the favor of often the result of long.continued aggravation
lakes. Having no inland waters communithe new Administration, and our whole country || before forbearance gives way and the strife cating with these great thoroughfares, we have is destined to share in the great benefits that || begins; and in such event the most formida- not been able to have in readiness
any vesselswill flow from such a result.
ble demonstrations and preparations are made of-war outside of these lakes which could be A broad national policy of internal improve. || by way of defense and means of resistance. It thrown upon them in case of necessity, and ment is what is to arouse the energy and indus- is idle for us to talk of subduing all opposition thus we have been left entirely without adetry of our people, develop the resources and so easily that no means of defense and shelter quate protection. But the British Government, locked-up wealth of our vast continent, and ought to be made as an alternative. I still always selfish and seizing every opportunity give a permanency and vitality to our pros- insist that this canal, constructed in such a way for providing defenses, has steadily pursued perity that can in no other way be secured. and where it will afford protection to Amer- a policy directly opposite ours, one looking Any narrow view of this great question of ican commerce and war material in transit from directly to the command of the lakes by a sufnational development is not in accordance lake to lake, will be a work of great military ficient naval force whenever she might choose with the character and genius of our people. benefit in time of war, and I cannot see how to assert it. Since 1817 she has constructed They are alive to the importance of such great any sensible man, with all respect to my col- the Rideau canal as a military work, so avowed, works of improvement, and believe that the league, can argue to the contrary.
connecting Montreal with Kingston, on Lake public domain, the national credit, and the Celerity of movement, rapidity of transfer Ontario, by an interior route, with locks one fostering care of the Government, in every way from point to point, is essential in naval as in hundred and thirty-three feet long and thirtythat they can reasonably and properly, should | military affairs. Our Canadian neighbors have three feet wide, well calculated to pass large be given to aid the work of bringing out the a canal connecting the lakes on their side of gunboats in ballast; and the St. Lawrence enterprise and industry of our whole people || the Niagara river, sufficiently inland to be en- canals, connecting the same points, with locks and lifting them up to the highest point of tirely protected, unless the country between it two hundred feet long and forty-five feet wide, civilization and national prosperity.
and their frontier be taken possession of, which, to pass gunboats drawing nine feet. She has The passage of this bill is still urged, as of course, would be held by them to the last also constructed the Welland canal, as before heretofore, upon the two considerations of moment as of the first importance. It will be stated, connecting Lake Ontario with the upper military and commercial necessity and impor- seen, therefore, that they have the means for lakes, with locks one hundred and forty-five tance. My colleague declares that there can rapidly transferring their boats and vessels-of- feet long and twenty-six feet wide, to pass be no real military necessity or importance war from point to point on the lakes, which we gunboats drawing ten feet of water. connected with this proposed work, and that have not. We have no means of communica- It is also proposed to construct another, of that idea is only advanced to catch votes or tion but by land, so that the struggle in many ample dimensions for all purposes, military and deceive the unthinking. He argues that in- instances might be confined on our part en- commercial, connecting Montreal with Georstead of resulting in benefit to the Govern- || tirely to land operations, and we suffer seri- gian bay, on Lake Huron. Thus it will be seen ment, or intending to work a benefit to the ously as a consequence. They could move from that she can pass her war vessels from Montreal Government in this direction, under the plea lake to lake as occasion demanded, transfer- to Kingston, on Lake Ontario, in twenty-four of military necessity or advantage there is a ring all their power from point to point at their hours, and to Lake Erie in less than forty-eight design to draw from the Treasury of the peo- will.
hours, and hold all our lake border, and our ple of the United States $6,000,000 and put Were this work completed our whole field vast cities and the commerce of the lakes, it into the pockets of a selfish corporation. of operations would be changed, and we be which is mostly American, entirely at her Now, sir, this remark will apply as well to prepared to at least equal them in facilities for mercy. At all these inland points of concenevery body of men who have, by the aid of preparing suitable defense to all our borders. tration she has constructed and holds large Government in the various ways heretofore Again, such a canal would form a great base naval depots, thus keeping in constant prepagranted, added prosperity and wealth to the of supplies for naval and military operations || ration for efficient naval operations on all the nation by their enterprise and sacrifices in the for a border war, with facilities to throw to any great lakes, while our policy has been just the way of such public improvements. It is very desired point with great dispatch the materials reverse of this, and we have no means of easy to make such wholesale declarations, but necessary for the support and maintenance of defense of such a nature, and have no comthe facts do not always justify them.
& war upon our borders. It would impart munication between our great inland waters. My colleague should remember that selfish- strength and efficiency to our fleet upon the As I have before hinted, England has boastness may control him a little in the opposition || lakes, and afford a safe passage to our com- ingly told us that she was prepared for any he makes to this measure. He may be moved merce even in a time of war, which would | emergency. In 1861, when the rebel leaders, to this opposition by considerations not alto- | otherwise be obstructed and broken up. Mason and Slidell, were seized on the British gether generous, to say the least. The main part At great expense the British and Canadian steamer Trent, and war was thought to be of the opposition to this measure has always | Governments have already constructed and in inevitable for a time, who does not remember been in the city (Buffalo) so ably represented | progress complete lines of communication be- that it was claimed extensively by the leading by my colleague, and in whose prosperity no tween and to connect all their border vaters, and most influential British press that their one feels a deeper interest than myself, and I so as to secure every possible commercial ben- facilities were complete and ample and the fear that he as well as the city he represents | efit, and afford all their border the amplest means in readiness to pounce upon our unprodoes not upon this question always present that | protection in any emergency that may arise. tected lake frontier, destroy our commerce, broad, erous, and expansive feeling, and During our civil war, when the London Times and lay waste our whole border, and that, too, action that would take in all our broad land, | occupied any attitude but a friendly one, it was before we could accumulate any adequate means with its best and highest interests. Sir, those declared by way of boasting that they could of resistance. who are the advocates of this measure here and throw with but little warning, upon any point And who can deny the fact of such a stateelsewhere are controlled by a great national upon our frontier, any amount of force, and ment? There is not a fortification on our purpose and desire, and while they hope to such vessels-of-war as the emergency might frontier that an iron-clad could not pass with secure a safe investment for private capital, demand.
impunity, and perhaps batter down with ease. they seek to add to the national defense and And who does not know that such is the fact? They are old and mostly dilapidated. A longprosperity. But let us consider its military || Their enterprise, their foresight, and their wis- continued peace has allowed them to be neg; necessity and importance.
dom in this regard have been far in advance lected, and no frontier of equal length and I know it has been urged, is, and will be
We, too, should be prepared for all importance in our whole country, and I may again, that as a work of military necessity, such such emergencies, and take timely steps to say in any country, is so poorly protected a canal would have no importance, and be of secure the desired result. Captain Williams, and prepared to meet the attacks that modern no practical military benefit. It is said that in one of the most celebrated engineers the Gov: || warfare and skill bring to bear in a time of the event of a war with England or Canada, ernment ever had, who was directed to and war. This frontier is in extent more than three or both, our policy would be to rush upon Can- make a survey for this work some time ago, thousand miles, and has none of the means ada with such a force as to take immediate pos- and whose report is on file, after examining the of defense that are necessary to secure prosession of their frontier and the Welland canal, || whole ground and taking a careful survey of tection or resist attacks. Our mode of warand thus have a canal at our hand, already con- the whole question in all its attitudes, urges fare nowadays differs very much from that of structed, by which we could keep open the com- with great force the military necessity of this the olden time. Forts and fortifications are munication between the lakes and the West, I work, and insists that the Government ought to good for something, but cannot compare in and thus be able to afford protection when and immediately enter upon its construction. He importance and real utility with the modern where it mnight be needed without serious dilli- says that its importance in a military point of means of resistance and defense. The iron.
ciads and war vessels of modern times can lakes the commercial marine is almost exclu- of commerce, and can in nowise meet the batter down and subdue the most formidable sively American, while on Lake Ontario and demands of the great future. fortifications that engineering skill and pa- the St. Lawrence it is largely Canadian. If A committee of the New York Legislature tience can erect; and the experience we have naval depots were established at proper points reported a little more than a year ago “ that had for the last five years in the great struggle on the lakes, our vessels of commerce, many || during a considerable portion of the last three for the nation's life, which has happily termi- of them propellers, could be easily and speedyears the enlarged canals had been taxed to nated so far as the trial of arms is concerned, || ily converted into vessels-of-war, and with this their utmost capacity, not from deficiency in demonstrates to us conclusively that the whole canal constructed, they could pass from lake the main trunk, but from the impossibility of system of warfare has undergone a radical to lake and the St. Lawrence as the exigen- || passing more boats through the locks." And change, and that hereafter it must be upon a cies of the case might require. These facili- everybody knows that the railroads connecting new scale and under different auspices to a very || ties are indispensable, especially from the fact the East and the West cannot take for quite a great extent.
that the English Government has as great portion of the time all the freight that is offered Indeed, there has been such a complete rev. and even greater within her borders. I may in any reasonable time. So great is the necesolution in our whole system of warfare and say without exaggeration that no part of our sity for more and larger outlets to the Atlantic defense that forts and fortifications to a very coast is so little protected, and in no instance to meet the constantly increasing wants of the great extent are giving away to other modes of are so vast interests, both public and private, West, so rapidly developing itself, that the Illiattack and defense. The system of gunboat || allowed to remain so at the mercy of an un. nois and Wisconsin Legislatures about two fighting upon our lakes, rivers, and other waters, || friendly Power, jealous of our prosperity and years ago appointed some of their most intelas exhibited during our recent conflict, has be. national grandeur, and always ready on the || ligent citizens to visit the Canadian authorities come so efficient, and consequently so popular, | slightest pretense to assume a threatening atti- to urge upon them the necessity of enlargiug that the attention of Congress and the Govern. tude and a hostile position.
the Welland canal, and the early construction ment has been and still will be turned toward But, Mr. Speaker, as necessary as this work of the proposed canal between the Georgian bay developing and extending it to a much larger || is in a military point of view, it is as necessary and Montreal. This completed, and Montreal and more perfect system, and to give it still to the commercial interests of the country, and would be nearer by water route to Chicago greater efficiency. All will readily perceive; || to all interested in cheap transportation, which than Buffalo is by twenty miles, and nearer however, that the efficiency of this practice of will result in benefit both to the producer and than New York is by nearly five hundred miles. warfare depends entirely upon the facilities the consumer.
With this work constructed we shall be obliged given to pass from point to point, from lake to In 1862 at least thirty-two million bushels to enlarge all our present lines so as to carry lake, and river to river; hence the necessity of of grain, including wheat manufactured into || largely and cheap; and open up every possible a more enlarged systein of internal navigation. | flour, besides other agricultural products of avenue of trade that will tend to reduce transThe general efficiency which the use of rail- western States, passed from the upper lakes || portation from the West to the Atlantic cities, roads and canals gives to a land force, by in- into Lake Ontario through the Welland canal, or we shall lose the ascendency we now hold creasing the rapidity of movement, is one of paying tribute to Canadian enterprise and add- and suffer in a corresponding degree. the principal reasons in favor of this great ing to Canadian prosperity. More than three It_may be urged here that if the locks of work, as the force of the upper lakes could be fourths of this grain found its way from Lake | the Erie canal were sufficiently enlarged there thrown immediately upon Lake Ontario or back Ontario and the St. Lawrence through Ameri- would be no necessity for the proposed shipagain to the points above.
can channels, to New York and New England; || canal. I reply, in the first place, that with the All these facilities the Canadian and British nearly twenty millions of it being shipped east. ship-canal the Erie canal with its enlarged Governments have in their internal communi. ward from Oswego and Cape Vincent, and locks will have all it can do, and cannot meet cations between the rivers and the lakes, by || about five million bushels from Ogdensburg || the demands upon it when the immense inwhich, if they hold their territory, they can over the Northern railroad. The trade from crease of trade of the future seeks an outlet to visit every point on our lines of lake and river the East to the West of course was correspond- the East; and in the second place, that if the coasts, batter down our forts and defenses, ingly large, and all paid tribute as before to ship-canal be not constructed tbe Erie canal lay waste our cities, and destroy our com- Canada as it passed through the Welland canal. will not get the trade the ship-canal would get
These are facts that are indisputable, It is said that the trade from the West to the if constructed, for the reason that it will go which no argument or sophistry can destroy or East is increasing annually at the rate of about where it now goes, through the Welland canal, cover up.
twenty per cent., as the great producing regions which will have been put in a condition to As I have before stated, the coast from the of the West are being developed and industry || induce trade to seek its channel. St. Lawrence to the western shore of Lake and enterprise are being stimulated. The trade And again, the further toward the point of Superior is over three thousand miles, and through the Canada canal into Lake Ontario, destination you can send produce in large forms a navigable water boundary for eight of and so on to tide-water, will increase in the quantities in vessel without breaking bulk the the most important producing and commercial same proportion, I conclude, if this canal is not || cheaper will be the cost of transportation, and States of the Union, with an aggregate popula- | constructed, for every facility that we can give in this instance there would be a correspondtion in 1860 of nine millions, while directly on with our present lines of communication by ing gain in point of time. All these advanthis coast, in towns, cities, and villages, are a additions and completion will be furnished upon tages will be seized, and we should look at the million of as enterprising, intelligent, and pa- the other side as a matter of policy, in order to question practically and act accordingly. triotic citizens as we have, surrounded by all presentevery inducement to business and secure Captain W; liains, a distinguished engineer the wealth that an agricultural, manufacturing, every possible benefit.
to whom I have before referred, who surveyed and commercial prosperty can bring.
To this end arrangements will be speedily | the different proposed routes for this shipFrom these cities and through these lakes and completed for the enlargement of the Welland canal by order of the Government, and made rivers we are told that more than one hundred | canal to accommodate our largest-sizeď vessels, his report, which is on file, upon careful estimillion bushels of grain, including wheat made which it cannot now accommodate, and which mates, no doubt correctly made, says that into flour, and other agricultural products in trade upon the upper lakes; so that, without a produce from a given point West can be taken proportion, are distributed annually to New | canal upon the American side, the Welland through to tide-water by way of the proposed York, New England, and the Atlantic cities canal, will certainly continue to receive its ship-canal and, of course, by the Welland north of and including Baltimore, for the con- present proportion of trade, or nearly so, even canal, when of sufficient size, for nearly thirty sumption of those States and for exportation when the trade shall have reached a greatly per cent. less than by Buffalo and the Erie to foreign countries. This vast production, yet increased amount, as it is destined to do. canal, for the reason, among others which I only in its infancy, occupies more than two Trade will go where it has the greatest induce- have already mentioned, that but little if any thousand steam and sail vessels, measuring full ments held out to it. This will be conceded more is charged per ton or bushel to Oswegia seven hundred thousand tons, which on their | by all, for it is the experience of every man by lake when once aboard than to Buffalo, return westward are always freighted with for: of business. How easy it is, in the absence while you have saved one hundred and twenty eign and domestic merchandise. The annual of this competing route, for Canada to so miles of artificial navigation and only increased value of this trade already exceeds five hundred discriminate in favor of vessels and cargoes the whole distance fifteen miles. This is a million dollars. The arrest of this commerce going to Montreal, by such a regulation of simple proposition but nevertheless true, and for a brief period would produce disaster both tolls as will divert the trade to Canadian chan- will bear investigation. to the East and the West, to the producer and nels; in fact, American interests are entirely By having such a canal upon the American the consumer. As the British Government is in and under her control in this regard while side we would get all the benfits of such a comiconstantly prepared for an aggressive war upon we have no competing route or connection munication and be better able to control the all the lakes, complete lines of communication between the lakes. If it be said that the commerce and keep it within our own terribeing now open, and naval depots already con- New York canals and railroads are competing || tory, and by offering it such inducements as structed and furnished to a very great extent, routes to the sea-board, and are sufficient for our increased facilities would allow us to do what can prevent all this extensive coast, this all present and future wants, I deny it. As we could direct it to tide-water through our vast and constantly increasing commerce, from before said, trade will go where it pleases. own markets, and greatly to the benefit of our suffering at the hands of our neighbors, should Inducements alone can lead and control it, own people. This is our duty, and we should hostilities ever be opened between us?
and it will go just as far as it can possibly by not let the occasion pass without embracing This proposed canal is the only link want. vessel toward tide-water without breaking bulk, it. I want gentlemen from the West who proing to give free communication to us at all for it is the interest of both producer, con- duce, and gentlemen from the East who contiines through and between all the great lakes sumer, and forwarder so to do. But, sir, the sume, to understand that there is no way in and the St. Lawrence for the vessels of the channels of communication as at present exist- which you can get so near together and secure largest size navigating the lakes. On the upper ll ing are not adequate to the present elemands so cheap transportation as to open up this con
nection and allow trade in our largest vessels Again, it is objected that such a canal would of this grand work of improvement it is unwise, to reach as near tide-water as possible. I have .deprive the State of New York of a large amount and such opposition is suicidal. Buffalo, so no fear as to the balance of the work. The of tolls, which she would realize if the trade ably represented by my colleague on this floor, people, States, and the General Government was forced through the whole length of her || [Mr. J. M. Humphrey, ) has been the seat of all are always ready to provide means to meet the canals. It is impossible to force the trade or nearly all the opposition that has been made demand upon trade. Private capital as well against its interests; and it will go where the to this measure from the State of New York. as public aid is always ready to secure every greatest inducements are held out to it. Be- Now, sir, considered by itself alone, I would benefit that can be obtained. To save this sides, it would make no difference whatever, || do nothing to strike at the interests of that great vast trade of the West, New York will enlarge as I can see, for all the trade that an Ameri- city, so filled with enterprise and worthy of the the locks of her canals when and where ne- can ship-canal would get, if constructed, will || protection and admiration of all. I know of cessity calls, and if need be, her canals also. be received by the Welland canal if ours be nothing upon which she is really unsound aside This will have to be done, for it is a narrow not constructed; and no condition of things from this question of ship-canal, save it be at view that limits the business of the great fu. could prevent it, as I can discover. It is sim- times her politics, but in this regard she gives ture to the very limited capacity of our present || ply a question whether we or Canada have the occasionally some encouragement, for we see thoroughfares.
benefits of such a work and of such trade. The now and then signs of restored life and health, Cheap transportation results in a correspond- case must be met, and cannot be avoided. The and it is to be hoped and believed that ere long ing benefit both to the producer and consumer, issue is made up, and the result is an inevitable she will stand upright, clothed, in her right and this is one way in which transportation can necessity.
mind, fully redeemed from all her past unforbe furnished cheaper than at present with a gen. I would be the last man to unnecessarily put tunate errings and political degeneracy. eral benefit and no serious detriment. Facts | myself in the way of the interests and pros- What enhances the interests and wealth of will demonstrate this to be true. Hon. W. J. perity of my State. I have stood by her inter- Buffalo and her people is gratifying to all our McAlpine, late State engineer of the State of ests always as best I was able. During three || people, and especially to me and my constitNew York, in his report to the Legislature on years in her Legislature, when her canal inter- uents, for she sits like a queen upon the lake railroads in 1855, presented data from which ests were on trial, and needed steadfast friends, on the very border of my district, the most of he deduced the following results :
and when, too, they were bitterly opposed, as which pays her constant tribute. She has no Cost of transportation per ton per mile is: Mills. they always were, by the party with which my right, however, to hazard the best interests of On the Ocean, long voyage....
colleague [Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY] has always | the great whole for the purpose of aggrandiz. sbort voyage.
24 to 6 Lakes, long
acted, I had the honor to do all in my power | ing herself, or to occupy such a selfish posishort
3 to 4 toward permanently establishing them, and tion as to advocate a policy that will cripple Hudson river..
making them the pride and glory of our people. the vast interests of commerce generally so as Mississippi and St. Lawrence.. Erie canal(enlarged)...
And when they have been paid for by the to secure to herself a local benefit; and this Ordinary canals...
business the great West has furnished, so that || applies equally to the whole State of New York. Railroads (ordinary grades)... .121 to 134 no part of the expense of their original con- Such a course will in the end meet with a severe Now, the distance by the lake from Chicago to struction and enlargement remains as a debt || rebuke, for it cannot long withstand the broad Buffalo is one thousand miles; and the actual cost of transporting a ton of freight, according to the esti
against the State, as the report of the canal and comprehensive policy of general advantage mate of Mr. McAlpine, is two mills per ton per mile, board shows, especially so far as the main line and public welfare which the great mass of our For a ton of freight from Chicago to Buffalo... $200
is concerned, and when they are to-day worth people will insist shall be adopted. Should The distance from Buffalo to Troy is 315 miles,
all they ever cost, is it very generous in New the State of New York, or any portion of it, whicb, at four mills per ton per mile, makes
York to say that no other channels shall be succeed in their opposition to this measure the cost of transporting a ton from Buffalo opened by which transportation will be cheap- l) and the policy it is intended to secure, there to Troy..
1 38 Add canal tolls, at three mills per one thou
ened unless tribute is paid to her? The West will be brought about what in the end will be sand pounds per mile......
2 07 has done for New York all that New York has | regretted. You will force the West and its Cost of transportation per ton on the Hudson,
ever done for the West. The benefits are trade through the Canadas by the present routes at two and a half mills per inile..
of communication and that to be completed, Making the whole cost, including canal tolls,
But, sir, while I am jealous of the rights of to wit, the Ottawa ship-canal, by which so of transporting a ton of wheat or flour from my State, my duty now is here. I am to look
many miles of transportation will be saved Chicago to New York, via Buffalo and the Erie canal........
over a larger field of operations, to take into to reach New York, should the trade take that ....$5 82.5
my view our broad expanse of country, and in direction, and by which, without our own shipCost via the Niagara ship-canal and Lake Ontario:
my action upon this as upon other great ques- canal, trade will inevitably be conducted by the The distance from Chicago to Oswego, via the pro- tions, consult the interests of all our people | St. Lawrence and out to the ocean without
posed ship-canal, would be eleven hundred and eighty miles, which, at two mills per ton per mile,
and all sections. It is a narrow policy, indeed, reaching our ports. would be.....
that would ask me to confine my action to the I call the attention of Representatives from The distance from Oswego to Troy, by canal, is interests of my own State to the exclusion of New York, especially the city, from New Eng.
one hundred and eighty-seven miles, which, at four mills per ton per mile, for transpor
all others, were it in my power to effect any. || land, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, to this tation, would be........
74.5 | thing by it, which would not be possible in a fact, for it will be too late to consider it after Add canal tolls, at three mills per one thou- body like this, representing such a variety of such a condition of things takes place. The
sand pounds per mile, on wheat or flour....... 1 12.2 Freight on Hudson river at two and a half mills
public interests, and all entitled to and able to great West and Northwest must and will have per ton per mile...........
37.5 command due consideration. I am in favor || ample outlets for her trade and articles of comAdd Niagara ship-canal expenses, per ton...... of developing all sections and interests of our merce. •Not one acre in ten of the vast proMaking the cost of transporting a ton of wheat
broad country. Improvements of this nature ductive region of that mighty empire is yet or four from Chicago to New York, via the
should be aided by the Government, for they under cultivation. Ten years hence she will proposed ship-canal and Lake Ontario........$4 80.2 open communications with our people, bring || raise one thousand million bushels of grain for
them into a closer relationship, and tend to market over her own consumption. EmigraThe above statement, which is official and unite and bind together different sections of tion is being quickened since the war, and all doubtless entirely correct, shows a difference the country in a common interest. What vast this vast country is to be filled up with indusin favor of the Niagara ship-canal route of wealth lies locked up in the earth, which indus- | trious, producing classes that will develop its $1 02 on a ton of wheat or flour from Chicago try and enterprise are fast developing, and immense resources, now unknown, and pour to New York.
when brought out to enrich and fill our land into the channels of trade a constantly increasAgain this difference would be increased by with plenty; what avenues of trade and com- ing amount of production. What is New York the competition which always springs up be. merce will be demanded to meet the neces- doing to meet this great demand? Where is tween rival routes of trade, so that low freight sities of the case! Railroads must be con- this outlet to be found? While we are fool. would not be confined to this route, but all structed to pierce our mountains and stretch | ishly resisting one of the great measures to competing routes between the East and West across our boundless prairies; canals must con- remedy the defect and meet the demands upon would be obliged to reduce prices on through nect our great rivers and lakes, those inland us, our Canadian neighbors, wiser than we, freight at least so as to conform to the cheaper seas that make our continent a wonder and a will present the facilities needed, and carry off channels, thus saving to the West annually mil- marvel; and then, when the vast resources of the untold benefits of their skill and enterlions of dollars, and to the East in the same the whole land shall be developed, and end. || prise. ratio. As to the objection that trade through || less streams of wealth fill it with the fruits Surely the East is directly interested in this this canal would not stop at our ports, but move of such developments, we shall be able to fully I question. Her business men, her cities, her comon to Montreal and be taken from our Atlantic realize our greatness and the magnitude of our merce, her consumers are all identified closely cities, I would say that such has not been the
with this measure in their best and highest infact thus far with reference to what has passed All enterprises and projects that look to such terests. The West, too, have a deep interest through the Welland canal to any considerable results should receive the fostering care and in this work. By carefully prepared estimates, extent, for more than three quarters of it has aid of the Government. Every dollar and every which are entirely correct and official, which I found our sea-board through American channels acre of land given to such purposes is a rich | have presented, it will be seen that by the shipand been consumed by our people or exported investment for us, for they will bring back ten- canal route, over one hundred and twenty miles from our ports. Besides it would be more fold in due time to the whole people in the of canal navigation will be saved from Chicago likely to go from us now than it would if we increased wealth and resources that will surely to New York, which, by taking into the account could furnish the facilities now furnished by result from them. For New York or any of
the difference between the cost of transportaCanada, and thus control to a greater extent her Representatives to oppose this measure or tion on the lake and canal, and the further fact than we now can the direction of our trade. throwany obstacles in the way of the completion II that the freight will be but a trifle if any more