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Mr. ELIOT. Well, it is a very good child, || Why, then, in lieu of this very large appro- I may remark that I say this as a friend of and I am not ashamed of the offspring. priation, should we not, by this bill, authorize the bureau, as one who appreciates to the full
Mr. CHANLER. A question has arisen in à credit on the accounts of those departments, extent the services of General Howard, its this interlocutory discussion as to the appro- and the accounts settled at the Treasury upon head, as one who wishes to sustain the bureau priation for these school-houses. the vouchers of this bureau ?
in every particular. But I think we should The gentleman from Massachusetts asserted, It seems to me that we can avoid shocking understand how it is that an appropriation if I understood him, that these school-houses the public mind, as it will be shocked by this should be called for so large as this to pay the which were built by the people of the South large appropriation, larger I suspect than our salaries of commissioners and sub-commissionfor the education of white children, were at pension list is to-day for the soldiers of our ers, when, if I rightly understand the matter, one time taken by the Government away from Army; we can avoid shocking the public mind, in fact and in law, the business of the commisthe white children and that black children and more economically accomplish the neces- sioners and sub-commissioners is performed were put into those school-houses which were sary objects of this bill. We can give the pro- mainly, if not almost altogether, by detailed intended by the southern people for the edu- tection which we are bound in honor and good officers of the Army, who draw their salaries cation of white children.
faith to extend to this class of people, and at from another fund. Mr. ELIOT. No, sir; I did not say it in the same time reduce, very essentially reduce, Mr. STEVENS. So the Commissioner states
the magnitude of the appropriations in this bill. in his report. But he also states that they are Mr. CHANLER. No, not in that way; but Why should we not also provide for the modes liable to be mustered out at any moment. He that was the effect of what the gentleman said. in which this money shall be expended, instead wishes, therefore, to be able to employ assistThe gentleman asserted that these school- of leaving it without any limit to the discretion | ants independently of that altogether. This is houses which black children were being of the officers? If they are to use the machin- all set forth in the report. educated were taken from the white children. ery of the War Department, we should say so Mr. ROSS. I desire to ask the gentleman Mr. ELIOT. No, sir. in this bill.
from Pennsylvania under what part of the Mr. CHANLER.' And now he proposes I assure the gentleman from Pennsylvania | Constitution he thinks Congress derives the that an additional appropriation shall be made || [Mr. STEVENS) that my desire is equal to his power to build school-houses and educate the whereby the United States Government shall or that of any other gentleman to do everything people of the South, taxing my constituents and build other school-houses for the blacks along. that good faith and honor requires of us for the his to pay the expense. side of those which were originally built for the protection of this class of the community. But Mr. STEVENS. Under the law of nations, whites.
I also greatly desire that we shall so frame a which is a part of the Constitution, and enables That is the whole of his position, as I under- bill that by increasing the number of disburs- us to govern conquered provinces. [Laughstand it, stripped of the verbiage with which ing ollicers we shall not increase the liability ter. ] it is clothed.
to frauds and mismanagement. And by trans- Mr. Speaker, there has been much more Mr. ELIOT. Well, the gentleman does not ferring the machinery of the War Department objection than I anticipated on this side of the understand it at all.
from one object to another, and the money from House to educating these poor people. I fear Mr. CHANLER. Of course not; and it is one account to another, we will accomplish the that some of our friends here still retain a porimpossible to understand a system by which same purpose that we seek to accomplish by tion of their old hatred of the negro. In view the white population, robbed alike of their | making this large appropriation independently. of the objection which is made, I modify my lands and of the system of education which A single statement further, and I have done. amendment and move to amend by striking out they had built up for themselves, are to be This bill runs from the 1st of January, 1866, to $3,000,000 in the item for schools and schooltaxed by this bill, as well as the people of the the 31st of December, 1866. Contrary to our houses, and inserting in lieu thereof $500,000. North, to sustain a Freedmen's Bureau raised
usual custom, we are establishing a new fiscal On this amendment, I call for the previous for the purpose of holding the South in sub- year for this bureau. By the provisions of the question. jection to a political party. It is impossible act establishing this bureau, it is to expire in The previous question was seconded and the to understand a system which links together one year from the establishment of peace; and main question ordered ; and under the operation with infamy a pretext of philanthropy. it is generally regarded that the proclamation thereof the amendment was agreed to.
Mr. ELIOT. Now, if there are no other of the President fixes that period. Now, we The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read inquiries which gentlemen desire to make I should do one of two things: either make this a third time, and was accordingly read the third resign the floor.
according to the recognized fiscal year; or else time. Mr. STEVENS. I have here a letter from provide for the expenditures of the bureau until
The question being on the passage of the bill, General Howard, dated the 10th of March last, it expires by limitation of law. We should also Mr. STEVENS demanded the previous quesurging the passage of this bill, and I have also provide for the proper securing of the titles to tion. here his estimate giving in full all the items. these sites for asylums and school-houses, and
Theprevious question was seconded and the Mr. KASSON. What is the date of his determine whether, and how, we shall keep main question ordered. report accompanying the estimate?
them after the bureau ceases to exist, and if Mr. ELDRIDGE. I call for the yeas and Mr. STEVENS. The date of his report so, how long. These are important questions, nays. was the 19th of December last; and then in a which I think require further time for examina- The yeas and nays were ordered. letter, upon my application to him, under date | tion, and I hope the bill may be recommitted. The question was taken ; and there wereof March 5, he increased the amount. The Mr. SCHENCK. I observe this clause in
yeas 79, nays 41, not voting 63; as follows: committee, however, have provided in this bill this bill: “for salaries of assistant and sub
YEAS-Messrs. Alley, Allison, Ames, James M. for the original estimate.
assistant commissioners, $147,500.'' Now, if Ashley, Banks, Baxter, Beaman, Benjamin, Bidwell, Mr. DODGE. Will the gentlemen allow me the gentleman from Massachusetts [Mr. Eliot] Bingham, Blaine, Blow, Boutwell, Brandegce, Buckto ask a question of the gentleman from Mas- is the father of the Freedmen's Bureau, I
land, Reader W. Clarke, Sidney Clarke, Conkling,
Cook, Dawes, Defrees, Delano, Deming, Dodge. Donsachusetts, [Mr. Elior?]
think that, as the step-father in one sense, I nelly, Driggs, Eliot, Garfield, Grinnell, Henderson, Mr. STEVENS. Certainly. may claim to know something about it. The
Higby, Holmes, Hotchkiss, Asahel W. Hubbard, ChesMr. DODGE. The estinate for transporta- bill which is now actually the law upon the
ter D. Hubbard, John II. Hubbard, James R. Hubbell,
Hulburd, Ingersoll, Jenckes, Julian, Kelley, Kelso, tion is $1,980,000. It was made in December statute-book is a very simple bill in its pro- William Lawrence, Longyear, Lynch, McClurg. Mclast. I understand the gentleman from Mas. || visions, and one which was got up in the com
Kee, McRuer, Moorhead, Morrill, Morris, Moulton, sachusetts to state that there have been twenty- mittee of conference as a sort of compromise
O'Neill, Orth, Paine, Patterson, Perham, Plants,
Alexander H. Rice, John H. Rice, Rollins, Sawyer, two thousand transported since that time. between the two Houses.
Schenck, Shellabarger, Spalding, Stevens, Francis Mr. ELIOT. No, sir; before that time. Knowing something of the history of this Thomas, Upson, Van Aernam, Burt Van Horn, Ward, Mr. DODGE. Before that time? bill, I can state from recollection, without re
Warner, Whaley, Williams. James F. Wilson, Ste
phen F. Wilson, Windom, and Woodbridge--79. Mr. ELIOT. I suppose it was before De- || ferring to it particularly, that among its pro- NAYS-Messrs. Ancona, Baker, Bergen, Boyer, cember. I do not know. It was before the visions is one requiring that the Commissioner Chanler, Cobb. Coffroth, Cullom, Darling, Dawson, time I made the inquiry. and sub-commissioners should either be ap
Denison, Eldridge, Finck, Glossbrenner, Grider,
Aaron Harding, Abner C. Harding, Harris, James M. Mr. DODGE. The average cost of trans- pointed from civil life or might be detailed Humphrey, Kuykendall, George V. Lawrence, Loan, portation over five hundred miles on railroads from the Army; so that officers already em- Newell, Niblack, Noell, Samuel J, Randall, Ritter,
Ross, Rousseau. Shanklin, Sitgreaves, Smith, Stilis ten dollars for each person. An appropria- || ployed upon salaries paid by the Government
well. Strouse, Taylor, Thornton, Trowbridge, Elihu tion of $1,800,000 at the same rates would can perform the duties of the bureau. That B. Washburne, Henry D. Washburn, William B. transport one hundred and eighty thousand provision was the more essentially necessary,
Washburn, and Winfield-41. persons. I suppose that since December, when inasmuch as there was no appropriation made
NOT VOTING-Messrs. Anderson, Delos R. Ash
ley, Baldwin, Barker, Bromwell, Broomall. Bundy, this estimate was made, the occasion for the when the bill was passed for carrying out its Culver, Davis, Dixon, Dumont, Eckley, Eggleston, transportation of such numbers has very greatly || provisions. In consequence of that provision
Farnsworth, Farquhar, Ferry, Goodyear, Griswold, diminished and it seems to me, therefore, that pretty much all the work of the commissioners
Ilale, Hart, Hayes, Hill, Hogan, Hooper, Demas
Hubbard, Edwin N. Ilubbell, James Humphrey, this item might be very much reduced.
and sub-commissioners has been done by de- Johnson, Jones, Kasson, Kerr, Ketcham, Laflin, Mr. KASSON. With the permission of the tailed officers of the Army. And unless it be
Latham, Le Blond, Marshall, Marston, Marvin, Mcgentleman from Pennsylvania, I would like to
Cullough, McIndoe, Mercur, Miller, Myers, Nicholfor the purpose of keeping an account between
son. Phelps, Pike, Pomeroy, Price, Radford, William say that we may essentially reduce the amount the Army and the Freedmen's Bureau, so that H. Randall, Raymond, Rogers, Scofield, Sloan, Starr, of the appropriation by a modification of the the bureau shall be charged with the salaries Taber, Thayer, John L. Thomas, Trimble, Robert T.
Van Horn, Welker, Wentworth, and Wright-63. phraseology of the bill. For example, it is of those detailed officers of the Army, I do not found that commissary and quartermasters' quite understand how it can be that $147,500
So the bill was passed. stores have, to a large extent, been already should be needed or expended in paying the During the roll-call, used by simply taking the material on hand. salaries of these officers.
Mr. ROLLINS stated that his colleague,
Mr. MARSTON, was detained from the House floats, and property passing said canal, ten per cent. And the West will not be content until the by sickness.
thereof sball, on the 1st day of January in each year
obstructions in the way of successful naviga. The result was announced, as above stated.
company into the Treasury of the United States, tion of this river are removed, the most mateMr. STEVENS moved to reconsider the which moneys, with the interest accruing thereon, rial of which lie upon the borders of Iowa and vote just taken; and also moved that the motion shall be applied toward the payment of the principal of the sum so to be loaned to said company, as is
Illinois. to reconsider be laid on the table.
herein provided, from time to time as shall hereafter We are told that we must find a home marThe latter motion was agreed to. be appropriated by Congress.
ket by building up in our midst manufactures,
and thus bring the consumers of bread to the be reduced and regulated by Congress. Mr. LAFLIN, from the Committee on Print
doors of those who produce it. I will say or ing, reported the following resolution; which
Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I accept do nothing that would discourage the growth was read, considered, and agreed to:
those amendments as modifications of my sub- of manufactures in the West or elsewhere in
stitute. Resolved, That there be printed of the message of
our country, but by proper and prudent legis. the President of the United States and the accom- Mr. ALLISON. Mr. Speaker, before en- lation encourage their growth, and to that end panying documents on the subject of Mexico, under tering upon the discussion of the merits of would welcome eastern capital seeking investdate April 23, the same number as is now provided
the particular bill now before the House for ment in that direction. by law for the printing of the general diplomatic
Yet no one who has correspondence.
its consideration, I wish to say a word in beheld and traveled over our boundless and Mr. LAFLIN moved to reconsider the vote
relation to the general purpose sought to be fertile prairies can fail to see that this region by which the resolution was adopted ; and also effected by this class of improvements, namely,
is destined to become, if it is not now, tho moved that the motion to reconsider be laid on the opening up of new and the enlargement granary of the world, and with all the looms and the table.
of the natural channels of communication spindles of New England and the forges and The latter motion was agreed to.
whereby the agricultural products of this coun- rolling-mills of Pennsylvania transplanted there
try may have a cheap and easy transit from their we would still have a surplus of agricultural COTTON LOAN.
points of production to the markets of the products that would be transported a long disThe SPEAKER laid before the House a mes- world.
tance before a market could be secured. It is sage from the President of the United States, It is manifest that by whatever sum we safe to assume that the increase of population, transmitting, in reply to a resolution of the lessen the cost of transportation, by that sum including immigration, will keep pace with proHouse, a letter of the Secretary of State in re- we enrich either the producer or consumer of duction of cereals and breadstuffs, and the gard to the rebel debt known as the “cotton these products. Iundertake to say that in the agriculturist will always seek the cheapest and loan;" which, on motion of Mr. Kasson, was aggregate there is no class of our people that most productive soils. It has been reasonably ordered to be printed and referred to the Com- receive so little reward for their labor as those estimated that of wheat alone there will be mittee on Foreign Affairs.
who till the soil, and no class will be more produced at the beginning of the pext century NIAGARA SHIP-CANAL.
benefited by the class of legislation here pro- annually five hundred million bushels, and of
posed than the agriculturist, inasmuch as we corn at least three times that number of bushMr. VAN HORN, of New York, demanded
have for many years produced a surplus of els, one half of which will be produced in the the regular order of business.
breadstuffs which must be exported in some prairie States west of Chicago, and chiefly conThe SPEAKER stated the business in order to be House bill No. 344, to construct a ship
form. The foreign market for this surplus sumed at points east of Buffalo, and must in
affects the price of the product consumed at some form be transported thither. This cancanal around the falls of Niagara, and that the
home. Hence it is that the markets in Liver-- not be done except through the improved natupending question was on the substitute of Mr.
pool control, to a great extent, the price of the ral channels which nature has worked out by Van Horn, of New York, on which the gen: wheat, the corn, the beef, and pork at Chicago way of New Orleans and the great lakes. And tleman from New York [Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY]
or upon the farms of the West. Our farmers here I wish to correct an error in which the was entitled to the floor. Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY. I ask leave to
are thus brought in competition with the wheat- gentleman from New York [Mr. HULBURD) in
growing countries of Russia, Egypt, and Tur- common with many others has fallen, namely, offer the following amendments :
key, and whatever will cheapen the cost of that because of the nature of the Gulf stream Strike out sections scven, twenty, twenty-one, and twenty-two.
transportation of the products of the farm will and the warm climate wheat and corn cannot Add the following:
aid the farmer until the demand at home or be transported by way of New Orleans. This SEC. - Beit enacted, &c., That before entering upon abroad exceeds the supply when the consumer difficulty does not now exist, as by means of the survey or construction of this canal, the consent
will be benefited. The States most directly elevators at convenient points on the river the thereto of the State of New York shall be obtained, and said corporation and all its property and fran
interested in this subject are the great prairie wheat and corn can reach New Orleans in a per: chises shall at all times be subject to the laws of the States of the West, as they produce nearly if fect condition, from which it can be easily and State of New York.
not all the surplus cereals now produced in safely transported to any of the markets of the Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. Is that this country, as will be readily seen by a ref- world; and the fact is that the United States in order ?
erence to the statistics upon this subject. exports wheat and flour to Portugal, Brazil, Mr. ALLISON. I only yielded to the gen- In 1864 there was produced in Illinois, || and Australia, and England imports largly tleman to submit some remarks, and not for Wisconsin, and Iowa, one fourth of all the live from Turkey and Egypt; all this commerce the purpose of offering amendments.
stock produced in this country, amounting in being across the tropics subject to the climatic The SPEAKER. Then the amendments
value to $240,000,000, in round numbers; of influences which prevail in the Gulf. cannot be received. Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY then concluded
wheat, more than one third, or 60,000,000 bush- I mention these general facts in relation to
els; of corn, nearly one half, or 230,000,000 this subject that the House may understand his remarks, begun when the bill was last before
bushels; of cattle, 2,000,000, or one third of that the West will imperatively demand, and the House. [The entire speech will be found the whole product; and of hogs, 4,000,000, or now, that this great river shall have removed in the Appendix.]
nearly one third of the whole product. This, from it the obstructions which hinder and imThe SPEAKER stated that the gentleman with a population of about three tenths of the pede its safe and easy navigation. This House from Iowa [Mr. Allison] had ten minutes whole population of this country. The surplus has partially recognized this great want in the of his hour left.
of this enormous product must find a market passage of the river and harbor bill, on yesMr. ALLISON. I offer the following amend. || in New England and other eastern States or it terday, but the sums there appropriated will ments :
must go abroad. I but state the truth when I scarcely more than commence the great imSection twenty, line seven, after the word "pay, say that our farmers are now being ground to provements demanded to secure the uninterable," insert "in lawful currency of the United States;" also in line fourteen insert the same words;
powder between the upper and nether mill- rupted navigation of the Mississippi river from so that it will read:
stone of monopoly that requires for transpor- St. Paul to the Gulf. , SEC. 20. And be it further enacted, That the sum of tation to New York one bushel of wheat for In demanding these improvements we do not $6,000,000 shall be loaned by the United States, in the manner and at the times hereinafter provided, to the
every bushel transported from the Mississippi | ask for the establishment of any new policy, company hereby chartered, and its successors..to aid to New York, and two for every bushel of corn but only a full recognition of the long-estabin the construction of said canal, and shall be ad- thus transported; and for this reason they are lished policy of the Government, often disvanced and paid in the bonds of the United States in denomination of $1.000 each, payable in lawful cur
looking with intense interest upon our delib-puted, but as often asserted in the legislation rency of the United States in twenty years from their erations here to give them some relief whereby | of the country. The same grant of power to date, which said bonds shall be made and issued by their toil may be properly rewarded. The meas- regulate commerce with foreign nations authorthe Secretary of the Treasury in the usual manner, and duly attested and dated the 1st day of September.
ure now before the House I have no doubt will izes Congress to regulate commerce among the 1876. payable at the office of the Secretary of the be of material service in the right direction. several States. This power has been asserted Treasury, on the 1st day of September, 1886, bearing But it is not enough, and this Congress will fail from the foundation of our Government, in interest at the rate of six per cent. per annum, pay, able semi-annually, in lawful currency of the United
in the discharge of one of its most important | making appropriations for light-houses, beaStates, from and after the Ist day of September, 1866, obligations to the country if it adjourns with cons, buoys, and public piers erected or placed upon warrants or coupons to be annexed thereto, out passing an act to remove all obstructions within the bays, inlets, harbors, and ports of signed by the Treasurer of the United States, duly
now in the way of the safe and continuous navi- the United States to render navigation safe and numbered and registered in a book to be kept by him the said bonds to be redeemed out of moneys to be way between the oceans that mark our eastern priated not less than $1,000,000 annually for hereafter appropriated by Congress. Section twenty-two, page 21. line three, after the
and western boundary, running from the Brit- this purpose, without objection, in order to Ford “thereof, strike out, "after deducting the cost ish possessions to the Gulf of Mexico. That is protect the foreign commerce of the United of repairs and the expenses of operating and improv- the natural highway for the commerce of the States, when in fact our trans-oceanic com: ing the same;" so that it will read:
merce does not amount to more than one tenth SEC. 22. And be it further enacted, That from all the Mississippi valley, both to the eastern portions tolls which shall be collected upon vessels, rafts, of our own country and to foreign markets. of ourdomestic commerce, and when the former
por unha reparado por entered d'indepek to be baya gation of the great river that threads itself mid- easy, and for the last ten years we have
could not have existed for the last few years a competing line of communication, it will say that the policy which that State has adopted but for the productions of the food-producing receive the support of the people of the west- is sufficient in itself to justify the Congress of States of this country.
ern States and the sanction of their Repre- the United States in interfering with it by the Sir, the townage of the Erie canal alone sentatives.
adoption of this measure. amounted to more than the total tonnage trans- The gentleman from New York (Mr. J. M. I hold in my hand the Proceedings of the ported to and from the United States for the HUMPHREY] finds fault with this measure be- Canal Board of New York, wherein they report years 1862 and 1863. The five States of Illi- cause he can find in the Constitution of the to the Inyislature of that State that this Brie mois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa,and Minnesota, || United States no power to pass it; but if he canal, which the gentleman says cost $100,000,lying west of Chicago, bordering on the Mis- will refer to the measures that have been at 000, instead of being a charge, has actually been sissippi and on the lakes, furnished one third in various times before Congress he will see that a benefit to that State, and has placed in its value of the staples exported during the years it has become the uniform policy of the Gov- treasury $9,000,000 over and above the money 1861, 1862, and 1863. And here I shall take ernment to engage in these great works of expended for the construction of the work, the liberty of quoting from an address delivered internal improvement. There has scarcely nearly all of which was levied as a contribution by a distinguished citizen of my own city, P. | been a Congress that has not in some form or upon the grain-producing States of the West. Robb, Esq., before a convention of shippers | another recognized this principle in our legis. And yet the State of New York proposes now, and merchants held at Dubuque, which sets lation. But the gentleman from New York by its interference here, to prevent the westeru forth in concise terms the value of this com- [Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY] objects to this meas- States from transporting their cereals across merce to our country. He says:
ure because it is within the State of New York that State unless they pay tribute to that State An examination of the statistics fully establishes alone, because it does not connect any two in the way of tolls such as it may see proper to the additional fact that these five States during the States, but the whole of the proposed improve- impose; and it is for that reason and to estabyears 1861, 1862, and 1863, shipped East one hundred and fifty per cent, morecorn and meal, and twenty-five
ment is necessarily in the State of New York. lish a competing line of transit that this meas. per cent. more pork products than were exported He seems to forget that it unites by water com- ure is proposed, for the purpose of depriving from the entire country during the same period. || munication the great chain of lakes which float them of this monopoly of transportation between These States not only supply the export wheat of the entire country, but also the export corn and pork
the commerce of many States and opens a the lakes and the sea. products. The contributions, therefore, made by direct communication with the ocean that bears I know, also, that the gentleman from New Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Minnesota, and Iowa, to the exports of the United States in these three
upon its bosom the commerce of the world. York, [Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY,) when a member leading agricultural staples alone, are as follows:
Now, I think this bill finds its sanction in of the New York Senate, introduced a bill 1860-61. 1861-62. 1862-63. many provisions of the Constitution, as in the for the purpose of enlarging the Erie canal, Whcat... $18,938,750 $11,187,1-18 $55,617,979 power to regulate commerce with foreign showing that he believed at that time, as every Corn and meal...... 6,387,160 9,609,879 9,633,357
nations and among the several States;'! “ to one but him now believes, that we do need Pork products...... 4,687,784 10,217,281 16,421,333 declare war, ""to raise and support armics,'.
additional facilities by which the cereals of Total................. $60,013,724 $64,017,308 $81,695,674 "and provide for the common defense,"'." the western States can be transported to the
provide and maintain a navy,
" &c. It is city of New York and to the markets of the "Excluding gold, silver, and hullion, which are admitted that this measure will be one of East. How did he propose to enlarge that hardly analogous to other products, and the entire necessity for the protection and defense of our canal? He proposed to do it by means of exports of domestic products of the United States amounted in 1860-61 to $217,666,93; in 1861-62 to
northern lakes should we come in conflict locks, which were to pass vessels of six hun$190,609,387; and in 1862-63 to $260,606,110. with England.
dred tons burden, and to levy upon the com"The averago exports of the country for the three years was $2:22,874,183 33, and the average exports
But the gentleman says we are not likely to merce of the western States seventy cents on wbich these five States contributed in wheat, corn,
have a war with that country. Why, sir, upon every ton transported through that canal, in and pork alone was $68,575,568 66, or very nearly one the principle he advocates we cannot cast a addition to the tolls levied by the State of New tbird.
cannon nor build a fortification in time of peace, “In 1961, 1862, and 1863, the average yearly tonnage
York upon its own citizens to pay for its conof all American vessels engaged in trans-oceanic because it is not necessary except as a war
struction and enlargemeņt. commerce and entering the ports of the United States measure. We could not build a ship for the Now, the very fact that it has been the policy was 2,561,257 tons, and the average tonnage of all the vessels of all countries engaged in occanic commerce
protection of our commercial marine because of the State of New York to compel the prodand entering the ports of the United States was
we are not engaged in war. I believe the true uce of the West to pass through the Erie canal 5.341,867.tons. Now, the three staples contributed by policy of the Government is, in time of peace or over her railroads, in order that she may these five upper Mississippi States to our exports were
to prepare for war. Therefore it is that whatequivalent to 1,315,000 tons annually. They, there
control at will the commerce of the western fore, not only contributed one third in value to our ever is necessary to control and protect the || States, and levy tolls upon that commerce, is entire exports, but gave employment upon the ocean commerce of our great northwestern lakes and in itself a just reason why we should interfere to more than one half of all our American tonnage, which was equivalent to one fourth of allthe tonnage
the States bordering upon them as a war meas- and pass this measure, in order that Congress of all nations, our own included, entering the United ure, the Congress of the United States certainly | may have control over this national highway, States and engaged in the trans-oceanic commerce. has power to adopt, and it is the sole judge of connecting the lower with the upper lakes, History cannot furnish a parallel. But for the relief afforded by the productive industry of this section
the exigency which shall call for the exercise and thus connecting the lakes with the ocean, our national credit would have been seriously imof that power.
which thus far has been to us an unknown sea. paired, and ships must have rotted at their wharves." But another objection of the gentleman is And in order to keep this question of tolls
I regret, Mr. Speaker, that I have not the that it interferes with the proper local jurisdic- || within the power and control of Congress, I time to quote more largely from this address, |tion of the State of New York. The gentle- offered the amendment to the twenty-third which is in itself a complete argument on this man from New York will bear in mind that we section of the bill, giving this control to Consubject.
are constantly interfering with the local juris- gress, in order that we may not escape from the Is it possible that those who organized our diction of the States. We have done it in a rapacious jaws of one class of monopolies to be Government intended to confine the power to marked instance in the passage of a national swallowed up by the voracious maw of another; regulate commerce to that only which apper- banking law whereby we controlled the moneyed and in the hope that this competing highway tains to our intercourse with foreign nations, interest and power of this country by the crea- may be used to cheapen transportation upon a power the most important in its creation and tion of national banks. By the operations of all the great lines eastward upon which we now most extensive in its operation which can be- that act in the State of Iowa, which I have the depend to carry off our surplus productions, long to any Government? Is it not certain that honor in part to represent, a State bank sys- and in some degree to meet the growing wants they intended to remove this power from the tem has been utterly destroyed. Under the and expectations of an industrious, intelligent, disjointed and conflicting legislation of the constitution of that State a charter organizing and virtuous population, now numbering milStates and place it under the auspices of a a general banking system in that State must be | lions, who have cast their lot west of the great united and efficient Government, a power to submitted to a vote of the people, and we had lakes and in the valley of the Mississippi. And be largely, liberally, and beneficially construed a system there which had been thus submitted here I wish to express the thanks of that peoin furtherance of the great objects of Govern- and passed upon favorably; and yet, under the ple to the honorable member from Massachument, to be exercised prudently and wisely by | national banking law, our State bank system setts,.[Mr. BANKS,] who spoke so eloquently the Congress of the United States, and to has been utterly ignored and driven out of on Saturday of the growing wants of this great operate as well within the several States as existence, and without the consent of the State nation, and to his colleague, [Mr. Eliot,] for upon our foreign commerce?
Legislature. A national system has been es- his earnest, persistent, and successful effort to We are imperatively called upon now to | tablished there in violation of our State policy. improve the great river upon which we must exercise this power in behalf of the agricul- || So that we do interfere with the local policy || largely depend hereafter for the transportation tural interest of the country in order to fur- of States by our legislation here, and we have of our products. nish competing lines for the transportation of the constitutional power to interfere when it is Mr. Speaker, if we would keep pace with their products, so that the corn of the prairies | necessary for the general interests of the Gov- the growing civilization of ihe age in which we may reach New England and the East where ernment, or to carry out specific powers granted || live, we must foster and encourage our interit is needed for consumption and exportation, | in the Constitution.
nal commerce, by opening up new avenues, instead of being burned as now for fuel. We [Here the hammer fell.]
and improving the natural highways which want these improvements to encourage the Mr. INGERSOLL. I will yield five minutes Providence has carved out for us, and thus development of the great West, so that the. of my time to the gentleman from Iowa to con- encourage every branch of our varied industry, food-consuming States may have cheap bread | cludé his reinarks.
and enable us with ease to meet the great and the farmer may receive an adequate re- Mr. ALLISON. I am certainly much obliged responsibilities and burdens imposed upon us ward for his toil.
to the gentleman from Illinois. I desire to say by the rebellion and war through which we And inasmuch as this bill has a tendency to one thing with reference to the policy of the have passed, and from which we have so tridiminish the cost of transportation by creating ll State of New York on this subject of canals. I ll umphantly emerged. This improvement is
but one link in the great chain of improve- Mr. INGERSOLL. I cannot, for my time is These are some of the works that other naments necessary to develop our great material limited.
tions have performed, where their interest was interests, and raise this nation to the high and Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY. Only a moment. as nothing compared with our interest in this brilliant destiny that awaits it.
Mr. INGERSOLL. Not an instant ; not great project, either in a commercial or a miliMr. Speaker, the measure as it is now pre- an instant. I should be glad to, but my time tary point of view. sented, I believe, has in it but few if any objec- is too precious.
The gentleman from New York [Mr. J. M. tionable features, unless it be the fact that it Now, if we build this Niagara ship-canal we HUMPHREY] tells us that the tariff and tolls on authorizes a corporation to construct this canal will have it as an offset against the British power the Erie canal have been wonderfully reduced. instead of providing for its construction under in the use of the Welland canal. And if war Why, sir, the Erie canal was completed in 1825. the direct auspices of the General Government. shall occur between this country and Great When did the first reduction take ace? Just For myself, I would prefer that the Government Britain they will at once proceed to build their about the time of the completion of the Wels should itself undertake this great work of mate- gunboats on Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, and land canal, ten years later. That was made to rial improvement, in order that it might be as move them with the greatest facility from one some extent a competing canal, by virtue of the ocean, free for the commerce of the world; || lake to the other, as necessity should require, treaties between this country and Great Britain. but I have no doubt that whatever we could do through the Welland canal, which would be The New York Central railroad was completed by ourselves we can do through the necessary
closed against us. Give us this Niagara ship- || in about the year 1840. That was another comand proper agencies we may create. That we canal, and we could go to work in our ship. || peting line. Other railroads sprung up over have the power to create a corporation for this ) yards, in case of war, along the entire lake the country, connecting the East with the West; purpose was decided by the Supreme Court shores from Ogdensburg to Chicago, and build and in consequence of the competition created in the case of McCulloch against the State a fleet of war vessels which we could move by these various lines of transportation the Erie of Maryland, where it was decided expressly | with equal facility through our own canal and Canal Company found it necessary for their that Congress has power, where an object is thus be prepared to defend ourselves in a man- business that they should reduce their tariffs necessary to be accomplished, to create the ner which would be impossible at present. and their tolls. Had not these competing lines means by which that object may be accom- Thus, in a military point of view, this canal is been built there would have been no reduction, plished, and that it may create a corporation || indispensable to the Government.
or next to none, either in tolls or in tariffs to as one of the means, if that is deemed the And I say here that no civilized Government the present day. best way to accomplish the end sought to be on the face of the earth, with such a chain of The Eric canal has been of incalculable benattained.
lakes within her borders, and with a foreign | efit to the country. Had that canal never been [Here the hammer fell.]
Power on her frontier, would have existed ten constructed we would, in all probability, have Mr. INGERSOLL. Mr. Speaker, I remem- years without connecting those lakes by a ship. || had no magnificent West to-day. It opened, ber with somewhat of pride that in the Thirty- | canal. And yet we have existed for eighty as by the power of magic, the way for enterEighth Congress I voted in favor of a bill of this years without such a canal, though our fathers | prising emigrants to settle the West, and they character, for the construction of a ship-canal || showed their appreciation of its importance, were not slow to take advantage of it; and since around Niagara falls, and also a bill to aid in not only in a commercial, but also in a mili- the completion of that canal in 1825, the West enlarging the Illinois and Michigan canal, and tary point of view, by urging upon Congress | may date the day of her onward march of prosafter a considerable contest I had the proud the necessity of the work. Let us at once per- perity and greatness. But the West needs satisfaction of seeing those bills pass this House form this work, which is so much needed by to-day another canal, and further and greater by a very respectable majority. “And I remem- the commercial, the manufacturing, and the facilities of transportation, more than she ever ber with what grateful feelings the people of || agricultural interests of the country, and which did the Erie canal; for unless these nceded the West responded to that action of Congress is so necessary for the common deféuse of the facilities of transportation be extended, the upon witnessing the exhibition of the genwhole country.
West will find herself worse off than though erous spirit in this House which regarded not Let us look for a moment at the nature of
her population were less than half of what it merely the interest of certain localities but the work, and see whether its magnitude is now is and her agricultural products reduced in the entire country. Early in the present ses- such as should deter us from entering upon it. the same proportion, for we must have cheaper sion I introduced a bill providing for the ap- This bill provides for the expenditure of but rates of freight for the transportation of our propriation of $5,000,000 to aid the State of $6,000,000, and that, too, in the shape of a western products, or the industry of the West Illinois in enlarging the Illinois and Michi- || loan, and that not in money, but in bonds to will be paralyzed. There will be no stimulus gan canal to the capacity of a ship-canal. be repaid to the Government out of the earn- for agriculture, for the products of the farmer And now, if it were not for fear of embar- ings of the canal. Ten per cent. annually of will not pay transportation to market. This rassing the passage of this bill, I would offer the net earnings of the canal are to be returned state of things cannot last long. The West as an amendment the bill which passed this to the Treasury of the United States. That is demands additional facilities of transportation. House at the last session to enlarge the Illi- all this bill provides; and who is it who will She will have them. If she cannot get aid nois and Michigan ship-canal. But I feel cer. say that that is not an outlay of credit that will from the Government, she will build the necestain that if we pass this bill for a canal around pay the greatest rate of interest the Govern- sary works herself. And in order to perpetuthe falls of Niagara, it will be a step well taken ment ever received? In a few years every dol- ate and promote a good feeling between the in the right direetion; and that having taken lar would be repaid to the Government. East and the West, and continue in that prosthat step, the second step will casily follow, We have looked upon the Chinese as a sort || perity which has made the country rejoice, it which will be the passage of the bill for the of semi-heathen people, never as a commercial will be the work of wisdom for the eastern and enlargement of the Illinois and Michigan ship- people. But they have within their borders a middle States to respond favorably to this canal, and thus without embarrassing this bill continuous canal communication of over one demand of the West, for these States will be we will secure the other also; and thus those thousand miles in extent. The Government as much benefited as will the westerp States two great national works will receive the sanc- of France, under the reign of Louis XIV, built themselves. tion of the national Legislature. Complete | the Languedoc canal, connecting the Bay of Now, sir, in the early history of the Governthese two great works and you will have done Biscay with the Mediterranean, rising to a sum- ment, even John C. Calhoun, when he was more to aggrandize the Republic than by any.
mit level of six hundred feet above the sea; Secretary of War, was in favor of this system, thing you have ever done, except it be the a work perfectly stupendous in comparison with not of internal improvements, as some may be crushing out of the rebellion.
this. In Holland we have an example of na- disposed to callthem, but this system of national The gentleman from New York [Mr. J. M. tional energy and commercial enterprise look- || works, as necessary to provide for the common HUMPHREY] objects to the passage of this bill, || ing to the welfare of the people that it would defense and the general welfare of the United because he says that by virtue of a treaty now be well to follow. They built, more than forty States. Hear what he said in 1824, when Secexisting between this Government and the years ago, a canal from Amsterdam to the Hel retary of War: Government of Great Britain we can have but | der, fifty-one miles in length, one hundred and "Let us bind the Republic together; let us conquer two war vessels upon the northern lakes and twenty-five feet wide at the water level, twenty space by a perfect system of roads and canals." but one upon Lake Ontario, and consequently feet deep, with an average width at the bottom These are precious words; they were uttered we cannot regard this measure as one of mil. of thirty-one feet, in order that the commerce by Mr. Calhoun before he had become tinctured itary necessity or as one required to provide of Holland and the world might avoid the with secessionism or nullification, and I repeat for the common defense, as the treaty provides dangers of the coast navigation.
them here to-day to his credit. Happy would that we shall not enlarge our power upon those Great Britain on our own continent has set it have been for him and for the country had he lakes. Now, let me remind the House and the an example worthy of imitation in building the never uttered any sentiments at war with these. gentleman from New York of what he no doubt Welland canal and other canals in Canada for Why, sir, had the Government of the United overlooked for the moment, that in case a war the benefit of commerce, and for the protection States, prior to the war of 1812, built a great should engue between Great Britain and this of her dominions in time of war. The Cale- national road from here to Detroit, would Full country the provisions of all existing treaties donian canal is another great work built by the have made his ignominious surrender? No, between the two countries would be at once British Government in Scotland. It rises to sir; because we would have had the means of annulled, and we should then be free to exer- the summit level over the rocky highlands of transporting men, cannon, and other munitions cise whatever power we might desire for our Scotland to an elevation of nearly one hundred of war for the national defense in suflicient protection and self-preservation by building as feet. It is a ship-canal with twenty feet depth || numbers and quantity to have prevented that many war vessels as we might deem neces- of water and with an average breadth of one deplorable event. It was estimated in the last sary.
hundred and twenty feet. This was constructed war that a single cannon taken from our foundMr. J. M. HUMPHREY. Will the gentle- to avoid the dangers of the Pentland firth and ries in the East to Detroit cost its weight in man allow methe Western islands.
silver to get it there. Yet this state of things 39Th Cono 1st Sess.-No. 146.
tion, would Bert
the old fogies of ages past, though yet living, Cost via the Niagara shin-canal and Lake Ontario: live stock, more than one third in number of all the would continue if they be permitted to control
The distance from Chicago to Oswego, via the pro- cattle and hogs, and nearly one half of all the wheat
posed ship-canal, would be eleven hundred and and corn grown in the United States. Here we find the legislation of the country.
eighty miles, which, at two mills per ton per mile, four and one half millions of agriculturists along the Let us avoid the errors of the past. Let us would be..
$2 36 upper Mississippi producing in a single year from “in peace prepare for war." It war should The distance from Oswego to Troy, by canal, is one third to one half of all the production of the
one hundred and eighty-seven miles, which,
leading staples of an estimated value of $677,056,204. come, and it may be not far distant, you
ton per mile, for transporta
"In the fiscal years 1861, 1862, and 1863, the Uniwill then say, "What a pity it is that we did
74.5 ted States exported 89,941,508 bushels of wheat and not build the Niagara ship-canal when we were Add canalto'lg, at three mills per one thousand
6,997.470 barrels of flour, valued at $148,673.907. Durpounds per mile, on wheat or flour.
1 12.2 ing those same years we shipped from the lake ports at peace.” Then it will be too late; now is Freight on Hudson river at two and a half mills
named 85,577,516 bushels of wheat and 7,530,893 barthe time for action.
per ton per mile........
37.5 rels of flour. Reduce the flour to bushels and we
20 Now, sir, with regard to the commercial Add Niagara ship-canal expenses, per ton.....
have as the entire exports of wheat from the United
States for the three years, 124.828,902 bushels. Shipimportance of this measure to the country, || Making the cost of transporting a ton of wheat ments from the lake ports named for the three years, East and West, no language is adequate to or flour from Chicago to New York, via the
123,231,981 bushels. do the subject justice. Why, sir, it is esti- proposed ship-canal and Lake Ontario........$4 80.2 The contributions, therefore, made by Illinois,
Wisconsin, Missouri, and Minnesota, to the exports of mated that by this great work the cost of trans- In 1860 the whole number of acres of improved land the United States in these three leading agricultural portation on every bushel of grain will be in all the States and Territories was.......163,261,389 staples alene, are as follows: reduced ten cents at least from Chicago to of this
1860-61. 1861-62. 1862-63. New York and Boston. Consequently, it will Missouri contained...
Wheat... .$48,938,780 $44,187,148 $55,647.979 be ten cents increase to the producer and ten Iowa....
Corn and meal...... 6,387,160 9,609,879 9,623,357 cents reduction to the purchaser. Suppose, Wisconsin.
Pork products...... 4,687,784 10,217,281 16,424.338 Minnesota..
554,397 then, we transport one hundred million bush
27,579,030 els of grain per annum, which, in a few years,
Total................$60,013,724 $64,017,308 $81,695,674 will be but half the actual amount transported
Or a fraction less than one sixth. from the Northwest. There you have $10,The total value of crops for 1864 is estimated by
"Excluding gold, silver, and bullion, which are 000,000 saved to the producer, and $10,000,000 || Interior to have been............. the Agricultural Bureau of the Department of the
hardly analogous to other products, and the entire $1,564,543,690
exports of domestic products of the United States saved to the consumer. As the honorable gen- of this sum
amounted in 1860-61 to $217,666,953: in 1861-62 to
$190,699,387; and in 1862-63 to $260,666, 110. tleman from Connecticut [Mr. BRANDEGEE] Illinois produced......... $214,488,426
"The average exports of the country for the three remarked, "the effect will be to make a loaf of Wisconsin..
years was $222,874,183 33, and the average exports bread in Connecticut twice as large and cost
which these five States contributed in wheat, corn, Iowa...
and pork alone, was $68,575,568 66, or very nearly one but half as much as at present,'' not that the Minnesota....
third." hundred million bushels will all go through
403,692,474 this canal; but the construction of this work Or more than one fourth of the value of the entire
Thus it will be seen what the West has done crops of the country. But these estimates of value will have the effect to reduce freight on rail
in her giant strides within the past few years, are the estimated value of the various products in the roads and other lines of transportation to that States where produced. In this way the value of
and he who is possessed of a brilliant, volatile extent if not more. By this means we shall
articles in the above States appears to a great disad- imagination may have some conception of what enhance the value of western and eastern
vantage, because being so far from market, they are the capacity, the power, and the glory of this
rated much less than the same articles in other States, industry more than twenty million dollars per especially those near the sea-board. The same is true
country will be a quarter of a century hence. a sum exceeding more than three times annum, of the estimated value of the live stock, which, on
We are apt to think too much of the present the 1st of January, 1865, was....
$990,879,128 the amount proposed to be loaned by this bill,
and not enough of the future. We legislate
Of this in the shape of Government bonds, for the
too much for the present and not enough with Illinois had..
reference to the future. The wisest and most building of this great national work.
44,131,766 Sir, I have here statistical tables showing | Lowa.....
far-seeing man of twenty-five years ago did not the immense advantages of this work, espe
even dream of the realities of the present day; Minnesota...
and then shall this country a quarter of a cencially to the agricultural interest of the West
273,363,730 and to the whole country generally. Why, Or more than one fourth. A juster standard by which
tury hence say the same of us with reference sir, Illinois, during the last year, notwithstand- to measure the productiveness of these States would
to our present legislation? Let us try to coming she furnished a quarter of a million men
be a comparison of the amount of their respective prehend the vast resources of the country and
products, since the value is so largely affected by the for the Army for the preservation of the Re
the power of its people under favorable cirdistance from market. public, raised one hundred and seventy-seven "The great staples of agriculture are wheat, corn,
cumstances, to build up a republic which shall million bushels of corn. That noble State
beef, and pork. Comparing theso, we find that the be the controlling Power of the world in an
total number of bushels of wheat produced in all tho raises one fourth of the entire corn product of States and Territories in 1864 (except the cotton
agricultural, manufacturing, and mechanical the United States, one fifth of the wheat, and States, whose production was almost nominal, prob
point of view. We have the richest lands and one seventh of the oats, and sends to the New
ably not more than one sixth of what it was in 1860) the richest mines, the mightiest rivers and the York market more beef cattle than all the other
.. 160,695,823 | greatest lakes on the face of the earth, and if Illinois produced.
..33,371,173 States together.
we but make a proper use of the mighty and But I will draw no invidious comparisons
inexhaustible means in our hands, we will be one Iowa....
...12,649,807 between Illinois and the other northwestern
day, and that not far distant, the greatest, Minnesota..
... 2,634,975 States. In proportion to their population and
wealthiest, most intelligent, and happiest peo
66,105,786 arable lands they do equally as well. Or a fraction less than one half.
ple that ever existed. I will now give the House some statistics The total number of bushels of corn produced
Now, the State of Illinois alone numbers which will be instructive in estimating, the
.530,451,403 2,250,000 people, and the group of States Illinois produced..
.138,356,135 importance of this work, and which will be
known as the northwestern States more than Missouri
36,635,011 of interest to the whole country. I read now Wisconsin
10,000,000 people. Forty years ago they all from the report of Hon. W. J. McAlpine, late
did not contain more than 1,000,000 souls. Minnesota .............
4,647,329 State engineer of the State of New York, in
Then Chicago was known as an Indian trading
244,986,768 his report to the Legislature of that State in Or nearly one half.
post; now it contains a population of nearly a the year 1855. These are conceded to be reliable
The whole number of cattle and oxen, January 1,
quarter of a million, and is the greatest grain, data :
..7,072,591 || lumber, and pork market on the globe. Why, Cost of transportation per ton per mile is: Mills.
sir, since that day a republican empire has On the Ocean, long voyage........................... 14
sprung into existence, which contains within
.388,760 Lakes, long
itself more elements of strength and greatness
3 to 4
than any empire in the Old World, with perHudson river.
21 Mississippi and St. Lawrence..
2,526,979 || haps the single exception of the Russian 3
Or more than one third.
empire. We have already astonished the Ordinary canals......
world, and if we continue to increase in the Railroads (ordinary grades)....... ..12 to 13. Missouri...
present ratio of prosperity, we will not only Now, the distance by the lake from Chicago to
astonish but amaze the world. Who can Buffalo is one thousand miles; and the actual cost
1,423,567 of transporting a ton of freight, according to the
with certainty predict the future greatness and estimate of Mr. McAlpine, is two mills per ton per
4,896,506 | glory of the Republic, when it is ascertained mile, orOr more than one third.
with mathematical accuracy that according to For a ton of freight from Chicago to Buffalo.... $2 00
The entire population of the United States in 1860 The distance from Buffalo to Troy, is 345 miles,
the present ratio of increase of the population
31,443,322 wbieb, at four mills per ton per mile, makes Illinois contrined.
of the United States, in 1870 we will number
..1,711,951 the cost of transporting a ton from Buf
42,000,000 people; in 1880, 56,000,000; in falo to Troy..
..1,182,012 Add canal tolls, at three mills per one thou
1890, 77,000,000; and in the year 1900, 100,Minnesota...
172,123 sand pounds. per mile......
000,000. Cost of transportation per ton, on the Hudson, at two and a half mills per mile..........
Sir, if the country is not cramped by the 37.5
4,516,880 Or about one seventh.
beggarly, parsimony of narrow-minded and Making the whole cost, including canal tolls,
“Thus it will be seen that these five States, possess- short-sighted men, it is safe to assume that the of transporting a ton of wheat or flour from
ing only one seventh of all the population and one increase of her agricultural and mechanical Chicago to New York, via Buffalo and the sixth of all the improved land, nevertheless in 1864 Erie canal....... $5 82.5 produced more than one fourth in value of the en
products will increase in the same ratio as her tiro crop, more than one fourth in value of all the Il population. How totally inadequate, then, will