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As the Senator from Minnesota has observed, then, further, whether provision is made in of Engineers of the Army, to examine and report at we liave two bridges now across the Mississippi this bill to secure the building of the piers so the present session of Congress, if practicable, and if river connecting the State of Iowa with the as to meet that contingency.
not, before the next session of Congress, upon the
subject of the construction of railroad bridges across State of Ilinois. There has been complaint, Mr. GRIMES. The current does change the Mississippi river at such localities and upon such and constant complaint, about one of those sometimes during the season of floods in the
plans of construction as will offer the least impeaibridges ever since it was erected, not because spring, but any company that owns a bridge
ment to the navigation of the river; and that the
sum of $10,000, or so much thereof as may be necesthey do not open the draw in ample time will see to it that the piers are so arranged that sary, be, and the same is hereby, appropriated, out whenever a steamboat presents itself and de- the current will run through their draw. I of any money in the Treasury not otherwiso appromands passage, but because they were unfor- have had a little experience in this question priated, to defray the expenses of said commission." tunate in placing the piers at the time of its of currents myself. Sometimes the river threat
should very much prefer, before very many original construction so that they do not stand ens to leave a town on the banks; it becomes bridges are authorized, that this commission parallel with the current. Now, this bill spe, necessary, therefore, for the corporate author
should be sent out to view the river, and furcifically requires that in the bridges authorized ities or individuals to throw in obstructions nish us the best information on the subject. to be erected under it this necessary point shall above, so as to cause a set of the current to
Mr. HENDERSON. I desire to offer an be provided for. run by the landing or levee of the village where
amendment to the amendment of the Senator Then another trouble with Rock Island it was originally, and which it has threatened from Iowa, as an additional section : bridge, where this difficulty has been, is that it to leave. They had a very good illustration And be it further enacted, That a bridge may be conis situated right at the foot of the rapids, where of that in the city of St. Louis. St. Louis, a
structed at the town of Hannibal, in the State of Mis
souri, so as to councet the Hannibal and St. Joseph the current which comes over the rapids for ten few years ago, was threatened to be left entirely | railroad with the Piko County and Great Western miles above is much more rapid than at any away from the river; but by the expenditure || railroads of Illinois, on the same terms, and subject other point in the Mississippi river from St. of some thousands of dollars, I do not know
to the same restrictions, as contained in this act for
the construction of the bridge at Quincy, Illinois. Anthony to New Orleans, except at another how many, by putting in obstructions, stoprapids known as the Des Moines rapids. Those || ping the flow of the current on the Illinois
Mr. TRUMBULL. That amendment does conditions do not exist anywhere else on the side, they caused the current to flow back,
not provide who is to construct the bridge; it river, and no bridge built exactly upon the plan along down on the Missouri side, so as to make
does not authorize any particular parties to of the Rock Island bridge would present there- their landing a great deal better than it was
construct the bridge. It says that a bridge fore the same impediments that the Rock Island before the river threatened to leave them. The
may be built there. Do you mean to authorize bridge does. But the bill which has come from railroad company will see to it that the chan
the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Comthe Committee on Post Oflices and Post Roads nel is through their draw.
pany to build it?
Mr. HENDERSON. No. requires that the draw through which boats Mr. RAMSEY. I have here the opinion of
Mr. TRUMBULL. Who is to build it? will be compelled to pass shall be much larger || Captain Blakely, a gentleman of long experithan the draw at Rock Island, I think if I ence in the navigation of the Mississippi river,
Mr. HENDERSON. The amendment says remember aright the draw at the Rock Island who gives this as his opinion:
that it may be built under the same terms and bridge is one hundred and twelve feet.
subject to the same restrictions as the bridge “The draw, if one is built, should be made as wide Mr. RAMSEY. One hundred and twelve as is practicable to build and have it answer a good
at Quincy; that is, it is to be built by a coin: and one hundred and seventeen feet.
purpose for the railroad, say no less than one hun- pany appointed by the two States of Missouri Mr. GRIMES. Under the bill which is now
dred and fifty feet in the clear between the center and Illinois. It is to be done by an independ.
pier and the pier on which the end of the draw rests before us, the draw will be one hundred and when closed, and if found practicable, no less than ent company; it cannot be built by the railroad seventy-five feet.
one hundred and seventy-five feet in tho clear." company. Mr. RAMSEY. Not one hundred and sev. Captain W. F. Davidson, who has been a The amendment to the amendment was enty-five feet in the clear; about one hundred | long and successful navigator on the upper Mis- | agreed to, and the amendment as amended and fifty or probably a few feet more. sissippi, says:
was agreed to. Mr. TRUMBULL. That had better be lim- “I think section two of the bill
Mr. HENDERSON. I move to amend the ited so as to make it clear.
Alluding to one of the railroad bridge bills
second section of the bill by striking out, in Mr. GRIMES. The only objection I had sent to him
lines thirty-eight and thirty-nine, the words, when I read the bill was that it seemed to me that the Committee on Post Offices and Post "should be amended by forcing the company to build
" whose construction shall not be such as to a draw"
admit of their passage under the permanent Roads were requiring rather too much when
considering that less obstructive than a bridge span of said bridge ;" so as to make the prothey required a draw of one hundred and sey- with continuous spans.
viso read: enty-five feet, because the difficulty at the Clin
But, Mr. President, we did not feel at lib. And provided also, That said draw shall be opened ton bridge and the Rock Island bridge has erty to report against the allowance of bridges,
promptly upon reasonable signal for the passage of never been in consequence of the width of the
boats, except when trains are passing over the same; and in many respects thought it advantageous but in no caso shall unnecessary delay occur in opendraw, but in consequence of the flow of the
to seize this opportunity of regulating them. ing the said draws after tho passage of trains. current occasioned by setting the piers improp
I would, however, at the same time, desire that erly at the time the bridge was constructed.
Mr. TRUMBULL. I do not see why these Now, what will be the effect of the passage
Congress should create a commission, author. words should be struck out. The Senator from
ize the President or Secretary of War to send of this bill if we adopt it? The Chicago, Bur
Minnesota has charge of the bill, and I call his a commission to survey the whole river, and lington, and Quincy Railroad Company are
attention to the proposed amendment. decide, at least as to the future, what should already about to build a bridge at the place || be the character of the bridges there. The
Mr. RAMSEY. Why should the bridge where I live. They have the authority from
company be required to open the draw when the State of Illinois to do it, and they have the probability is that before the close of the next
there is no occasion for it? Why open the authority of the State of Iowa to do it. They | anthorize a dozen of these bridges. The thingmanent spans?
session of Congress you will be compelled to draw for a vessel that can pass under the perwill not put in as wide a draw as is required will get to be serious when they come to be so by this statute unless this statute is passed.
Mr. HENDERSON. I will state my reason Your passing the statute, therefore, facilitates
numerous as that. I think we have guarded || for offering this amendment in a very few words. the commerce of the river, by compelling them this bill as well as, with the light before is, it
The proviso now requires that the to put in such a draw as the navigation of the was possible for us to do; and yet I should like
Draw shall be opened promptly upon reasonable Mississippi river requires; so that in every
when this extensive building of bridges on the signal for the passage of hoats whose construction
Mississippi river is entered upon, to have the shall not be such as to admit of their passage under point of view it seems to me it would be advis
the permanent spans of said bridge, except when able if this bill should pass; and living on the opinion of a board of scientific engineers; and
trains are passing over the same. river as I do, and interested in the navigation joint resolution, which was referred to the with that view, some days since I introduced a
It strikes me that if these draw-bridges be am, a navigation which has been the buildCommittee on Commerce, but they have not
built there will be controversy between the boating up of my town, I am perfectly free to declare that I believe the interests of the river comseen fit to return it yet with a report. I feel
men and bridge owners in regard to the necesmerce as well as the interests of the internal
reluctant to vote for any other bridge than the sity of opening the draws. At certain stages commerce of the State that wants to find its one reported by the Post Office Committee in
of water on the sides of the draws a certain way eastward over the varions railroads that this bill, simply because it is but one; though
class of boats may pass under the permanent I have no particular objection to any other ex
There will be permanent spans on connect them, across the Mississippi river with the country east of them, to the eastern States,
cept as to the number; but I hope that when either side; the bill requires them. A small this bill passes we shall authorize a commission
boat comes along that is not more than thirty require that authority should be granted to
to be sent to survey the river and determine or forty feet high, or, perhaps, a boat that is companies to bridge the Mississippi river. I
not more than twenty feet, or ten feet, if you and settle the essential points to be guarded in do not think there is the slightest incompatibility between the navigation of the Mississippi
the construction of these bridges; how, where please. It wants to pass through the draw, at the same time the railroads may be accom
and the owners of the bridge declare that there river and the commercial interests of the rail. roads, provided a bill shall be passed properly is of great importance, not only to us, but to modated, the navigation shall be preserved. It
is no necessity for opening the draw; that the
boat may very well pass beneath the permaguarded, as I believe the bill now under the
Who is to settle the controversy consideration of the Senate is.
the whole country, that this should be done. Mr. DOOLITTLE. I should like to ask My resolution, to which I have referred, and
between the boatman and the owners of the my friend from Iowa whether, from his knowl
which was introduced some days ago, was in bridge as to whether, upon proper signal, the edge of the river, the current where the boats this language:
draw shall be opened or not? If boats can pass does not change from time to time, and
"That the Secretary of War be directed to appoint
pass under the span they will give no sig. a commission, to consist of three oflicers of the corps ll nal; if they cannot, they will give the signal;
and why should not the bridge owners open Mr. TRUMBULL, I believe that is about all about it. I am not aware of any legislation of the draw when the signal is given?
there is init. The States of Missouri and Illinois | Congress making a particular ferry company or Mr. TRUMBULL. The bridge company have at this point authorized a ferry. Nearly its boats a post route. This is the first legiswould certainly act at their peril. The boats all the ferries over the Mississippi, and I do not lation of that character I ever heard of, and are not to be constructed with that view. The know but all of them, are authorized by the I have been on the Post Office Committee for provision is that said draw shall be opened | joint acts of the Legislatures of the different some years. It is common to declare the line of promptly upon reasonable signal for the pas- States bordering upon the river. The object road between two certain States a postal route; sage of boats whose construction shall not be of this section is to make this ferry a post road. but I am not aware of any such provision as such as to admit of their passage under the || I suppose all roads of this kind, all the great this existing in any law of Congress. I have permanent spans of said bridge."
highways of the country ought to be post roads. never seen anything of the sort. From Quincy Mr. HENDERSON. Who is to determine We say every session in a post-route bill that to Palmyra, and from Palmyra on to St. Jo. is the question as to whether the construction of such and such roads, leading so and so, from now a post route, and it can do no harm to the boats is such that they may pass ?
one place to another, are declared to be post strike out this section. The Senator of course Mr. TRUMBULL. Certainly the bridge roads ; and I do not imagine there can be any
does not wish to vest this ferry company with company would act at their peril. If they did | objection
to this ferry being made a post road. any peculiar or special privileges. I protest not open the draw, and the construction of the Mr. HENDERSON. I suppose there is no that I know nothing in respect to this comboat was such that any damage was done, they | objection, then, to letting the section be stricken pany; but I think it is bad legislation to comwould clearly be responsible.
out. I do not like this way of Congress legis- mence on the part of Congress to select any Mr. HENDERSON. I suppose the only | lating advantages to a particular ferry company particular ferry company, and to declare that remedy the boatman would have if the draw across the Mississippi river. I do not see any that company as now established shall be a was not opened and he was forced to under- necessity for it. I do not know anything about postal route, because it may bring up a conflict take a passage between the piers of the bridge, this ferry company at Quincy; I do not know an with the laws of the respective States. The under the permanent spans, would be to sue individual connected with st; but the State of Senator will readily see that it may do so. The the bridge company.
Then I suppose the Missouri and the State of Illinois might desire 1 section can have no beneficial effect as it now long, the everlasting controversy which has to charter another ferry company across the stands, and therefore I ask that it be stricken been had in regard to the Rock Island bridge, | Mississippi river, and I think that this section out, if the Senator has no objection. as to whether it is an obstruction or not, would | would affect that ferry, if it were authorized, Mr. TRUMBULL. I do not see that it can be renewed for trial in the courts; or there | perhaps injuriously.
have any injurious effect. When I expressed would be a similar controversy, whether the Mr. TRUMBULL. How? This is not surprise at the amendment, the Senator rather particular boat could pass through or not. exclusive.
rebuked me for that; but I really do not see Mr. RAMSEY. If you allow bridges with Mr. HENDERSON. Suppose the company
how the section can have such an effect as the the draw at all, it is in the interest of the pub- named in the section do not discharge the duties Senator supposes. What is a ferry? What do lic that they should be taxed as little as pos. || enjoined upon them by the act of incorporation the law-books call a ferry? It is a highway, sible; that is, that they should not be required from the Legislatures of Missouri and Illinois, nothing else. A ferry is just as much a highto open the draw on any unnecessary occasion. but they claim the right to take the mail across; way as a turnpike road ; and I can see why Of course, a boat that cannot pass the per- that this is a postal route, and they claim the there might be a necessity for a ferry being a manent spans must pass through in this way; || right to continue their ferry, under this act of post route. You cannot compel the mails to but it is desirable that the draw should be | Congress, notwithstanding their violation of the be taken across the river. I am not aware of opened as little as possible and on no unneces- laws of the State of Missouri and of the State any law that makes a ferry across the river à sary occasion.
of Illinois. What effect would this act then post route. If there is such a law, I am not Mr. HENDERSON. I do not profess to have, I will inquire of the Senator from Illi- aware of it. The Senato: says there is a law know a great deal about these subjects; but it nois? I suppose that the charter may be for. already in existence making a post route from strikes me that the words which I have moved
feited by their failure to comply with the terms Quincy to Palmyra and to Hannibal. to strikeout ought not to be in the law. I do not and conditions upon which it was granted, and Mr. HENDERSON. How would the mails want a controversy between the bridge owners the States respectively might desire to incorpor- be carried, otherwise, across the river? and the steamboat men in regard to this mat- ate another company that would behave better Mr. TRUMBULL. I do not know whether ter. I do not suppose that a steamboat man in the future. Then what effect would this sec- there is a provision of that kind; there may will give a signal unless he wants the draw to tion have? I presume no other ferry company be; that would embrace this very line of road. be opened. I apprehend that if he can pass would be authorized to take the mails across; I do not know who compose this ferry comunder the permanent spans he would not re- and the effect of this provision-I do not sup- pany; the Senator is as well informed in relerquire the draw to be opened, he would scarcely | pose it is intended in that way-would be to ence to that as I am ; but here is a ferry already put the bridge owners to that trouble. As the override the State laws and to make this a authorized by the two States of Minois and bill now stands it will leave the bridge owners postal route, notwithstanding the effort on the Missouri. If it is not, the section would not to open the draw or not just as they choose. I part of the Legislatures of Illinois and Missouri amount to anything. The bill recites the fact Of course it will be at their peril, but only sub- to establish another ferry. I ask the Senator that there is such a ferry authorized there. ject to a suit; that is all at last. I suppose if that would not be the effect, or whether it Now, what possible objection can there be to damages might be recovered, provided the could have any other effect.
making that ferry, until the bridge shall be steamboat man could show that his boat was Mr. TRUMBULL. I am surprised at the completed, a post route? I see nothing exof such construction as to reqpire that the inquiry of the Senator from Missouri
clusive in it. It seems to me it is perfectly draw should be opened, but look to the field Mr. HENDERSON. I know you are al- proper that there should be a ferry there to there will be for the admission of testimony on ways surprised.
transport the mails, and that it should be a both sides. It may be said by competent Mr. TRUMBULL. Perhaps I do not un- post ronte. How that will interfere with any steamboat men that if the pilot had under- derstand it, but surely I am surprised at the other company I cannot conceive. stood his duty he might have passed under the inquiry. I cannot conceive how this can inter- Mr. GRIMES. I do not know any reason permanent spans without injury to his boat fere with any other company. I am not for it why this section is inserted here; and unless notwithstanding his hoat has been destroyed; if it can have any such effect. If it is to be an there is some explanation of it given I shall that the construction of that particular boat exclusive right to establish ferries on the part vote to strike it out. I can imagine this case: was such as to have admitted it to pass under of Illinois and Missouri at this or any other suppose there has been an old ferry company the permanent spans. I think it is better to point, I am opposed to all such legislation. I at Quincy, and the mails are transported by have this provision out.
do not understand it in any such way. How that old company, The amendment was rejected.
it could possibly have such an effect I do not Mr. TRUMBULL. I asked the question, Mr. HENDERSON. I will inquire of the know.
if there was such a company; gentleman reporting this bill, what is the mean- Mr. HENDERSON, I expressly excepted Mr. GRIMES. I do not know; but unless ing of the fourth section? What is the necesit from the intention of the Senator.
we have some further knowledge on this subsity for it?
Mr. TRUMBULL. How the section can ject I think we ought to strike this section out. Mr. RAMSEY. We accepted the fourth 1 give any exclusive privileges I am at a loss to | If the parties interested have not seen fit to section as we found it in the bill as referred to conceive. But the Senator is aware that in enlighten anybody so that we can obtain inforus. It reads as follows:
order to take the mail over any of the common mation on the subject the section ought not to Sec. 4. And be it further enacted. That the ferry roads of the country, we make them post roads. be here. Suppose, I say, there had been an old authorized to be established by the Illinois and Mis- We provide, for instance, " that the road from company established there that carried the souri Transportation Company, by the laws of the States of Illinois and Missouri, rcross the Mississippi
Hannibal to Palmyra, in Missouri, is hereby mail, and other parties have gone recently and river at the city of Quincy, shall, during the time so declared to be a post route."
secured a charter from Illinois and Missouri authorized by the laws of the States aforesaid, and Mr. HENDERSON. That is now a post for a new ferry company, to be called the Illiuntil the completion of said bridge, under and ac
route; the route itself is a post route. cording to the provisions of this act, bo and the same
nois and Missouri Transportation Company, is hereby declared, recognized, and known as a post
what is the necessity for this provision? may they not now seek, perhaps, by this section route.
Mr. TRUMBULL. But there is no post
to declare that that company, and that oniyI understand it only refers to a transit across route, I suppose, from Quincy across the river. Mr. TRUMBULL. Not that only. the river at that point now.
We found it as a Mr. HENDERSON. Yes, sir, there is; it Mr. GRIMES. Well, that that shall be the section in the bill referred to us, and as we is now a post ronte. knew of no reason why it should be stricken Mr. TRUMBULL. I was not aware of it. Mr. TRUMBULL. A post route. out we allowed it to remain in the bill.
Mr. HENDERSON. There is no doubt Mr. GRIMES. Well, a post route ; that that
It is an
shall be declared, recognized, and known as a intend to argue it. I argued the question a priation bill, I move, in the fourteenth and post route. They may then set up a claim that day or two ago. It is in reference to draw- fifteenth lines of the second section, after the the mail shall not be transported by any other | bridges or continuous-span bridges. I desire | word "act,”: to strike out all down to the word company.
to make a motion in that regard, as my con- “bridge'' in the eighteenth line. The clause MP. TRUMBULL. Oh, no.
stituents in Missouri have requested of me to now reads in this way: Mr. GRIMES. I do not know but that they
I do not see fit to read the documents
That any hridge built under the provisions of this could do it under this section.
that I have received on the subject from vari- act may, at the option of the company building the Mr. HENDERSON. They can do it after ous towns on the Mississippi river, and from
same, be built as a drair-bridge, with a pivot, or
other form of draw, or wit, unbroken or continuous the passage of this act. individuals, engineers and others, and steam
spans: Provided. That if the said bridge shall be Mr. GRIMES. Unless some satisfactory | boat men on this subject, as I do not wish to made with unbroken and continuous spans it shall explanation can be given why this section is occupy the time of the Senate. Suffice it to not be of less elevation, &c. here, I think the Senator from Illinois ought I say that I have been requested by a very large If my motion should be adopted it will read not to ask us to adopt it.
number of individuals, commercial bodies, &c., || thus: Mr. TRUMBULL. I do not for the life of in
State to resist the construction upon the That any bridge built under the provisiong of me see how the making of a ferry a post route Mississippi river of any bridges except contin- this act shall be made with unbroken and continuous
spans, and it shall not be of less elevation, &c. is any more dangerous than making a bridge uous-span bridges. a post route. That is the very object of the It is the opinion of some Senators here that That will strike out that portion of the secbill. All these bridges are declared to be post || draw-bridges can be constructed so as to be of tion which leaves it discretionary with the comroutes when built. Does anybody suppose that less obstruction to navigation than continuous pany organized under this bill to build drawthe declaring of these bridges post routes, as span bridges. The Senate will remember that bridges, and it simply brings up the question this bill does
two years ago we authorized the building of a as to whether draw-bridges shall be built on the Mr. HENDERSON. This is not a bridge. bridge at Steubenville. The late lamented Mississippi river or not. That is the plain,
Mr. TRUMBULL. I am speaking of the Senator from Vermont (Judge Collamer) was naked question. If my proposition should be bridges. Does anybody suppose that the at that time chairman of the Committee on adopted it disposes of the draw-bridges, and declaring them post routes gives these par. Post Offices and Post Roads. He reported a all bridges built must be built with continuous ticular bridge companies an exclusive right, || bill for the building of that bridge at Steuben- spans. and prevents other bridges from being built? ville, the fourth section of which provided for Mr. TRUMBULL. I presume that amendIf I supposed so, I would not vote for the bill. the construction of any bridges on the Ohio ment is not now in order. It is an amendment How does a ferry differ from a bridge? If it river, and required that the continuous spans, to an amendment of the committee which, I is proper to have a post route, I ask the Sen- if the bridges were built with continuous spans,
understand, has been agreed to. ator from Missouri why it is not proper that a should be three hundred feet in length. Í The PRESIDING OFFICER. ferry should be a post route until the bridge is remember that when the late Senator from amendment to an amendment already agreed built. That is the provision here. I do not Vermont reported the bill, he stated that if to, striking out and inserting, and will not be in wish to take up time about it. I
individuals wanted to construct such bridges | order until the bill is reported to the Senate. the parties who prepared the bill—it was not they might attempt it, but his belief was that
Mr. HENDERSON. I was not aware that prepared by me-and who contemplate build- no such bridge could be built; that it was an that amendment of the committee had been ing this bridge, wanted to use their ferry until utter impossibility. I learn from the Senator agreed to. I will wait until the bill is reported they got the bridge constructed ; and that is from Ohio [Mr. SHERMAN) that a bridge has to the Senate, and will then offer the amend. the provision here. I do not suppose it is been constructed at Steubenville ninety feet ment. intended, and I do not see how it can inter- high, and with a continuous span of three hun- The bill was reported to the Senate as fere with any other company. dred feet, and that it is operating well; that
amended. Mr. HENDERSON. 'Let me ask the Sen- the railroads are using it, and drawing across
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question ator, as a lawyer, if this provision shall be it the largest freight trains; that there is no now is on concurring in the amendments made adopted can any other ferry company at Quincy difficulty whatever. It is true the bridge cost as in Committee of the Whole. take the mails of the United States across from a good deal of money, about $900,000; but it
Mr. TRUMBULL. I desire to alter one of Quincy opposite to Westminster?
is said to be one of the most substantial and those amendment, and I suppose that this is the Mr. TRUMBULL. Certainly it can if it permanent structures ever built in this country; proper time to do it, before we concur in it. is a post ronte. it is a piece of bridge architecture perfectly
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The better Mr. HENDERSON. But it will not be a wonderful in itself.
course will be to have the amendments on which post route without the legislation of Congress. Inasmuch as it has been demonstrated by a separate vote is required by any Senator The Senator says that he did not draw the bill. the construction of that bridge that the views | excepted, and to take the question on concurI am very well aware of that, and I suppose and opinions of individuals a few years ago ring in all the other amendments to which there the Senator, like myself, knows nothing about were not correct, and that a bridge of that is no objection. this ferry company; but I do not wish any par character can be constructed, I think it would
-Mr. TRUMBULL. I desire to alter one of ticular ferry company now established by the
be better to adopt the continuous-span project | the amendments of the committee in order to laws of Missouri and Illinois to be legalized on the Mississippi river. My impression is, carry out the purpose of the gentleman who into being as the only post route at that town that it is of less obstruction to the river than has charge of the bill. It is in the twenty-eighth until this bridge shall be built. It may be draw-bridges. At least, that is the view of all and twenty-ninth lines of the amendment to forty or fifty years before the bridge is built, who have written to me on the subject. In all the second section. The clause now reads : and other ferry companies may be incorpo- the communications that I have received since
And with spans of not less than one hundred and rated by Illinois and Missouri. Why is it that this subject was introduced here, and since my seventy-five feet in length on each side of the centhis company shall be constituted the only post colleague introduced a proposition to bridge
tral or pivot pier of the draw. route at that point?
the Mississippi river at St. Louis, I have not The Senator from Minnesota means that from Mr. TRUMBULL. I have tried to explain || received one that did not express a preference the center of the pivot; but the Senator from to the Senator that it is not so to be declared. for a continuous-span bridge. It is not im- Wisconsin [Mr. Howe) thinks it is not suscepI do not know that there is any especial im- || practicable anywhere. I know it was said in tible of that construction. The intention is to portance in the section, and I do not wish to 1862, when the bill for the Steubenville bridge have an opening of at least one hundred and have any controversy about it; but for the life was passed, that it was perfectly impracticable fifty feet in the clear. I therefore move to of me I cannot see why the Senator will per- anywhere. There are always any number of amend that amendment in the twenty-ninth line sist that this is the only post route. If there arguments to be adduced as to the impossi- by striking out the words "seventy-five" and is no post route there, ought there not to be | bility of a project. A bridge constructer re- inserting " fifty," and after the word "length" one? I have no more to say about it.
marked the other day, I think very forcibly inserting the words “in the clear;" so that nothing about it. I have no interest in it one and aptly, that there was no impossibility with
it will read : way or the other, further than to authorize these the American people; that he had ceased And with spans of not less than one hundred and great lines of travel to accommodate themselves to suppose that there was any impossibil- fifty feet in length in the clear on each side of the to each other. I think the time has come ity. When the Senator talks about the im
central or pivot pier of the draw. when we have got to have bridges.
possibility of a construction of this character, That is what the Senator from Minnesota Mr. SHERMAN. I think it is possible that I think he misses the mark. I am not dis- intends it shall be; but I think in the way this bill will occupy all day if we proceed with || posed to think that the inventive genius of the it stands now there might be a controversy it, and therefore I think we had better take up American people will now fail them. Four about it. the Post Office appropriation bill:
years ago we thought it was an utter impossi- Mr. RAMSEY. I should very much prefer Mr. TRUMBULL. I have nothing further | bility to build a bridge across the Ohio river if the opening between the piers on either side to say about it. Let the Senate dispose of it with a span of three hundred feet, but the thing of the pivot pier was two hundred feet. as they think proper. has been done. Everybody says now that it Mr. TRUMBULL. But that is not what
you The PRESIDING OFFICER, (Mr. ANTHONY is a perfect success.
There is no objection to meant. in the chair.) The Senator from Missouri building such a bridge across the Mississippi Mr. RAMSEY. One hundred and fifty feet moves to amend the bill by striking out the river. It can be constructed without any doubt. is the least that I would assent to. The advanfourth section.
But in order to test that one question, with- tage would be very little in favor of that here. The amendment was agreed to.
out making any extended argument on the sub- From the center pier would be about twenty Mr. HENDERSON. There is one vote that || ject, because i know the Senator from Ohio feet. The other piers, at least they are so at I feel I onght to have on this bill. I do not is very anxious to get up the Post Office appro- the top, where the superstructure rests upon very much.
the pier at Rock Island, are about eight feet. be that in the clear. They were to be one struction; and that might be done on the MisNow you subtract about one half of each of hundred and fifty feet. I understood that the sissippi river; but gentlemen say no, they must those end piers and the whole of the center parties in interest were willing to accept this have bridges. A bill is introduced here for pier, and you do not have much above one modification, and the bill was so reported. We the purpose of constructing them, and, as I hundred and fifty feet. I should prefer having were aware that by this phraseology we would understood, with spans of one hundred and the advantage of one foot, and if the bridge gain a few feet in the opening, which was de- seventy-five feet. I was opposed to drawcan be built with that span, I should prefer it sirable. Of course if the Senate determine | bridges entirely; I wanted spans of three hun
that it shall not exceed one hundred and fifty || dred feet; but gentlemen insist on pivot bridges, The PRESIDING OFFICER. The amend- feet, the amendment will be agreeable to them. and as I supposed, with spans of one hundred ment that Senators are discussing is not now Mr. HENDERSON. I stated a day or two and seventy-five feet. I had a conversation before the Senate. The question will be taken ago that the navigation of this river was to be with the gentlemen engaged in the construcon concurring in the amendments made as in changed almost entirely in its character. My | tion of this bridge, and I told them that I Committee of the Whole, excepting the amend. | impression is that in the course of a year or desired the spans to be two hundred feet. They ment indicated by the Senator from Illinois, two the steamers that are now running upon said one hundred and seventy-five feet in the and the one indicated by the Senator from Mis- the river will be changed entirely to tug-boats clear was as much as they could stand, but souri.
and barges, and hence my desire is to have as they could construct a bridge with that span. Mr. HENDERSON. Both our amendments wide openings as we possibly can have, if || Now, it is deliberately proposed this morning, are to the same amendment.
bridges are to be constructed upon this river when we are about to pass the bill, to reduce The PRESIDING OFFICER.
at all. My recollection is that one of the draws that width to one hundred and fifty feet. tion will then be taken on concurring in the at Rock Island bridge is one hundred and I warn gentlemen who are just as much other amendments. seventeen feet.
interested in this subject as I
amn, that they are Mr. TRUMBULL. I desire also to except Mr. RAMSEY. They are one hundred and doing a thing this morning that they will regret the amendment offered by the Senator from seventeen and one hundred and twelve feet. in the future. I am sure of it. I see a dispoMissouri for the building of a bridge at Han- Mr. HENDERSON. In the clear?
sition to pass this bill, and why? Because of nibal.
Mr. RAMSEY. Yes, sir.
a desire to do what it is supposed will faciliThe PRESIDING OFFICER. That amend- Mr. HENDERSON. It may be said that it tate communication. We ought to adopt the ment will be excepted. The question is on con- is owing to the rapidity of the current there | glorious mean in this thing. I am willing to curring in the amendments made in Committee that so much property has been destroyed; but | give the railroad companies on the east side of the whole with the exception of those let me tell Senators, you cannot build a bridge of the river the facility of communication to indicated.
on the Mississippi river that that very same diffi- the western bank; but I desire that the Senate The remaining amendments were then con- culty will not come up, provided you do not in doing that shall not neglect the communicurred in.
have wider draws than are proposed here. In cation upon this great river itself. They should The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ques- very high water the currents change, and it is remember that they are interfering with that tion now is on concurring in the amendment to an utter impossibility to pass through. These navigation which is much better for the people the second section, which will be read.
piers will have to be very large.. If the boats | than any transportation they can get by railThe Secretary read the amendment, which have a large number of barges, or the boats road. was after the enacting clause of the second are very wide, or the number of boats that are Mr. GRIMES. But that takes the transsection, to strike out the following words: to be taken through occupy a large quantity | portation in the wrong direction.
That any bridge built under the authority of this of room on the river, it will be an utter impos- Mr. HENDERSON. It will not do to close act shall be constructed us a draw-bridge, with a span over the main channel of the river, as understood at
sibility to pass between the piers without striko || np the existing direction, if the people desire the time of the erection of the bridge, of not less
ing them and destroying a part of the cargo. so to send the products of their farms. I know than three hundred fcet in length; and said span shall It has been and is now exceedingly perilous that that is to have its influence; but if gennot be less than thirty feet above the low-water
and dangerous to life at times to pass through || tlemen desire to insist on the change of direcmark, and not less than ten feet above the extreme high-water mark, measuring to the bottom chord of
that one hundred and seventeen feet draw at tion and that the cargo shall go to the East, the bridge; and one of the next adjoining spans shall Rock Island.
and they feel disposed to close up a great river not be less than two hundred feet in length; and, I understood the Senator from Minnesota to also, that there shall be a pivot draw constructed in
like the Mississippi simply in order to change said bridge, at an accessible and navigable point,
say that a draw had been built in France with the direction, when that new direction costs at with spans of not less than one hundred and fifty feet an opening much larger than this. Is it
least four times as much, I will not make any in length on each side of the central or pivot pier of
sible, I submit to the Senate, to build a bridge || further complaint, but I do think that if a bridge the draw,
with a draw of one hundred and seventy-five And to insert in lieu thereof:
can be constructed with a span of one hundred feet? If so, there is no stream on God's earth and seventy-five feet it should be done. That any bridge built under the provisions of this act may, at the option of the company building the
that requires this width of draw more than the The Senator who has charge of this bill says same, be built as a draw-bridge, with a pivot or other Mississippi river. It is a great stream, and it it can be done; that much wider spans have form of draw, or with unbroken or continuous spans: is a rich country that lies upon it. We in the been built; it is possible to build them. Then Provided, That if the said bridge shall be made with unbroken and continuous spans, it shall not be of
West desire to preserve the navigation of that let American genius go to work and construct less elevation in any case than fifty feet above ex- river, and I think the Senator from Illinois such bridges here. It has been done in France; treme high-water mark as understood at the point of ought not to consent to any rule of construc- American workmen can do what French worklocation, to the bottom chord of the bridge, nor shall the spans of said bridge bo less than two hundred and
tion that will obstruct in the future the naviga- men can do. It has been done in England; fifty feet in length, and the piers of said bridge sball tion of this stream. He is as much interested in American workmen can do whatever English be parallel with the current of the river: And pro- it as I am. I know that he feels as deep an workmen can do. If it is required for the comdided, also, That if any bridge built under this act shall be constructed as a draw-bridge, the same shall
interest in it as I do; and so does the Senator merce of France, it is demanded for the com. be constructed as a pivot draw-bridge with a draw from Iowa. I do not put myself forward as merce of our great West. If it is demanded in over the main channel of the river at an accessible
the champion of the navigation of this river. any part of England for the commerce of Eng. and navigable point,
and with spans of not less than one hundred and seventy-five fect in length on each
I do not feel that I have any interest in it more land, it is as much demanded for the increasside of the central or pivot pier of the draw, and the than they have; but I do insist that now when ing and growing commerce of the people of the next adjoining spans to the draw shall not be less
we are laying the foundation of this system, United States. than two hundred and fifty feet; and said spans shall not be less than thirty feet above low-water mark,
because what we do here will be done for all There is no reason why as great advantages and not less than ten above extreme high-water time in the construction of bridges over that should not be given here as are given elsewhere. mark, nearing to the bottom chord of the bridge, and the piers of said bridge shall be parallel with the cur
great stream, every precaution should be taken If the railroad companies can construct such rent of the river.
to secure the navigation. It is a stream hav- || bridges, let them do it, and then you will have Mr. TRUMBULL. I now move to amend || ing twenty-five hundred miles of navigation, || the advantages of communication both by rail. the amendment in the twenty-ninth line, by ll the best stream for navigable purposes, per- road and by water. I sincerely hope this striking out the words "seventy-five" and in- haps, on the face of the earth, considering its amendment will not be adopted. serting "fifty;' and after the word "length" || length, and the country is just beginning to be The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ques. inserting "in the clear ;'' so that the clause developed, as it were. Take that immense tion is on the amendment of the Senator from will read:
country north of St. Louis and that must pour Illinois, (Mr. TRUMBULL.] And with spans of not less than one hundred and
in upon the surface of that stream immense Mr. RĂMSEY. I thought the amendment fifty fçet in length in the clear on each side of the quantities of the products of the earth, in time was withdrawn. What is it? central or pivot pier in the draw.
to come, and manufactures and everything that Mr. TRUMBULL. It is to strike out" one Mr. HENDERSON. I hope very much that can employ the industry of man. We all know hundred and seventy-five" and insert “one that amendment will not be adopted. I was that the transportation upon the surface of that hundred and fifty;'' and insert “in the clear” not disposed to submit, if I could prevent it, river will not cost the people one third of the after “ feet." It carries out precisely what to the construction of draw-bridges upon the cost of transportation by railroad lines. While was meant. Mississippi river at all. I have stated how sen- we are doing so much for the railroad compa- Mr. RAMSEY. The gain is so little to the sitive mynstituents feel on that subject. This nies, can we not do something also for the bridge company that I do not think it necesbill was clearly drawn with the idea that the continued full navigation of this great river. sary openings in the clear should be one hundred In the State of Missouri we have constructed Mr. TRUMBULL. It makes what is meant and seventy-five feet.
steamers that take the cars across the river at clear. Mr. TRUMBULL. No, that was not the St. Charles. No bridge has been built there, Mr. GRIMES. I am not at all astonished that understanding
but a train of cars is run upon the boat and the Senator from Missouri should be as tenacious Mr. RAMSEY. They were not expected to carried across immediately, without much oh- on this subject as he is, because he is representing, as he says, the sentiment of the State of Mis- that both of them were as much interested in the Senator from Illinois if he will pat it at one souri, the head and front of which is the city the navigation of this river as I could possibly hundred and sixts feet. St. Louis, that is anxious that the whole norih-i be; but the Senator seems to think that I made Mr. TRUMBULL. Well, I will agree to western country should be tributary exclusively some imputations on them, or that the effect that. to that particular city. Now, Mr. President, of what I said might have that bearing. I Mr. HENDERSON. Very well, Mr. Presit so happens that a portion of my constituents think not. I certainly did not intend my lan- ident who live in that Northwest of which the Sena- guage in that way, and I am perfectly sure that Mr. TRUMBULL. If iny friend from Mistor spoke, and for whom I profess to be able no such construction can be properly pnt upon souri will cease talking we can take a vote. I to speak as well as the Senator can speak, are it. He seems to think that, occupying the modify my amendment so as to make the pronot only anxious sometimes to go to St. Louis, position that I do, living in Missouri and look- || vision read: but they are anxious to have facilities for reach- || ing to my constituents there for sentiment upon And with openings of not less than one hundred ing the eastern cities; and they want, if they this subject, and the State of Missouri having
and sixty feet wide in the clear on each side of the possibly can, to be able to do so in the winter, the great city of St. Louis in it, of course it is
central or pivot pier of the draw. when the ice is running, when it is impossible not astonishing that I shonld take the ground
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The questo cross sometimes for weeks in succession I do. If the Senator thinks that I am adverse
tion is on the amendment of the Senator from without great risk of life; and they want an to the interest of any town in Iowa or any town
Illinois as thus modified. opportunity when they choose to send their in New England, he is very much mistaken.
The amendment was agreed to. freight and their live stock to the only market If he supposes that I would knowingly do any Mr. HENDERSON. I wish now to call the they have without breaking bulk at the Mis- act as a Senator here that should tend to build attention of the Senator from Illinois and the sissippi river.
up a town in my own State to the prejudice or Senator from Minnesota to the first portion of Now, sir, the Senator says that the propo- to the injury of another, when that act required the second section of the bill as it has been sition which comes from the Comınittee on Post
& wrong on my part, I can state to the Senator amended on the motion of the committee, and Offices and Post Roads ought not to be adopted, that I would be very far from doing any such I desire to suggest an amendment to it, to which because it does not give sufficient opportunity thing. It is true that I am a Senator from I hope they will consent. It now declares: for boats to pass.
Who is to judge of that? | Missouri ; I look to the interests of the people That any bridge built under the provisions of this Did not the gentleman representing the com- whom I represent; and none, I think, ever
act may, at the option of the company building the mittee read to us the opinion of three Army looked more closely to the interests of his own
same, be built as a draw-bridge, with a pivot or other
form of draw, or with unbroken or continuous spans: engineers detailed to go out and examine the constituents than the Senator from Iowa. I Provided, That if the said bridgeshall be made with Rock Island bridge? Did they not state spe- never blame the Senator for it. He has a per
unbroken and continuousspans, it shall not be of less cifically in that report the objections to the
elevation in any caso than fifty feet above extreme fect right to do so; and he ought not to blame
high-water mark as understood at the point of locaRock Island bridge, and that it was solely me for standing by the interests of the people tion to the bottom chord of the bridge, nor shall tho because the piers were not placed parallel with of Missouri.
spans of said bridge he less than two hundred and the current of the stream? Have not the com- Mr. GRIMES. I did not cast any censure
fifty feet in length, and the piers of said bridge shall
be parallel with the current of the river. mittee modified this bill so as to correspond on the Senator.
If these bridges are to be built as continuouswith the report which these engineer oslicers Mr. HENDERSON. The Senator from
span bridges, I think it ought to be inore spemade? Is not that the best information we Iowa is sadly mistaken, if he thinks I could be can obtain? As I understand it, this bill is
cifically stated how they shall be constructed. induced to step aside from my duty to the injury
I propose, therefore, in lieu of this language, predicated upon that report. It is brought in or expense of the people of any State of the
to make it read: here by a gentleman who is as much interested Union. I do not desire to do it, and I would
That if any bridge built under the provisions of in the navigation of the Mississippi rivor as any not do it. He says the Senator representing this act shall be constructed with continuous and man can possibly be who occupies a seat on the committee on this question his recom- unbroken spans, it shall not be less than fifty feet this floor. He is at the very head of the navi. mended this amendment. " I do not understand
above high-water mark as understood at the point of gation of the Mississippi river. His individual
its erection, measuring for such elevation from the that the Senator from Minnesota recommends
surface of the water and such high stage to the botinterests and the interests of his neighbors | any such thing. The bill as it now stands pro- ton chord of the bridge. The main span ofsuch bridge would probably be against the construction of vides that;
shall be made to cover the main channel of the river. any bridge anywhere on the Mississippi. He If any bridge built under this act shall be con
There is no such declaration in the bill now, has told us that his prejudices and preposses- structed as a draw-bridge, the same shall be con- but the bridge company may build the main sions were all in opposition to the construction
structed as a pivot draw-bridge with a draw over the span where they choose, are not compelled to
main channel of the river at an accessible and paviof any bridge. But yet even he, under these gable point, and with spans not less than one hun
build it over the main channel of the river: circumstances, after having thoroughly inves- dred and seventy-five feet in length on either side of And such span shall not be less than three huntigated the whole subject, after having read the the central or pivot-pier of the draw.
dred feet in length. report of these three Army engineers, recom- That, of course, is the length in the clear. I suppose this will have to be altered to two mends the Senate to pass this bill.
And the next adjoining spans to the draw shall not hundred and fifty feet if the Senators insist on Mr. President, I need not say that my col. be less than two hundred and fifty feet.
that width. league and myself, who live on the Mississippi If the Senator from Minnesota will say that Mr. RAMSEY. I do not insist on the spans river, and who represent several tolerably im
it is his intention to reduce the width of the being only two hundred and fifty feet, but I portant commercial towns, are deeply inter- spans to one hundred and listy feet, I will take have the opinion here of an engineer attached ested in the navigation of the river; and I
back what I have said in reference to my opin- to the War Department. He says: would not, and I am satisfied that he would ions as to the construction of the bill; but I "In regard to the question of the economy and not, do a single thing here or elsewhere that never doubted the construction of the bill. If practicability of truss bridgey for railroads, I have conld by any possibility obstruct the free navi- the Senator from Illinois will allow the bill to
the bonor to state that, in my judgment, spans of
two hundred and fifty feet in the clear aro as great gation of that river; and I am not disposed to pass as it stands, I am satistied with it; but he
as should be adopted for crossing navigable rivers." rest under the imputation which mnight be in- moves this amendment; and the Senator from They are the extent of spans over almost all ferred from the remarks of the Senator from Iowa says that the gentleman having charge the rivers with which we are familiar. The Missouri that we would obstruct the navigaof the bill on behalf of the committee insists
spans of the great bridge crossing the Susquetion. We are deeply interested in it.
hanna river, now in process of erection, are want for the present time, and we want all stood the Senator from Minnesota, who read a two hundred and fifty feet. It is desirable, of future ages, to have uninterrupted navigation steamboat man's letter declaring that the pas- course, to have them three hundred feet if the of the stream ; but we want at the same time, | sage of vessels required one hundred and Senate think they can be constructed of that if it can be done, and we are satisfied tha seventy-five feet.
width. can be done, opportunities to get eastward as Mr. TRUMBULL, The Senator from Min- Mr. HENDERSON. Every bridge on the well as southward and northward. We want nesota will allow me to make a suggestion. We Ohio river is built with three hundred feet by to be able to transport our produce and our- ought not to take up time, I think, in a dis- the law I have before me. selves with as little inconvenience as possible | agreement as to what we mean. The Senator Mr. RAMSEY. How many bridges are to the eastern markets, and that is the reason from Minnesota has stated once or twice that there on the Ohio? why we insist that these railroad companies he did not intend the bill as the Senator from Mr. HENDERSON. Here is a general law, shall have an opportunity to bridge the Missis- | Missouri understands it, that the opening was pages 289, 290 of the Session Acts of 1861-62, sippi river, provided they do so without inter- to be one hundred and seventy-five feet on the and no continuous-span bridge can be built fering in any degree with the navigation of the clear, but he understands that there is to come with less than three liundred feet on that river. stream. The Post Office Committee having out of this length of one hundred and seventy. Mr. RAMSEY. What is the width of the investigated the whole subjeót, predicating five feet whatever the draw rests upon on the Ohio river where the bridge is erected? There their report upon the opinion of three skillful piers, which he thought wonld make it a little is but one on the river, I think, now built. Army engineers who were sent out there for more than one hundred and fifty feet. I have Mr. HENDERSON. There are several the purpose of investigating the subject of consulted the Senator from Minnesota, and he bridges on the river that have not been built bridges across the Mississippi river, have sub- || is willing to make it specific by saying that the under this law; and they have led to continual mitted us a bill, and for that I vote, and for opening shall not be less than one hundred and controversies in the courts of the United States that I trust a majority of the Senate will voto. fifty-five feet. Then there can be no doubt on the subject. Mr. HENDERSON. I am sorry that my about it.
Mr. RAMSEY. In a narrow stream, of friend from lowa should have thought that I Mr. RAMSEY. I am willing to agree to course, it is easily thrown at a very high elevawas making any inputations upon him or the that.
tion, but the Mississippi is wider than the Ohio Senator from Minnesota. I distinctly stated Mr. HENDERSON. I will compromise with river.