« PoprzedniaDalej »
the same power, Congress may regulate and converted into an overshadowing, centralized resolution have indorsed the most extreme control the political rights of the people of the despotism.
doctrines; doctrines on which it is charged the several States. You have precisely as much Sir, I shall always be found supporting the South based their recent rebellion. power in the one case as in the other; and that General Government in all its just and consti- I know that it has been announced in the is, just none at all. You have as much right to tutional powers, as “the sheet-anchor of our Senate, by a friend of the Chief Justice, that say to the States that they shall allow the negro peace at home, and safety abroad ;'' but, sir, I || although he did make a speech at the Cleveland to vote, and hold office, as you have to say that shall, with the same determined zeal, support meeting which passed this resolution, yet that they shall permit him to be a witness. The fact and defend the just rights and powers of the he was not aware of the fact that such a resois you have no constitutional power to do either, States. They are our most efficient and com- lution had been adopted. and when it shall be acquiesced in by the peo- petent governments for the home'rights of the But I find in a Cleveland paper an extract ple of the United States, that the General Gov- people; "and the surest bulwarks against anti- from a letter reported to have been written, a ernment may exercise such powers, then, in- republican tendencies." The maintenance of short time before the Cleveland meeting, by deed, may we bid farewell to the rights of the these rights are essential to our system of gov- Mr. Chase, in response to an invitation to join States and our system of free government. ernment.
in a meeting at Boston, to celebrate the birthSuch, sir, it seems to me, is the purpose of It is strange to witness to-day the men who, || day of Thomas Jefferson; which I will read : the men who control the majority in this con- but a few years ago, were the most clamorous "And how large the debt we owe him on other gress. A spirit of aggression upon the rights of advocates for the rights of the States, supporting grounds: for his lessons of confidence in the masses the States, strong, bold, and determined, is busy | this and kindred measures, calculated to subvert
of the people; of just regard in legislation and admin
istration to all homo interests, and of the wise liberat its work, and if not arrested by the clear and the rights of the States.
ality toward emigrants from other lands seeking freo overwhelming condemnation of the people, at Hon. Henry Wilson, in a speech delivered and honorablc homes in ours; for his warnings against the coming elections, it may be too late to resist in the Senate of the United States, on the 230
extravagance in Government expenditure, and its these encroachments, which gain strength as
inevitable concomitants, oppressive taxation and of February, 1855, declared
debt; against the surrender or compromise of the rights they advance.
"I recognize the democratic doctrine of State
of the States ; against the centralizing tendencies, so danSir, in my judgment the doctrines of the dis- rights, in its application to slavery as well as to
gerous to liberty, of Federal power; and last, but by tinguished gentlemen who control this Congress other local affairs, and while I have a seat in this
no imeans least, against the silent and, because silent, Chamber I shall resist all attempts to encroach upon
most perilous encroachments of a Federal judiciary, are inconsistent with our system of government, the reserved rights of the sovereign States of the
perverted from its noble function of administering State and Federal. Their organization can only Union. I will stand side by side with my Democratic
justice into a convenient means for the subversion survive by so changing the system which our friends in vindication of the Virginia and Kentucky
of State sovereignty and the destruction of the most resolutions of 1798 and 1799, which they indorsed at
sacred guarantees of personal freedom." fathers framed, as to make it conform to their Baltimore in 1852."
It is possible that some political friend of radical views of policy; and to effect this pur- How emphatic he is in the declaration that the Chief Justice may be able also to put in a pose, they must have a continuance of
disclaimer about this letter. I know no more Eleven States of this Union, clearly entitled to
the reserved rights of the sovereign States of about it than what I find in the paper from which representation, must be excluded, and their the Union."
it has been read. But, sir, during this samo voice hushed in silence, while such important, unwarranted, and radical measures are fastened
But Mr. WADE, in a speech delivered at the period, and while Mr. Chase was the Governor second session of the Thirty-Third Congress,
of the State of Ohio, the celebrated cases of the country. Sir, I warn the people, that although the
was quite as clear and distinct in his utterances ex parte Bushnell and ex parte Langston were rebellion has been suppressed, although we are in behalf of the rights of the States:
argued and decided in the supreme court of “There are some Senators who profess a great
that State, and the same doctrines which are at peace, at home and abroad, yet danger, the
regard for the rights of the States. I am one of those declared in the Cleveland resolution, were armost threatening and disastrous, lurks within who have quite as much regard for the rights of the our borders ; that schemes, the most dangerous subject
than I do. Tam one of those who, not only
gued at great length, and with much ability, by
the then attorney general of Ohio, Mr. Walto our system of government, are pressed upon when an election is pending, but at all times, believe cutt, a leading Republican, and afterwards Congress. Well may the President, who so in the wisdom, the constitutionality, and the propriety Assistant Secretary of War under Mr. Linnobly stands by the Constitution to ward off myself upon those resolutions; and, standing upon
coln's administration, and his extreme views the assaults made on that sacred instrument,
them. I denounce this bill as a violation, not only of of the reserved powers of the States, were susdeclare that the spirit of those resolutions, but ns an attempt to
tained by two of the judges of that court, “They interfere with the municipal legislation of
trample upon the rights of the States and deprive the States; with the relations existing exclusively
them of the power to protect their own citizens from Judges Brinkerhoff and Sutliff, both of whom between a State and its citizens, or between inhabit
aggression and abuse. Do gentlemen suppose that were Republicans. In that argument he said: ants of the same State; an absorption and assumption the States, now awakened to a keen sense of their
“But then it is said that the courts of the United of power by the General Government, which, if acqui
rights and the danger of consolidation, will ever
States are supreme within their sphere; all agree to esced in, must sap and destroy our federative system
that; but what then? So also are the State courts of limited powers, and break down the barriers which
supreme within their sphere; and the same argument preserve the rights of the States. It is another step
"Who is to be the judge in the last resort of the which proves that the Federal courts have a right to or rather stride toward centralization and the con
violation of the Constitution of the United States by determine the extent of their jurisdiction and imcentration of all legislative powers in the national
the enactment of a law? Who is the final arbiter? pose that determination on State courts, proves Government. The tendency of this bill must be to The General Government or the States in their sov
equally, that the State courts have also the right to resuscitate the spirit of the rebellion, and to arrest
ereignty? Why, sir, to yield that point is to yield up determine the extent of their jurisdiction, and conthe progress of those influences which are more closely
all the rights of the States to protect their own citi- clude the Federal courts in that determination." drawing around the States the bonds of union and
zens, and to consolidate this Government into a mispeace. erable despotism. I tell you, sir, whatever you may
But again, he says: think of it, if this bill pass, collisions will arise be
Any nation which has wholly surrendered tho Sir, I thank the President for his noble, tween the Ferleral and State jurisdictions-conflicts allegiance of its citizens or its correlative incidental manly, and patriotic defense of the Constitu- more dangerous than all the wordy wars which are
right to protect them while within its territorial limtion and the rights of the States. Sometimes got up in Congress-conflicts in which the States will
its, has in that very act abnegated every attributo of never yield; for the more you undertake to load them
sovereignty and become the mero local dependency when I contemplate the rapid strides with with acts like this, the greater will be their resist
of the power to which that allegiance and right have which the extremists are carrying forward their ance."--Congressional Globe, Appendix, pp. 213, 214. been surrendered. But”
"Ohio is inroads upon the great landmarks of our Fed- You see that he carries his views of State
still a sovereign State, and has therefore never yielded
this right, as she never could yield it, and still preeral systein, I shudder at the dangers which || rights to their most extreme verge, and speaks serve her sovereignty, to the l'oderal or any other threaten us. But, sir, I have not lost all hope. of the States “in their sovereignty."
Government." So long as we have a faithful and honest Exec
But, sir, there was a celebrated meeting held Further on, in the same argument, in speakutive, and a patriotic people, I will not despair. at Cleveland, Ohio, by distinguished Republic- | ing of the powers of the Federal Government, It is to the people at last to whom we must ans of that State in May, 1859, which was ad. look for the proper correctives.
dressed by Mr. Chase, then the Governor of "The powers granted being granted by independent ernment can only be maintained by constant Ohio, and at which, among other resolutions,
sovereignties, it notonly follows, as the result of all just vigilance.
reasoning, that all powers not granted are withthe following was adopted :
held.” *The spirit of liberty will not permit power to "1. That the several States composing the United Judge Brinkerhoff, a distinguished member overstep its prescribed limits, though good intent, States of America are not united on the principle of patriotic intent, come along with it."
unlimited submission to their General Government; but of the Republican party, in delivering his dis
that, by compact, under the style and title of a ConGentlemen cannot deceive the people by
senting opinion in these cases, uses the followstitution for the United States, and of amendments
ing language: declaring that this law only involves civil rights. || thereto, they constituted a General Government for Sir, it does more, it involves the right of the
special purposes, delegated to that Government cer- "I know no way other than through the action of Federal Governinent to declare the laws and
tain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the the State governments, in which the reserved rights
residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and powers of the States can be preserved, and the constitutions of the States, which exclude ne. and that whensoever the General Government as- guarantees of individual liberty be vindicated. The groes from voting, holding office, and acting
sumes undelegated powers its acts are unauthorita- history of this country, brief as it is already shows
tive, void, and of no force, and being void, can derive that the Federal judiciary is never behind the other as jurors, illegal, and set them aside, and pun- no validity from mere judicial interpretation; that departments of that Government, and often foremost ish the authorities of the States for executing to this compact each State acceded as a Stale, and is in the assumption of non-granted powers. And let it them; because if this may be done in regard
an integral party; that this Government, created by be finally yielded, that the Federal Government is
this compact, was not made the exclusive final judge of in the last resort the authoritativejudge of the extent to civil rights, so it may in regard to political the extent of the powers delegated to itself, since that of its powers, and the reservations and limitations of rights. Sir, I deny that any such powers have would have made its discretion, and not the Consti- the Constitution, which the framers of thatinstrument been delegated to the General Government;
tution, the measure of its powers; but that, as in all so jealously endeavored firınly to fix and guard,
other cases of compact among parties baving po will soon be, if they are not already, obliterated; and and if their exercise shall be sanctioned by the common judge, cach party has an equal right to judge that Government, the sole possessor of the only means people, then, indeed, will the rights of the for itsell, as well of infractions as of the modes and of revenue, in the employment of which the people States, and all local legislation have been commeasures of redre88."
can be kept ignorant of the extent of their own bur
dens, and with its overshadowing patronage, attractpletely stricken down, and our Federal system Sir, here the Republicans who adopted this ing to its support the ambitious hy means of its hop
ors, and the mercenary through the incdium of its by a majority of the citizens of the United the Constitution. They will sit in judgment on emoluments, will speedily become, if it be not alrcady, States.
these great questions, and send Representatives practically omnipotent.'
Sir, I do not propose to enter upon an argu- here who will respect the just rights of the And all of this, in the opinion of the learned
ment to prove that all of these States are in States; who will seek to heal and not destroy; judge, is to follow, if it be conceded that "the
the Union-that their attempt to withdraw who will labor to unite and not separate ; who Federal Government is in the last resort the
was a failure--that the result of the late terri- will, with that true and generous policy which authoritative judge of the extent of its own
ble contlict was to preserve and not destroy finds but little favor here, welcome into these powers and the reservations and limitations
the Union. All this I discussed in a speech || Halls, Representatives from all the States, who of the Constitution."
which I made in this House during the early may be devoted to the Constitution, and deterJudge Sutliff, in the same casc, fully sustains part of this session.
mined to maintain the Union. the views advanced by the attorney general and These States, then, heing in the Union, and
NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD. Judge Brinkerhoff, and enters into an elaborate
peace having been completely restored, there discussion to show the nature and extent of the is no constitutional right wliatever for depriving | tion. I notice that I am down antong those
Mr. ALLEY. I rise to a privileged quespowers of the Federal Government. I will only them of their just and constitutional represendetain the House by reading a few extracts from Judge Sutlill's opinion. He says: tation. All talk about establishing, or requir
not voting on the motion to lay upon the table
the Northern Pacific railroad bill. I voted in ing conditions or guarantees from them, before “It is certain, therefore, not only that tho Constitu- || they shall be represented in Congress, is mere
the negative, and I ask that the correction be tion does not, by any provision therein expressed,
made. make the State governments, or any department trilling with this great question. If these States
The correction was made accordingly. thereof, subordinate to the Federal Government, or are in the Union, as I insist they are, then you
Mr. BANKS submitted some remarks which to any department thereof; but it is also evident that
can no more exact conditions from them than the proposition in various shapes to subordinate the
will be found in the Appendix. State governments to the Federal Government in its you can from New York or Massachusetts.
At the conclusion of the remarks of Mr. legislative, executive, or judicial department was These States are all equal States, and each one
BANKS, fully considered, and rejected by the framers of tho
is entitled to be represented, and to deny such Constitution."
Mr. GRINNELL said: My colleague, [Mr. representation, is not only clearly unauthorized, | PRICE,] who had charge of the Northern Pacific Again, he says:
it is worse ; it is revolutionary. "It is therefore evident, both from the language The Constitution declares that "the Senate
railroad bill, is not able to be here to-day. I and the early construction of the instrument, that the rights of the several State governments are as full of the United States shall consist of two Sena
am requested to state on his behalf that no one and anple unter the Constitution to protect the tors from each State," and to prevent a major.
regrets more than he that circumstances prepowers which they had not delegated, as is the redity of the States from combining to deprive any
vented his yielding the door to the gentleman eral Govern inent to protect the powers which had in fact been delegated to it. This right to protect its State of its representation in the Senate, it is also
from Massachusetts, [Mr. Banks,] as he had
intended to do. He would have been pleased own lociziative, executive, and judicial powers be- declared that no State without its consent shall longed to each of the States at the time of the adop
to hear the able and logical speech we have tion of the Constitution. The States in convention
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senrefused to surrouder the right, or even to suffer it to
Is any State to-day deprived without its just listened to.
Mr. BUNDY obtained the floor, but yielded to be qualified. The power was not delegated in the consent of its equal suffrage in the Senate? Sir, Constitution, nor by it prohibited to the States, and we all know that eleven States are in violation
Mr. GRINNELL, who moved that the House is therefore reserved and still belongs to the State." These opinions, it is true, were delivered by deprived of any voice whatever in that body. of these plain provisions of the Constitution,
The motion was agreed to. these learned judges, in a case in which they And in relation to the House of Represeniatives
And accordingly, (at five o'clock and twenty undertook to declare the fugitive slave law the Constitntion is equally clear and explicit;
minutes p. m.,) the House adjourned. unconstitutional. Mr. Chase, while these cases were pending ** Representatives and direct taxes shall be and among other provisions it is declared that
PETITIONS, ETC. in the supreme court of Ohio,'was the Gov. ernor of that State, and I would be pleased to
apportioned among the several States which The following petitions, &c., were presented under know, if the supreme court had held the fugimay be included within this Union according
thornle and referred to the appropriate committecs:
By Mr. COBB: The memorial of the corporation tive slave law unconstitutional, and ordered
to their respective numbers," which is deter: of Washington, asking to be repaid certain moneys the discharge of Bushnell and Langston, mined in a mode provided in the Constitution. advanced to the General Government.
By Mr. FINCK: The petition of Semanthn Hece!, whether it was not the purpose of the Gov
These Representatives are to be apportioned widow of John Radcr, deceased, of Fairfield county, ernor and his friends, to enforce and maintain
among the States every ten years; and the same Ohio, praying the allowance of a pension.
instrument declares that " each State shall have By Mr.J. M.IIUMPHREY: A petition for national the decision of that court, to the last extremity
insurance law by citizens of Buffalo. against the Federal Government? Certain it at least one Representative,” thus establishing
By Mr. WENTWORTII: The petition of citizens is that the views of these dissenting, judges resentation. The direct taxes have been as
firmly the great principle of taxation and rep- of Chicago, for a national insurance company. were indorsed by their party in Ohio, because
sessed and are being collected, but the repreJudge Swan, who with the majority of the court
IN SENATE. sentation is denied. held the law constitutional, was defeated a short Sir, the true Union men of this country are
Monday, April 30, 1866. time afterward, in the Republican State conthose who are for the immediate restoration of
Prayer by Rev. Theodore D. WOOLSEY, vention for renomination, while Judge Brink. erhoff was in due season renominated and reall these States, to their just and constitutional
D.I)., President of Yale College. elected by that party. relatious with the Federal Government; and
The Journal of Friday last was read and But, sir, the convention which nominated
the admission of Senators and Representatives approved. Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency at Chicago, in constitutionally qualified. To deny these States
PETITIONS AND MEMORIALS. these constitutional rights, is an attempt at Mr. WILSON. I present resolutions of the 1860, adopted the following resolution: disunion.
Legislature of Massachusetts on the state of "Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the
Sir, I am to-day, as I have always been, for the Union and the duties of the Government to rights of the States, and especially the right of cach. State to orilcr and control its owon domestic institu
the Union of all the States. I am opposed, as the freedmen. I ask that they be read, laid tions according to its own judgment exclusively, is I have always been, to all attempts to break on the table, and printed. essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend,
up this Union, whether they come from the The Secretary read as follows: and wedenounce the lawless invasion by armed force, North or the South.
COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter under The questions which are now pending are, in
IN TIE Y Ean 1866. what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.' my judgment, of the most grave and serious
Resolutions on the state ofthe Union and the duties of And Mr. Lincoln in his first inaugural quoted || character: union or disunion; the preservation
Government to the freedmen.
Resolved, That the rebel States should be held in this resolution as a law to himself and those of our system of Government, or the consoli
abeyance, and should not be permitted to join in tho who had nominated him.
dation of power in the hands of Congress; the management of national affairs through representaSir, I have quoted from these distinguished | absorption of the clear rights of States, and
tives in Congress until the people of said States shall,
by fundamental enactments and otherwise, mariifost gentlemen in the Republican party, to show how | practically the establishment of a centralized a loyal spirit of submission to the authority and Conindustrious they have been in the past, in advo. despotism.
stitution of the United States, and give such guarcating the rights of the States, and to contrast These great issues have been made. The pur
antees as Congress may deem sullicient to render it
safe and prudent to permit them to again resume the their speeches and declarations then, with their || poses of the majority of this Congress are clearly functions and privileges which they voluntarily surposition now in supporting measures, which understood. You have the power now to pass
rendered by their rebellion and war; and in thcso strike at the very existence of the States. what measures you please ; you can deprive
matters tho right of determination rests with ConMr. Speaker, in my judgment this organized States of their constitntional voice in Congress; Rcsolned, That we tender our thanks to the Senattempt to centralize power in Congress, is rev: you can deprive clear majorities of the voters ators and Representatives at Washington for their olutionary, and it is so because it is attempted in districts in the northern States from being
firmness hitherto in maintaining their principles and
for their resistance to all attempts to place in the by the exercise of unwarranted power.
represented by the men of their choice. But, Halls of Congress disloyal men, or the RepresentaIt is revolutionary because a majority of this sir, it will not always be so. No, sir; no, sir. tives of disloyal constituencies, to the peril of tho Congress persistenily, and unconstitutionally, There is a power higher and stronger than
national credit and at the iminineut risk of losing hy refuse to eleven States of this Union any rep
levislation all that we have gained by successful var. yours, which will overrule you. The people- And we expect them to maintain this position in the resentation whatever. It is revolutionary be- that people who love free government, and who future and to the last. cause, taking advantage of the absence of such have sacrificed so much to maintain it; that
Resolred, That while thus expressing our confi
dence in our senatorial and representative delegarepresentation, whose presence is unconstitu- people who revere and cherish the Union of tions in Congress, and the determination of the protionally prevented, this same majority seek to these States, and who will never abandon it; | plo to stayd by them. we are also impelled 10 tako fasten upon the country, measures which are that people will demand, in a voice not to be
notice of the recent charges made by niungainst
one of the Senators of this Stato, Ilon. CHARLES SIMnot sanctioned either by the Constitution, or misunderstood, a return to the requirements of NER, in the lately rublished speech of the President
of the United States, and to declare that the lan- ferred to the Committee on Military Affairs able to attend to it on account of illness, that guage used and the charges made by the President
and the Militia. are unbecoming the elevatestation occupied by him.
this report has not been drawn ; and perhaps an unjust reflection upon Massachusetts, and without
He also presented a memorial of the Legis- we inay ask leave to submit the report here. the shadow of justification or defense founded upon lature of Wisconsin, in favor of the establish- afterin connection with the bills and resolution the private or public record of our eminent Senator. Rero nedl; That tho enlightened judgment of man
ment of a mail route from Dodgeville to A voca, now reported. It was thought advisable, as it kinil will hold not only the Government, but the peo
via James Mills, William S. Bean's, and Booth was so late in the session, not to withhold the ple of the United States, to the fulullinent totbeniter- Hollow, in that State; which was referred to measures proposed for action for the reason I most, in letter and in spirit, of the promises solemnly the Committee on Post Ofices and Post Roads. have stateil. It is very possible that the report made to the freedincn; and any failure to fulfill them would inflict a stain upon our national character He also presented a memorial of the Legis may be made hereafter if it shall please the which would debutsous among the nations and sub- lature of Wisconsin, in favor of an appropria- Senate to receive it. ject us to the contempt of our contemporaries and of
tion for widening and straightening the channel The joint resolution (S. R. No. 78) propoposterity.
Resolned, That his Excellency, the Governor, be of the harbor at Superior, in that State; which sing an amendment to the Constitution of the requested to transmit a copy of these resolutions to was referred to the Coinmittee on Commerce. United States ; the bill (S. No. 292) to provide our Senators and Representatives in Congress.
He also presented a memorial of the Legis- for restoring to the Siates lately in insurrection The resolutions were ordered to lie on the lature of Wisconsin, praying the establishment their full political rights; and the bill (S. No. table, and be printed.
of a mail roule from Trempenleau Village, by 293) declaring certain persons ineligible to Mr. WILSON presented the petition of hos- way of Arcadia, Burnside, and Hale, to Sum- oflice under the Government of the United pital stewards of the Ariny, praying that such ner, in that State; which was referred to the States, were severally read a first tiine by their action may be taken by Congress as will place il Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads. titles, and passed to a second reading. them upon an equal footing with those who per- He also presented a memorial of the Legis
PERSONAL EXPLANATIONS, form similar service in the armies of Europe, lature of Wisconsin, in favor of the appointment by creativg a grade with the rank, pay, and of engineers to examine the present water chan
Mr. CHANDLER. A few weeks
I emoluments of a second lieutenant of infantry, nels through that State, with a view of enlar- intentionally didan act of injustice to a patriotic for those of the corps of hospital stewards who i ging the same so as to admit of a uniforin | body of individuals in this city, which I wish upon examination, may prove themselves com: steamship navigation from the Mississippi river to correct. During the winter of 1860–61, petent for the position; which was referred to to Lake Michigan ; which was referred to the there were two military organizations here, the the Committee on Military Affairs and the Committee on Commerce.
one called the National Rifles and the other Militia.
Mr. FESSENDEN presented a memorial of the National Volunteers. The National VolHe also presented a petition of journeymen the city council of Portland, Maine, represent- unteers was a rebel organization which marched book-binders, book printers, and working men ing that Casco bay furnishes one of the best
from the District of Columbia into the rebel of the United States, praying for the repeal of and safest locations for the reception and pres;
army; but the National Rifles was composed the revenue tax of five per cent. on manufac- ervation of the iron-clad navy of the United of the most patriotic citizens of the District. tured books; which was referred to the Com- States, and that materials and labor can be had They were the first to march into Virginia ; and mittee on Hinance.
cheaper at Portland thau at any other sea-board they headed the column that first crossed the Mr. RAMSEY presented the petition of J. | city, and praying that a commission may be Long Bridge. They furnished a large number S. Giers, of Morgan county, Alabama, setting appointed to examine the location and report of soldiers and a large number of officers to forth the destitute condition of the people of to Congress at its present session; which was the Union Army, and were really one of the that State, and praying Congress to take some referred to the Committee on Naval Affairs. most patriotic bodies in the United States. In measures for their relief; which was referred
the heat of debate, I inadvertently spoke of the
REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. to the Committee on Finance.
National Rifles instead of the National VolunHe also presented a petition of citizens of Mr. LANE, of Indiana, from the Committee teers.. I wish simply to do justice to a patriotic Our Tail county, Minnesota, praying for the on Pensions, to whom vas referred the petition i organization, to which I inadvertently did injusestablishment of a mali route from Crow Wing, of Mrs. Rebecca Irwin, widow of Archibald tice, and I make this statement to correct that in that State, via Otter Tail City, to Fort Aber || Irwin, who was a private soldier in battery C, || injustice. crombie, Dakota Territory; which was referred first Rhode Island light artillery, praying for a
Mr. HOWE. I wish to make a comment or to the Committee on Post Offices and Postpension, submitted a report, accompanied by two on an item that I find in the National IntelRoads.
a bill (S. No. 2:1) granting a pension to Mrs. ligencer to-day, taken from the Washington, Mr. SHERMAN. I present the memorial Rebecca Irwin. The bill was read, and passed dispatches to the New York Herald. The item of Merrick & Sons, William Sellers & Co., and to a second reading, and the report was ordered to which I call attention is as follows: other mannfacturers of heavy machinery, of to be printed.
“Governor Fairchild, of Wisconsin, is here to push Philadelphia, reciting at some length that un- Mr. WILSON, from the Committee on Mil- the appointment of a radical postmaster for Fondder the present system of internal revenue they litary Affairs and the Militia, to whom was re- du-Lac, which office will soon bo vacated by resigna
tion. Tho appointment was lately made in accordare compelled to pay a complex system of taxes, ferred a bill (H. R. No. 475) to facilitate the
ance with the Governor's views, but wils subsequently by which it is uncertain how much the corre
settlement of the accounts of paymasters in withdrawn at the urgent request of Wisconsin Johnsponding duty on imported articles should be the Army, reported adversely thereon.
son Republicans, on the ground that the appointco
was not one of them. The appearance of the (lovin order to put them on an equality with for: He also, froin the same committee, to whom ernor here to reopen the fight is looked upon as a eign manufacturers, and by which it is very
was referred a bill (S. No. 46) for the relief ịride 'checky' by the friends of Senator DOOLITTLE, dificult for them to ascertain the amount pay- of Henry M. "Whittlesey, asked to be discharged
inasmuch as the Governor went out of his way to
indorse and approve the Wisconsin resolutions cenable on their machinery. They say the system from its further consideration, and that it be
suring Mr. DOOLITTLE The Governor, no doubt, of taxes operates very injuriously to them. referred to the Committee on Claims; which caine on at the suggestion of Senator HOTE; but it is They therefore ask that a uniform tax, what- was agreed to.
fnir to presume their joint labors will be fruitle 3.
The Post Office Department has at last commenced ever may be necessary for the Government, Mr. HOWE, from the Committee on Claims, to look out for the President's friends in the matter sball be levied on the completed article. I to whom was referred tlie petition of Captain
of appointments." ask that this memorial be referred to the Com- || F. M. Faircloth, praying for remuneration for Upon this paragraph I wish to say, first, that mittee on Finance.
property lost on board the steamer Boston, the Governor of Wisconsin is here on no inviIt was so referred.
while on an expedition up the Ashepo river, | tation of mine, and upon no business that I Nr. VILLEY presented the petition of South Carolina, on the 26th of May, 1864, sub- have any sort of connection with. I underAbigail Ryan, widow of the late Thomas A. mitted an adverse report; which was ordered stand, and I believe, that he came here withRyan, a sergeant in company E, seventeenth to be printed.
out the slightest knowledge that there was a regiment West Virginia volunteers, praying He also, from the Joint Committee on the vacancy in the post office at Fond-du-Lac. I that she may be granted a pension; which was Library, reported a joint resolution (S. R. No. understand, and I believe, he is here simply referred to the Committee on Pensions.
79) to authorize the purchase for the Library to aid in the adjustment of some accounts beMr. MORGAN presented the petition of C. of Congress of the law library of James L. Pet- tween the State of Wisconsin and the United K. Tuckerman, praying to be reimbursed for tigru, of South Carolina; which was read, and States of America, and that he takes no more expenses incurred for the colonization experi- | passed to a second reading.
interest in the question of who shall be postment at Hayti, which, he alleges, was under- Nr. FESSENDEN. The joint committee, master in the city of Fond-du-Lac than any taken at the request pf President Lincoln ; which was referred to the Committee on to report, first, a joint resolution proposing an does take. Claims.
amendment to the Constitution of the United I think it is due to Governor Fairchild that Mr. NYE presented additional papers in States ; second, a bill to provide for restoring | I should say so much; and I think it is due to relation to the claim of Paul S. Forbes, for to the States lately in insurrection their full myself, to the Senate, and to the people of the relief under his contract with the Navy Depart- political rights; third, a bill declaring certain United States, since this subject has been ment to build and furnish the sloop-of-war persons ineligible to office under the Govern- | alluded to, that I should say one thing more Idaho; which were referred to the Committee ment of the United States. They directed me, about the post office at Fond-du-Lac. There on Naval Affairs.
further, in reporting this resolution and bills, has been no "fight” about it, to begin with. Mr. DOOLITTLE presented a memorial of to say that it was the intention of the commit- A vacancy exists in that office, occasioned by the Legislature of Wisconsin, in favor of so tee to accompany them with an extended report the resignation of the late incumbent, who has equalizing the bounties awarded by the Gov- of their reasons, and the grounds, upon which removed from the city, and from the State, und ernment to soldiers during the late war as to they report them. Unfortunately, however, || from the United States. My colleague, the make them as nearly as possible in proportion such bas been the situation of the committee, | Representative from the fifth district of Wis to the time of actual service; which was re- relying upon the chairman, who has been un- Il consin, who lives within twenty iniles of that
town, whose partner and whose son resides in authorize and establish certain post roads, the fourteen broad at the bottom. The turn-table pier, the town, and who has his principal place of pending question being on the amendinent of including the guard pier and starling, is three hun
dred and fifty-five feet long and forty and one third business in that town, and myself, all united in Mr. HENDERSON, in section one, line six, after
feet broad at the top, and three hundred and eightyrecommending the appointment of a man by the word “Illinois,'' to insert, “and at 'Han- six feet long and forty-five feet broad at the bottom the name of Gillette to fill that vacancy. His | nibal, Missouri ;'? so that the section will read:
This pier is composed of a stone center pier thirty.
five feet in diameter at the top, the remainder being name was sent in to the Senate. I am glad to That it shall be lawful for any person or persons, crib-work filled with stone. The up-stream starlings have the attention of the chairman of the Post company or corporation, having authority from tho of all the piers aro isosceles right-angled triangles. Office Committee. It was referred to that
States of Illinois and Missouri for such purpose, to The center line of the roadway crosses the turn-table
build a bridge across the Mississippi at Quincy, Illi- pier two hundred and ten feet from its head, this pier committee, and by that committee reported || nois, and at Hannibal, Missouri, &c.
being one hundred and fifteen feet longer and nineteen back to the Senate with a recommendation
Mr. HENDERSON. I withdraw the amend
feet wider on the top than the truss which forms the that he be confirmed. Some one or two weeks
draw. The superstructure of wood, built upon Howe's ment for the present.
patent, is twenty feet above ordinary high and thirtyago—I do not recollect the precise time—the
Mr. GRIMES. I offer an amendment which three feet above ordinary low water." name of Mr. Gillette was withdrawn from the I propose to the bill as a new section:
The great vice in that bridge is the obliquity Senate by a message from the President of the
And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for of the piers to the current of the river. This United States. That withdrawal, I am bound
tho Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad Com- commission further state: to say, was made without any request of mine, pany, whose road has been completed to the Miswithout any consultation with me, without the sissippi river and connects with a railroad on the
“It will be seen that above the bridge the direction opposite side thereof, having first obtained authority
of the current makes with the axis of the piers, difslightest knowledge on my part that it was to therefor from the States of Illinois and Iowa, to con
ferent angles varying from 26° to 14° 30°; that through be made, and, as I believe, without the slight- struct a railroad bridge across said river upon the
the Illinois draw of the bridge, the angle with the est knowledge on the part of any Representasame terms, in the same manner, under the same
axis of the pier is 5o, and that below the bridge the
angle varies from go to 9° 30.'" tive from Wisconsin except my colleague here,
restrictions, and with the same privileges as is pro-
"Were the same piers placed parallel to the curand possibly the Representative from the fourth Quincy, Illinois.
rent, the obstruction to the flow of the water would
be about one third of what it now is." district who was not elected by the Union party, Mr. RAMSEY. The honorable Senator and who probably never will be elected by the from Missouri, [Mr. HENDERSON,] when this
“The general level of the river is raised by the piers Union party until he or the Union party meets || bill was before the Senate some days ago, ex
of the bridge .49 feet, or nearly six inches, and the with a change of heart. That name was recom
increase of the mean velocity due to the contraction pressed some surprise that I should advocate
of the water-way is 2.27 feet per second or 1.55 miles mended to be withdrawn, as I understand,
the building of bridges upon the Mississippi | per hour, making the computed velocity under the simply because it was alleged that Mr. Gillette | river. That Senator should have known that at
bridge 5.55 miles per hour. did not support the policy of the President. I this time, without any authority of law, at least
In summing up their conclusions, they say: understand that it is asserted by the First Ason the part of Congress, there are two bridges
"1. The board is of opinion that the railroad bridge sistant Postmaster General that no man, with
which crosses the Mississippi river between Rock upon the Mississippi river which are alleged Island, in the State of Illinois, and Davenport, in the his consent, shall eat the bread and butter of
to be by those who trade upon that river—the State of Iowa, is not constructed according to corthe President unless he does support the Pres. navigation interests there--highly obstructive
rect principles, reference being had to the interests ident's policy.
of navigation. to navigation. There are but three bridges, I "2. The piers of the said bridge are not of the best Now, it will be seen that there has been no
think, on the Mississippi river from the falls form, and that there was no practical difficulty in fight in reference to this subject. It will be of St. Anthony to the mouth of that stream.
constructing them of the proper form. With the seen, and I trust it will be believed, that the One is at St. Paul. That is a bridge of con
exception of the turn-table pier, the board is of opin
ion that the defective form of the piers is a matter of Governor is not here with any view to influ
tinuous span. It presents no obstruction to no material importance. The turn-table pier will ence the disposition of that office. navigation. The bridge is elevated nearly one
be more particularly referred to in the answer to the Mr. President, I am compelled to draw two hundred feet above the ordinary stage of wa
3. Theonly pier larger than is necessary is the turnor three inferences from the facts I have stated
ter, and boats of the largest class that navi. table pier. This pier, in the opinion of the board, to the Senate. The first is that whereas my gate the waters of that region pass under it
should bavo been constructed no longer or broader colleague and myself were appointed to repre
than was absolutely necessary to sustain the truss without obstruction and without difficulty. when the draw is open, and protect it from injury sent the State of Wisconsin by precisely the || There are two other bridges spanning the Mis- by passing boats. It might have been constructed sume party, I am now not recognized by the || sissippi river, one at Clinton and another at
with a length of two hundred and ninety-fivo feet, executive department of the Government as
affording amplo support and protection, and being Rock Island, both alleged to be highly ob- actually three hundred and fifty-five fcet in length; belonging to the party to which my colleague | structive to navigation, and bridges that have the difference, sixty feet, is unnecessary, and, in the belongs. That is the first inference I draw, || been remonstrated against by that interest for
judgment of the board, pernicious. The effect of and my conclusion is, that if I do not belong || years past. So high has been the excitement
making it longer than was absolutely required, is to
contract the water-way, increase the velocity, narto the party to which my colleague belongs, he
at times that the boatmen following the river row the draw-passage, and present more surface for does not belong to the party to which I belong. have been upon the point of abating the Rock
boats to strike against, thus ipcreasing the difficulty That is another deduction which I draw from
of their passage through the draw. In a pier of this Island bridge as a nuisance by violence. The size the form of the starling is of importance, and the this state of facts.
remonstrances were so strong against its con- upper faces of the pier should have been curred surHaving stated these two inferences, I have tinuance that in 1859 a commission of officers
faces. one other thing to say, and that will end my
** 4. The piers are not placed parallel to the current, of the Topographical corps of the United States but at angles varying from 260 to 14° 30'. The effect explanation upon this point; and that is, that I
Army was appointed to visit and examine that of this obliquity is to treble the obstruction to the dissent entirely from the idea that these offices | bridge.
flow of the water, and consequently to affect the inare in the first place“ bread and butter," and
crease of velocity in the same ratio. Another conse
The engineers of the railroad companies and quence is, that the passages of steamboats and rafts secondly, I dissent entirely from the idea that if the river interests differ entirely as to the
through the draw and between the piers are rendered they are bread and butter, the President owns character of the bridges that shonld be erected
much more difficult and hazardous. Furthermore, them. I conceive that they are agencies created
the draw on the Iowa side is rendered useless by the across the Mississippi river. Those having formation of an eddy therein. by law, which the Congress of the United || charge of that interest at St. Louis-the Cham- 5. The velocities of the different parts of the river States makes and the Congress of the Uni- ber of Commerce-claim that the span upon
in the vicinity of the bridge have already been stated, ted States alone can make ; that they are de
and will be found tabulated in appendix C. the pivot bridges should be four hundred feet. "6. The eddy on the Iowa side of the turn-table pier, signed not to do the will of the President of On the other hand it is alleged by experienced
as nearly as could be estimated, is about one
hundred the United States, but as agencies to execute engineers that a span of that size would be
feet wide at the foot of the pier, and the turbulenco the will of Congress; that they are paid by
or boiling of the water extends about five hundred feet much more obstructive than one of a reason. below. This eddy, however, is constantly varying in appropriations made by Congress; they will | able size ; that the difficulties of opening it at its position and dimensions. Its effect on the passages continue while Congress says so and when times would be such as unfavorably to obstruct
of boats ascending and descending is undoubtedly to Congress says so, and are not the private prop- | navigation upon that river.
render them more difficult, on account of the care
required to avoid getting one part of the boat in it erty of anybody, and are not intended as instru
The commission which was sent by the Sec. while another part is in the current of the draw. It ments through which the President of the Uniretary of War in 1859 to examine the Rock
has been previously stated that the effect of this eddy ted States or any other individual can dragoon Island bridge was composed of Captain Hum.
in the Iowa draw is to render it useless." the people of the United States into one idea | phreys, Captain Meade, and Captain Frank
"In conclusion, the board considers it proper to or another or into one policy or another.
recapitulate some of the well-known principles of sin, of the Topographical corps, each of whom
bridge building, to show how far they have been NESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE. has since attained the position of major general conformed to or departed from in the Rock Island
bridge. These principies are: A message from the House of Representa- || in the Army, In their report upon that occatives, by Mr. McPherson, its Clerk, announced sion they said:
"1. That at a given place, in locating a bridgeover
any stream, the site where the velocity of the current the appointment of Mr. J. B. GRINNEL), of "From the drawings above alluded to, and from is a minimum should be selected.
"2. Thatin designing a bridge, the piersshould have Iowa, and Mr. J. L. Dawsox, of Pennsylva- | Personal examination, the board found that the rail
road bridge is placed at the foot of the rapids, and is a minimum cross-section consistent with the support nia, as managers on the part of the House of
the island of Rock Island to the city of of the super-structure thus offering the least obstrucRepresentatives at the conference on the con- Davenport, Iowa; that it is supported by two stone tion to the flow of the water and increasing the velocurrent resolution to prohibit the sale of liquors
abutments on the shores, and six stone piers. The city of the current as little as possible.
spans (five in number) are two hundred and fifty feet 3. The piers should always be placed parallel to the in the Capitol building and grounds, in the broad, the draw spans being at the water-level (nino thread of the stream, for the same reasons as those place of Mr. HIRAM Price, of Iowa, and Mr. and one half feet stage) and one hundred and seven- stated in the second principle, and because they thus SAMUEL J. RANDALL, of Pennsylvania, excused.
teen and one hundred and twelve feet respectively, render the passage of boats and rafts less difficult.
making the whole length of the bridge fifteen hun- “4. In designing a bridge over a river having a large RAILROAD BRIDGES ACROSS THE MISSISSIPPI. dred and thirty-five feet.
commerce in boats and rafts, the draws and spans “The piers,'except those of the draws, are thirty- should be of the greatest practicable width. On motion of Mr. TRUMBULL, the Sen- five feet long and seven feet broad at top, and fifty- In applying these principles to the Rock Island ate, as in Committee of the Whole, resumed
three feet long and cleven feet broad at the bottom. bridge, the board is constrained, with extreme regret, the consideration of the bill (S. No. 236) to
The twosmall draw piers are thirty-eight feet long and to report that all have been violated; thus rendering ten feet broad at top, and fifty-four foot long and the bridge not only an obstruction to the navigation
of the river, but ono materially greater than thore engineer to recommend any such thing. I do traordinary circumstances. There is a bridge was any occasion for.
not understand the authority the Senator just "The board fully appreciates the value and impor
at one of the sea-port towns of France longer tance of the railroad traffic, and is of opinion that a read from to do so.
even than this. There is an iron swing-bridge bridge is necessary and should be constructed, not Mr. RAMSEY. One hundred and fifty feet at Brest, in France, spanning a water passage only at Rock Işland, but at other points on the Mis- in the clear. “Spans of not less than one hun- of three hundred and forty-seven feet clear, sissippi river; but it is also of opinion that the interests involved in the free navigation of this noble
dred and seventy-five feet in length on each movable off its bed, erected at a total cost of stream demand that in locating and constructing side of the central or pivot pier of the bridge.”' $106,000. It is a Government work, erected, these bridges unusual study should be brought to
The pier on which it rests on either end of this I bear to insure the presentation of the least possible
presume, without reference either to the exobstruction to the navigation, and that all considera
swing detracts from it; and a fair construction pense of its construction in the first instance, tions of expediency and economy should be made to would be from the center of the bridge one or to the expense of its management afterward. yield to the paramount interests of the commerce of the river."
hundred and seventy-five feet. The pivot pier || It is desirable, of course, that we should strike
is a pier probably twenty feet in midth, of a medium in the erection of these swingThe Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads, to whom this bill was referred, sought | under the bill it is required to be. The whole greater width than any of the other piers, and bridges on the Mississippi, so as to injure neither
the river nor the bridge interest. if we make information on the subject from every source of this immense structure, the swing-bridge, | them too large, they will often be out of order where they could find it. The bill as referred
rests upon it. That with the half the pierit rests and immovable, and the boats, in passing up to them provided for a draw of but three hun.
on at either end detracts so much from this and down, will be interrupted. If they are dred feet, leaving a clear draw on either side | length as to reduce it to a clear passage of made of smallest size, as requested by some, of the pivot pier of less than one hundred and
about one hundred and fifty feet. That much of course the channel-way will not be large fifty feet, probably not over one hundred and
can be done, and I think that much ought to ten feet. It was also mandatory on the com
enough for business. Now, the point between be conceded.
the two most desirable is that they should be pany to build a draw-bridge. .Inasmuch as the
Mr. HOWE. The idea is this: the span is committee conceived that a bridge of continu- || required by the bill to be one hundred and
easily workable, and at the same time as large
as can be allowed. In that way the proper ous spans was to be greatly preferred to a draw
seventy-five feet. The span I understand to medium will be obtained and all interests prebridge, they changed the bill in that respect,
be the stretch from pier to pier, and not from served. leaving it optional with the company which to
the center of one pier to the center of the next. Mr. GRIMES. The proposition now pendbuild.
Mr. RAMSEY. When we framed this bill || ing before the Senate is an amendment proThe Senator from Missouri said that there
we understood it to be from the center of the was no use in referring these bills to that com
posed by myself authorizing the construction mittee, that they would make no examination || the center of the swing pier to the center of the river, by the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy
pier to the center of the opposite pier, from of a bridge at Burlington, on the Mississippi or modification of them, but simply report them resting pier.
Railroad Company, upon the same terms and as they received them. If he had read the bill
Now, I think in this bill we have guarded under the same restrictions and with the same as reported by the committee, and also the bill
all these various interests upon the river. We powers and privileges that are proposed by this as referred to them, he would have seen that have insured, I think, a safe passage-way suf- bill to be granted to the company that seeks to they have made very important modifications, and all in the interests of the navigation. We
ficiently large. We have required the piers to be authorized to build a bridge at Quincy, in
be on a line with the current. We have re- the State of Illinoishave provided in the bill as reported that the quired the elevation to be fifty feet above high The PRESIDING OFFICER,(Mr. ANTHONY draw shall be three hundred and fifty feet, leav
water if the bridge be constructed of a contin- in the chair.) The hour of one o'clock hav. ing a clear passage on either side of the pivot
I think we have provided against ing arrived, it becomes the duty of the Chair pier of one hundred and fifty feet. If the bridge
every fault that has been heretofore complained to call up the unfinished business of Friday shall be built with unbroken and continuous
of in the other bridges erected upon that river. spans, it is to be fifty feet above extreme high | As I said before, if we could avoid building
last, being the bill (H. R. No. 280) making water. This, we learn from experienced river bridges entirely on the Mississippi river, I should
appropriations for the service of the Post Office
Department during the fiscal year ending the men, is all that is desired. Where the chim.
esteem it in the interests of the country which 30th of June, 1867, and for other purposes. nies are taller than that, the arrangement is to I represent and in the interests of navigation Mr. HENDERSON. I think this can be lower them upon the telescopic plan which has
upon that river; but the fact is that almost in disposed of in a short time. been introduced there. With regard to the spans other than the pivot time I am told they are building a bridge upon spite of law they are building them. At this Mr. GRIMES. Very soon, I think.
Mr. SHERMAN. I have no objection to span, we have the information of competent
the Mississippi river at Burlington. It is, then, the special order being laid aside informally, engineers that an excess of over three hundred
important at this time, before these structures if it does not lose its place. feet is not advisable. General McCallum, who are up, when it will be impossible to remove
The PRESIDING OFFICER. That will had charge of railroad and bridge structures them, the interest for retaining them being so be done by unanimous consent. The Chair during the war, says:
large, that Congress should step in and
regu. hears no objection. The consideration of Sen"The longest draw-bridge ever constructed in this
late the construction, so as to be as little inju- ate bill No. 236 will be continued. country is of two openings of one hundred and fifty feet each, although I do not consider even a greater
rious to the navigation of the river as possible. Mr. GRIMES. I suppose if there is any. length than this impracticable. Inevertheless would No one can appreciate more than I do the body here who is peculiarly interested in the consider it unnecessary and impolitic. Any bridge
importance of the trade on the river. I know navigation of the Mississippi river, I am about located at right angles with the stream, with current of not more than four miles per hour, all purposes of
that at a few of the towns on the Mississippi as much interested as any one else. I have navigation should be fully met by one hundred and St. Louis, Louisville, and others—the trade of for thirty years lived immediately upon its fifty feet openings."
1865 amounted to more than seven hundred banks, and I think that I am somewhat familMr. HOWE. I understand that the bill as million dollars; twice as much as our foreign iar with the condition of the commerce of the reported provides for these openings to be one trade. In the State of Minnesota, far up at country connected with that river. A portion hundred and seventy-five feet.
the head of that river, we ourselves shipped of the people in the town in which I live, fanMr. RAMSEY. No, sir; the pivot pier | eight million bushels of wheat last year. Then || cying that the construction of a bridge will not and the one half of the pier at each end of
the the continued navigation of this river to us is | be to their own particular individual benefit, swing on which it rests detract from their width. of the first importance. But, sir, we realize would not favor the passage of this law, while
Mr. HOWE. But the span is to be one the fact that in spite of us, in spite of all our I think that those who take the broadest, most hundred and seventy-five feet?
desires, in spite of the interest of navigation comprehensive, and most correct view on the Mr. RAMSEY. The span is to be three on that river, they will persist in erecting these subject would favor it. hundred and fifty feet.
bridges; and hence we deem it of the highest But whatever may be the opinions of my Mr. HOWE. The spans are to be not less importance now, when few have yet been con- fellow-citizens of that town, there cannot be than one hundred and seventy-five feet in length structed, that Congress should step in and, as any question that the commerce and the interon each side of the center or pivot pier of the well as it can, regulate them. As I said be- ests of the State at large, which I have the draw.
fore, there are but three bridges now spanning || honor here in part to represent, demand that Mr. RAMSEY. That makes three hundred the river, but there are applications for a dozen there should be facilities for crossing the river and fifty feet in all, and leaves a clear draw of in this and the other House of Congress. We || without breaking the bulk of the freights that about one hundred and fifty feet.
know, too, from the immense capital invested are to go over. Then the only question is Mr. HOWE. That leaves an opening of in the railroads that approach that river upon whether or not bridges can be constructed one hundred and seventy-five feet.
the east and upon the west, that they will cross across the Mississippi river so as to facilitate Mr. RAMSEY. Not in the clear.
it. It is not to be expected that they should the crosswise commerce that is going east and Mr. HOWE. But it is on the side of the be successfully resisted forever. They will cross west without obstructing or unnecessarily impier.
it some time. I think now is the time when peding the commerce that has hitherto and Mr. RAMSEY. The span is to be three Congress should step in and regulate them, so which is destined in the future to pass up and hundred and fifty feet.
as to be as little obstructive as possible. down on the river. I am satisfied that the Mr. HOWE. Between this pier and the next. Mr. HOWE. I should like to ask the Sen- | proposition which comes from the Committee
Mr. RAMSEY. I should much prefer that ator from Minnesota before he takes his seat on Post Offices and Post Roads ought to be the railroad company. should accept it with a what evidence the committee have that a draw. adopted, for the reason that I believe if the span of one hundred and seventy-five feet in of the length prescribed in this bill is manage- | bridges are constructed upon the plan which the clear. That would require a swing-bridge | able.
they propose they cannot, by any possibility, of four hundred feet.
Mr. RAMSEY. We have evidence of larger be any obstruction to the navigation of the Mr. HOWE. But I do not understand the li draws, but they have been erected under ex- Mississippi river.