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compliance with the grant. But no man in measure if we were not so overwhelmingly in Committee on Public Lands, so that we can business would accept such security.
debt. But, as was so ably and so eloquently have a report which will explain fully the effect Mr. FARNSWORTH. I am glad my col. said on yesterday by the gentleman from Ohio, of this bill, which will show us to what extent league has interrupted me for the purpose of [Mr. DELANO,] our debt to-day will approach we are involving the Government in an expendmaking the observations which he has and $4,000,000,000.
iture of money. I hope that the Committee calling my attention to the fact he has stated. (Here the hammer fell.]
on Public Lands, if the bill should be referred Sir, it does strike me that this is the coolest Mr. DONNELLY obtained the floor.
to that committee, will give us a full and satisand most impudent proposition that has ever Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I hope the || factory report, which the Committee on the been made to Congress. Wegranted this rail- | gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. RANDALL] Pacific Railroad has failed to do. road company a strip of land forty miles wide will have five minutes more time given to him. The SPEAKER. The time allowed to the in order to build the road, and now they Mr. DONNELLY. I will yield five minutes
gentleman from Pennsylvania by the gentleman come back and say, " If you will give us money of my time to the gentleman from Pennsylvania. from Minnesota has expired. instead of land with which to build it we will Mr. RANDALL, of Pennsylvania. I am Mr. DONNELLY resumed the floor. give you the security of one half of the land obliged to the gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. Mr. SMITH. Will the gentleman from Minwhich you gave us ;' or rather, one half of the DONNELLY] for his courtesy.
nesota yield to me that I may offer an amendproceeds of the sale.
Now, I ask the majority of this House, I ask
ment? Well, now, it strikes me, as I think it must you gentlemen on the other side, who will be Mr. DONNELLY. I prefer not to yield strike every member of the House, that it is a responsible for the passage of this bill, where
any further at this time. very cool and impudent proposition to make to you mean to stop in this expenditure of the Mr. Speaker, the bill now before the House the Government of the United States, that we money of the people. Where do you mean to
is of so much conseqnence to the people of shall take one half of the gift we made them halt in this system of expending the money the entire nation, and more particularly to the as security for money necessary to build the taken from a people already overburdened by | States known as the northwestern States, and road; for it amounts to the same thing. If taxation?
especially to the State which I have the honor we pay the interest on the stock, we build the This expenditure is not for any legitimate || in part to represent here, that I should conroad ; we pay the stock itself, for money can purpose. I have failed to hear any argument sider myself false to my duty toward my conalways be procured upon interest ; and if the which would warrant such an expenditure at stituents if I did not occupy a brief period of Government will assume to pay six per cent. this time. We are told that we are to get time in its advocacy. interest for twenty years on the money used in something back. They coolly propose to mort- The proposition contained in this bill is a building the road, it might as well build the gage to us one half of our own lands which we
very plain and very simple one. It is in effect road at once, and much better. If the road is || have heretofore given to this company to secure that the United States shall indorse, for a to be built in this way, is it not better that the the payment of what we are called upon to
limited period of time, a limited portion of Government itself, through its own agents, guaranty. How flimsy a security! How bold the stock of this company. It is that the shall build, own, and control the road, rather an argumenti
United States shall guaranty the stock of the than leave its benefits to an irresponsible com- Moreover, we are told that twenty-five per Northern Pacific Railroad Company upon the pany? cent. of the receipts of the road, during the
gross amount of $57,000,000, or an average Mr. Speaker, I have occupied more time in twenty years for which we are asked to guar- amount of about thirty-two thousand dollars per discussing this question than I intended when anty this money, is to be paid into the Treas. | mile, for the period of twenty years. I hope it I rose. Sir, I am a western man. I
ury of the Government. Does not every busi- is distinctly understood in the House that this a large western constituency, engaged in agri- ness man, who has ever had any connection
guarantee does not in any case extend beyond culture and manufacturing pursuits. They | with railroad matters, know that no such profits | the period of twenty years, nor does it in any are certainly as much interested in all the will be realized? And when you come to ask way extend to the principal of any part of great lines of western communication as are plainly and pointedly this question of the friends
the bonds of the company. the constituents of the gentleman from Ver- of this project, whether they believe that any The whole question, then, for this House to mont, [Mr. WOODBRIDGE.) We are not here || such profits will ever come from this road, they determine is whether the United States Gopas western men to oppose the opening of com- tell you that they hope they may. Sir, there ernment will be safe in making such a guaran. munication to the Pacific coast by railroad; is no such probability.
tee, because it must be apparent to all that if by no means. But we are here to defend the Now, sir, I am not a little surprised that my the United States can build this great road, Treasury of the United States from these reck: | distinguished colleague, [Mr. KELLEY, a gen- | reaching from the head of Lake Superior to less assaults that are made upon it. I yield tleman from the very same city which I repre- Puget sound, through a distance of eighteen the residue of my time to the gentleman from sent in part, should come here and deliver a
hundred miles, and do it without incurring any Pennsylvania, (Mr. RANDALL.]
beautiful essay upon this great subject. It loss to itself, it should by all means give the Mr. RANDALL, of Pennsylvania. The reminded me very much of some sermons I aid which is asked. This matter, then, resolves time allotted to me is so short that it will be have heard. They were beautiful in language; itself into the simple question, is the United impossible for me to enter into any argument || they were filled with flights of fancy ; they || States safe in taking such a step? in reference to this bill. I shall therefore contained many castles in the air, but when
Now, we have had presented here by the content myself with calling the attention of the I went home and began to consider upon them, opponents of this bill quotation after quotation House to one or two matters which, it seems I found that I could not remember anything from pamphlets and from speeches to show to me, should command their consideration. that was in them. Now, I have listened to
that the land grant already made to the comWe have here a project of immense impor- || the argument of my colleague; I have heard
pany is of such enormous value that it alono tance; and I wish to know of those gentlemen | about his castles in the air, his railroads in ought to enable the company to build the road; who mean to vote for this bill, where in the fairy land with golden tracks, yet in his whole
that in any event it is of such great value that Constitution of the United States, from one end argument he did not present us with a single when the road shall have been constructed the of it to the other, they find the power to spend || fact, nor did he advance any reason whatever land adjacent to it and already granted to the money or to make appropriation of the money in behalf of this work. Does he not know that
company will be equal in value to the total cost raised by taxation for such purposes as are here | he is trying to force upon the people of his of the road itself. proposed. district, as their share of this expenditure, the
Now, Mr. Speaker, if all these statements Sir, the greatest latitudinarian construction- sum of about three hundred thousand dollars ?
are true then this Government runs no risk ist of the Constitution can find no warrant in Have his constituents asked him in any public || whatever in giving the guarantee which is it for the expenditure of this $57,000,000 of manner to vote for this expenditure? So far asked for, because the property of the comthe people's money. I am sure that any man as I know they have not. Surely no such
pany, when the road shall have been built, who was educated in the school of strict con- instruction has been given to me.
will be worth all that will have been expended struction will not for a moment entertain the I say again to the majority on this floor,
upon it, and will therefore most assuredly be thought of voting for this project. Sir, this is where do you mean to stop in these nefarious | ample security for the interest upon a limited not within the terms of the powers granted to schemes of public plunder? How soon will portion of the stock. Congress by the Constitution, nor is it within || you realize that the people of this country are We were told yesterday by the gentleman the spirit of that grant.
overburdened with taxation; that our debt is from Ohio upon my left ['Mr. SPALDING] that Now, let me call the attention of the House immense, reaching an amount which in no other the land grant already made to this company to the question of the necessity and propriety | country of the world would be so cheerfully || is abundantly sufficient to build the road, and of this measure, of this expenditure of money. paid? Recollect that we must not heap too
to prove it he read to us an extract from a let. This bill comes here at à most unfortunate much on an already overloaded people. We ter of Hon. John Wilson, Third Auditor of time; at a time when our Treasury, as was so should back to the strict economy of former
the Treasury. I ask the Clerk to again read beautifully described by my colleague, [Mr. || days. Why, sir, in the earlier days of this that extract. KELLEY,] is in a depleted and almost exhausted || Republic, such projects as this were never heard The Clerk read as follows: condition. He tells us that by adopting this | of, or, if proposed, were promptly frowned "I have not the figures, nor would I now be able measure we shall pour into the Treasury untold down. Let any man read the veto messages to work them up if I had, but comparing this with sums of money. Why, sir, he killed his argu- of Mr. Monroe and General Jackson, and he the Illinois Central railroad grant. I think it a small ment with his own words. He adinits that our will see how those great men viewed such
estimate to say that if this grant is properly manged
it will build the entire roail.connecting with the presTreasury is exhausted; and yet he is willing to schemes as this.
ent terminus of the Grand Trunk, through to Puget allow these people to put their arms still deeper I hope, sir, that the House will not pass this sound and head of navigation on the Columbia ; fit into the Treasury. measure. I hope that, if it should not be laid
out an entire ficct for the China, East India, and
coasting trade of sailing vessels and stcarners, and Now, I would not object so much to this ll upon the table, it will at least be referred to the leave a surplus that will roll up to millions."
Mr. DONNELLY. From this testimony, Mr. HIGBY. Will the gentleman allow me Railroad and the Committee on Public Lands, quoted by those who are opposed to the bill, to say a word?
and I can say, with no feeling of preference for it appears that the land grant is not only suf- Mr. DONNELLY. Certainly.
either of those committees, that it would be ficient to pay for this road but to equip a line Mr. HIGBY. I have heard from two or grossly unjust to the Committee on the Pacific of steamers besides for the China and East three members that the Central Pacific rail- Railroad to send this bill to the Committee on India trade, and leave a surplus of millions road has been trying to get up an influence Public Lands. If this bill is not such a one of dollars. In the presence of these facts, | against this road. If there is anything of the as should properly go before the Committee on can these gentlemen say this country would kind the delegation particularly in interest in the Pacific Railroad, then that committee has not be safe in giving the guarantee asked for? the Central Pacific railroad is not aware of it. no functions and should be at once abolished;
The bill further proposes to give twenty-five I know that no member of that company has because it is, as its name implies, a Committee per cent. of the gross receipts of the road as been near me since this bill has been under on the Pacific Railroad, and if this proposition security for the payment of the guarantied discussion, and I leave it to the other members for the construction of a Pacific railroad is not interest. Now, as has already been stated, l of the delegation from California whether they | legitimate business for that committee then it twenty-five per cent. is equal to that portion || have seen any member of that company in || has none. So much for that argument. of the receipts out of which interest upon the reference to this subject. I think they would | Now, Mr. Speaker, a few words as to the capital stock of the company is paid.
first go to the members living in the vicinity illiberal character of the arguments that have Can it be doubted that the receipts of such and most interested, and not to other members been urged here. I am sorry to see distina road would be enormous? With a vast and of the House.
guished gentlemen for whose ability I have the rapidly increasing population at both its ex. Mr. SPALDING. I ask the gentleman to highest respect protesting against this meastremities, great communities growing up along yield to me.
I regret to see distinguished gentlemen its whole line, and the trade of the Indies and Mr. DONNELLY. With pleasure.
from the great State of Ohio opposing this bill. China passing over it, who can doubt that its Mr. SPALDING. Mr. Speaker, I have taken | It is but sixty-five years since emigration began receipts would be enormous ?
somewhat of an active part in opposition to to cross the western boundary line of Pennsyl. If you doubt this you doubt the future of the this bill, and I repel the insinuation that any vania. Ohio was then a howling wilderness. country and forget all the teachings of its past. railroad agent has had influence with me or The adventurous pioneers who then floated
But it will be said, in answer, if all this is approached me at any time. I challenge proof | down the Ohio river upon rafts and boats, true, why not go and build the road with the that any agent of any company has come here with their household goods around them, ran land grant alone? I propose to address my- to engender opposition to this bill.
the gauntlet of the ambushed savages along its self a few moments to that portion of the ques- Mr. DONNELLY. I do not state it as a banks. Since that time what a magnificent tion.
fact. I alluded to the statement made yester- prospect has been unfolded to the gaze of the The value of the land grant, Mr. Speaker, day on this floor that such an influence was at world. Then a desolate wilderness, the State depends on the building of the road. That work here.
of Ohio and the States directly west of it now amount of land with the road built through it It was very far from my intention to insin-contain a population of ten million human is worth every dollar of the estimate put upon uate that the honorable member from Califor- | beings, being one third of the entire populait by Mr. Wilson. That land, without the nia and the honorable member from Ohio, fortion of the United States. Sir, with such wonroad, is not worth to-day in New York city five both of whom I have the highest respect, have ders wrought in the space of a little more than cents per acre. You can go all through the been influenced or had any such influence half a century, I am surprised that gentlemen Western country, in the State of Michigan, in brought to bear upon them. But I do say, from the State of Ohio or from any of the westthe State of Wisconsin, in the State of Missouri, sir, that if the statements we have heard are ern States can stand here and take such nar. and in other States of the West, and find mil- true, and if any such influence has been brought row and illiberal views. lions of acres of land that have been offered to bear upon this House, it shows a most nar: We have just listened to a speech from the time and time again for a shilling an acre row, base, and illiberal spirit on the part of gentleman from Illinois [Mr. FARNSWORTH] without meeting with purchasers. Why is it? that Central Pacific road.
against this bill. Let me call his attention to Because they are remote from those great We complain, sir, of the monopoly of the some statistics in reference to his own State. works of internal improvement, the railroads, Camden and Amboy Railroad Company which About the year 1836-I think that was the prewhich are only second to nature's great rivers seeks to grasp the exclusive jurisdiction of cise year-the United States made an innovato the development of population. Take the the State of New Jersey. But, sir, this thing tion upon its former customs as great as that experience of the West. Go back to the year dwindles into insignificance compared with the we now seek to make, by granting a large body 1856, and you will find land grants given about | monopoly which would absorb a continent, and of public lands to assist in building the Illinois that time to the State of Michigan, to the which will not endure a brother within a thou- Central railroad through the heart of that State. State of Wisconsin, and to the State of Min- sand miles of its throne.
Those who have read the history of Illinois, nesota to build lines of railroad within a period For what have we done for that road? Yes, written by one of its former Governors, know of ten years; and yet in the last Congress we what have we of the Northwest aided to give very well the condition of things before that were called upon and besought to extend the them ? We have virtually donated them road was commenced, and from which it listed time yet ten years further in which these roads $90,000,000 of bonds of the United States. her up: the poverty of the people, the deshould be completed. So that in these States, Not, sir, be it observed, a guarantee of interest pressed condition of agriculture, the small near the great centers of population, twenty alone for twenty years, but a liability incurred || value of the products of the soil, the trifling years have been considered essential to the || by the Government for both principal and reward for human labor, and the slow increase construction of comparatively short lines of interest upon that amount. Nay, more, we have of population. Turn to the census of 1830, railroad by a land grant alone.
released their road from one half the mortgage and you will find that the population of Illinois Nr. Speaker, if this were a trifling enterprise, given to secure the United States; so that if the was but 157,000. In the year 1860, thirty years if this was a road of fifty or one hundred miles United States Government would protect itself, | later, the population had risen to 1,711,950. through a comparatively settled country, we in the case of the Central Pacific railroad by fore- Now, mark the contrast. In twenty years before might with propriety be told that a land grant || closing upon the mortgage which it holds, it must the Illinois Central railroad was built the total alone would build it. But recollect, sir, it is first pay off that other $90,000,000, making in growth of the State of Illinois was 145,000. over eighteen hundred miles in length, reach- all $180,000,000 of principal that the road has In thirty years subsequent to that year, the ing from the western terminus of the great water in effect received from us, besides all the accu- growth was 1,554,000. chain of lakes to the Pacific ocean, a road mulated interest on the bonds, not for twenty Why, sir, the taxable property of the State of through a country unsafe, unsettled, unsurveyed, years, but until the maturity and payment of Illinois is equal to $1,000,000,000, or one third and almost undiscovered—in many parts a the same. Why, sir, in sixteen years the inter- the entire debt of the United States. The State veritable terra incognita.
est on those bonds will be equal to the princi- of Illinois paid in direct tax in 1861 for the And yet we are told that this land grant which pal; so that of principal and interest we shall support of the Federal Government the sum you could not to-day sell for five cents an acre have incurred in twenty years a liability in be- of $1,146,000. in the eastern markets will build the road. It half of the Central Pacific railroad equal to Sir, I am amazed that gentlemen who come is impossible. The proposition is absurd. $450,000,000; and yet gentlemen are appalled || from the very soil of those States, so blessed
Something has been said on this floor of the when we ask for $56,000,000, distributed during by these great works of internal improvement, lobby influence of the Central Pacific railroad a period of twenty years, with which to accom- and with all their marvelous results pressing being exercised among members of this House plish all that which $450,000,000 is required ! themselves directly upon their sight, can raise adversely to this bill. I know not how that may to accomplish in another latitude.
their voices against this measure. It is against be. I have no knowledge of the subject my- Why, sir, if it is true that $56,000,000 of reason. Why, sir, if such an illiberal spirit self. I know when that road has asked at the guarantied interest will build this road, when || had possessed the men of 1836, Illinois would hands of the country for additional aid the $450,000,000 are required to build the Central | to-day have scarcely passed the era of coonNorthwest has been almost unanimous in its Pacific railroad, which now drags its slow length skin currency, and wheat at ten cents per favor; and if there is to-day any party in the along, then I say, sir, it is the plainest of all bushel ; and we should have lost that mighty lobbies of this Honse representing that road, | possible proofs that this is the true route for the Commonwealth, with nearly two million popuand trying to strike down a road running one construction of a Pacific railroad.
lation, which has given us a Lincoln and a thousand miles distant from it, then I
sir, Another objection made to this bill is, that Grant. it cannot ask, and should not receive, a single || it should have been referred to the Committee Why, sir, we ask aid to build only cighteen additional favor at the hands of the American on Public Lands. I have the honor to be a hundred miles of railroad, while in the State people.
member of both the Committee on the Pacific of Illinois to-day there are three thousand miles 39TH CONG. IST SESS.No. 139.
of railroad, all springing from the impulse given
sir, I ask the Clerk to read the last | along its line, and the general prosperity it to such works by that magnificent enterprise, H speech ever made upon earth by our martyred will infuse into the entire nation will impair the Illinois Central railroad.
President, Abraham Lincoln ; å speech made, || the credit of our Government bonds, then Look, sir, at the effect this measure will have | sir, upon the very day, ay, sir, upon the very indeed, sir, I have read the history of our upon the future of the country through which | night on which he fell before the bullet of the || country.to little advantage. the road is to pass. In 1860, the total popu. assassin ; a speech made to you, Mr. Speaker, Why, sir, the total product of the mines in lation of that country, including the States and at your last parting with him as you were about the Territories along the line of this road was, the Territories, was 210,127. In 1865, five to start upon your journey to the Pacific. I during the last year, $35,000,000. Build this years after, it had increased to 550,000. Why, want it read by the Clerk and received by this | road and it will be $350,000,000. Why, sir, sir, in my own State we have increased in popu- House as the last utterance of that great and the discovery of gold in California and the lation in spite of the war-war with the sav- good man, and as an indication of the view his production of $800,000,000 from its mines ages and war with the rebels-in the face of liberal intelligence would take to-day, were he saved our people from bankruptcy and has all obstacles, we have increased from about || alive, of this and all kindred measures. affected the commerce and the prosperity of 170,000 to 300,000; and we, who in 1858 bought The Clerk read as follows:
the whole world. Build this road, give facil. our breadstuffs from Illinois, produced last year "Mr. COLFAX, I want you to take a message from 1| ity of access, and yon set to work hundreds of between eight and ten million bushels wheat. me to the miners whom you visit. I have very large thousands of miners with abundance of maAnd, sir, may we not look for similar effects
ideas of the minere) wealth of our nation. I believe
chinery, and who can calculate the production along this great line of railroad? I have made western country, from the Rocky mountains to the of the precious metals that will follow? a calculation in reference to one of its effects. Pacific, and its development has searcly cominenced. I remember when, in the last Congress, we There have been granted to this company, in
During the war, when we were adding a couple of
were in almost the darkest hour of our great the Territories through which the road will did not care about encouraging the increase in the struggle, when it seemed as if the bark of pass, forty sections of land per mile, being volume of our precious metals. We had the country the nation would go down amid the storm,
to save first. But now that the rebellion is overtwenty sections on each side of the road. Be thrown, and we know pretty nearly the amount of
an honorable and gallant gentleman from the it remembered that the Government retains the our national debt, the more gold and silver we mine city of New York, sent here by the votes of alternate sections; so that there are open for we make the payment of that debt so much the casier. the Opposition, (Mr. Stebbins,) arose in his settlement forty sections to the mile along the
Now," said he, speaking with more emphasis. “I am
place, and in an able speech demonstrated road. Now, does any one doubt that if the shall have hundreds of thousands of disbanded sol- that the resources of the country were equal road is built that country will settle rapidly.? diers, and many have feared that their return home to the debt it was contracting; and I do not There are foux quarter sections, or four farms
in such great numbers might paralyze industry by
forget that his strongest argument was based of one hundred and sixty acres each to each there will be demand for. I am going to try to attract upon the history of our growth in the past section, and taking the estimate, which holds them to the hidden wealth of our mountain ranges, and the certainty of our continued growth in good throughout the country, of six persons to
where there is room enough for all. Immigration,
the future. every head of a family or voter, and we shall our shores hundreds of thousands more per year from
Our credit rests not alone upon what we are, have one thousand persons to the mile, or for overcrowded Europe. I intend to point them to the but what we are certain to be. Why, sir, if
gold and silver that wait for thom in the West. Tell the whole length of eighteen hundred miles, the miners for me that I shall promote their interests
we double the population of this country, we 1,800,000 persons, and this irrespective of the to the utmost of my ability, because their prosper- reduce our debt one half. Are we to sit here population of towns and cities and rivers and ity is the prosperity of the nation; and,” said he, and, following the niggardly, miserly policy branch roads tributary to the main road. But
his eye kindling with enthusiasm, "we shall prove
which some gentlemen seem to favor, permit if in five years that country has doubled its of the world."
a great wilderness to remain a wilderness for population without this road, what will its pop- AJIENDMENT OF TERRITORIAL ACTS.
half a century longer, or shall we encourage ulation be when you infuse into it the life that Mr. ASHLEY, of Ohio. Will the gentleman | all bounds in the Old World and flowing to our
that tide of emigration which is now breaking will flow from such an enterprise as this ? Sir, it will quadruple, it will quintuple; it is for a moment, as I must soon leave the Hall on from Minnesota (Mr. DONNELLY] yield to me
shores with an unparalleled abundance ? within bounds to say that in twenty years there will be eight million people along the line of account of indisposition?
Sir, I am sorry to see the course taken by
the opponents of the bill. We have heard
Mr. DONNELLY. Certainly; with pleasure. the road. And if they contribute as liberally,
Mr. ASHLEY. I am instructed by the Com
little of real argument. One gentleman has as gallantly, as heroically to the defense of this great nation with men and money and mittee on Territories to report back House
told you that there is no report here, and that
we do not know who are the corporators. Sir, intellect as the noble State of Illinois has done,
bill No. 508, to amend the organic acts of the the country will have wisely invested the paltry Washington, Idaho, Arizona, Utah, and New
that is a matter of no moment. This money canTerritories of Nebraska, Colorado, Montana,
not be drawn until the road shall be built; and it amount asked for, even though it should lose Mexico, and ask that the same be priuted and object is the road, not the corporators. Give
is ofno consequence whatever who builds it. The every dollar of it.
recommitted. Why, sir, look at the immigration from Europe, which is greater this spring than it
No objection was made.
us a road, and we care not who owns it, prohas ever been before. This very company are
Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois, mored to
vided only that with a proper national forereconsider the vote by which the bill was re
sight we so guard the enterprise that it shall not already making contracts, in anticipation of committed; and also moved that the motion to
pass out of the hands of our own citizens; and the passage of this bill, with steamship lines to reconsider be laid on the table.
for one, I shall cheerfully vote for an amendbring to our shores thousands of hardy laborers
The latter motion was agreed to.
ment to require that two thirds, three fourths, to help to build this road. Few, if any of them,
if you please, all of the corporators shall will return to Europe. They will settle down ENROLLED JOINT RESOLUTION SIGNED. be American citizens. That is all that we need along the line of this road, and become the
Mr. TROWBRIDGE, from the Committee
ask. We shall not be called upon to pay the nucleus of a new population, the foundation
on Enrolled Bills, reported that they had ex- money unless the road is built; and if we secure of new Commonwealths.
amined and found truly enrolled a House joint the construction of the road, no gentleman can Why, sir, the London Times complained the resolution of the following title; when the deny that the money has been well invested. other day that the skilled artisans of England, Speaker signed the same:
Why, sir, the hand of nature itself points out its most valuable workers, are leaving its shores in unparalleled numbers in search of plenty and
Joint resolution (H. R. No. 67) providing the route of this road as the natural highway
for the reappraisement of the lands described of the continent. Starting from the mouth of liberty in the United States. The immigration in an act for the relief of William Sawyer and
the St. Lawrence and proceeding westward in which has already arrived this spring far exothers, of Ohio.
almost an air line, you pass over the surface ceeds that of any previous year, and we learn
of the great lakes, the mightiest system of freshthat the harbors of England and Ireland are
NORTIIERN PACIFIC RAILROAD-AGAIN.
water navigation in the world. Passing across crowded with hundreds of thousands waiting Mir. DONNELLY. There is one other objec- seven hundred miles from the head of Lake for vessels to carry them to our shores. Sir, tion that has been urged with peculiar force Superior, you strike the Missouri river; and war is imminent in Germany, and thousands and eloquence by the distinguished gentleman from the head of navigation on that river the upon thousands of the thrifty and intelligent from Ohio on my right, [Mr. DELANO.] The distance is but three hundred miles to the head people of that country will seek our shores objection was that we had no right to do this of navigation on the Columbia river. So that, We do not want them to cluster in our cities. thing, because we would thereby impair the when this company sball have built three hunWe want to be able to point out to them those credit of the United States. Now, let me dred miles of road, we shall have built three great natural savannahs along the Missouri, the call the attention of the House to the fact that hundred miles of road we shall have secured Yellowstone, the Columbia, and the Saskat- this payment of money is only to be stretched the means of steam communication between chewan, where they may find all the conditions through a period of twenty years ; that the lia- the Atlantic and the Pacific by way of the Misfor prosperity and happiness. From northern | bility ends at the expiration of twenty years ; sonri; and for this the Government risks Europe, too, a population hardy, industrious, that none of it can be paid save only as the $750,000 annually. And, building seven hunand temperate, the Norwegians and Swedes, road is constructed; and that the whole of it dred miles further to the head of Lake Supethe identical stock which overran Europe and is not to be paid until after the road is entirely | rior, and we have, with a road of one thousand overwhelmed the Roman empire and gave shape completed. If there is any man who can prove miles, a very large share of all the results to be and feature to the new civilization which was to me that the building of this mighty road of derived from a Pacific railroad. built upon its rains; these races are seeking | eighteen hundred miles in length, the transpor- Why, sir, we were told by the gentleman from our shores in large and steadily increasing num. tation over it of the commerce of China, Japan, || Ohio, [Mr. DELANO, ) at the very moment that bers.
and the Indies, the growth of popular States he was lighting this bill, that we must prepare
our backs to assume the mighty load of sociates, some of the best railroad men in New Mr. HUBBARD, of Connecticut. I desire $2,000,000,000--au amount two thirds as great England; men whose management have made to say a word or two on the question now beas our total national debt-yet to be paid to ihe them what they are; men well known in the || fore ihe House, and if I take a wrong view of it, people of the reconstructed South for the suf- moneyed circles of New York and New Eng. I hope the gentleman from Iowa, [ Mr. PRICE, Í ferings and losses caused by a war created by land-when, I say, a few months ago there was who reported the bill, will be able to convince themselves. And yet not a farthing is to be danger that this. franchise would fall into the me of my error, as his arguments are always expended for the benefit of the great loyal | hands of British capitalists, these men met in candid, clear, and strong. Northwest, which has put forth every exertion Boston and looked over the charter; and they I am in favor of the construction of the road, to save the Government. Sir, it is our right decided that something should be done to pre- warmly in favor of it, and for all the reasons to deinand this measure. It is for us not only vent this charter falling into the hands of Brit- stated by my eloquent friend from Minnesota, a right, but a necessity. This road cannot be ish capitalists. They decided they would take [Mr. Donnelly.) But for the present I am built without some such measure to assist it, this charter from these parties and pay the opposed to it. And that the grounds of my opand the people of the Northwest are entitled honorable expenses which had been contracted position may be clearly understood, I will state to it at the hands of the General Government. in preliminary surveys and such other inci- them. The road must be built. If gentlemen are so dental expenses, which every one who has had I deny that Congress has the right or the liberal in their expectations of paying thou- anything to do with railroads is aware enter power to bind the Government as an indorser sands of millions-bereafter to the people of the into every such arrangement.
of a private contract. That is my first objecSouth, certainly they can risk $56,000,000 upon The SPEAKER. The gentleman's five tion. We have power to regulate commerce good security to unite the great lakes with the minutes have expired.
with foreign nations, between the States, and Pacific ocean.
Mr. DONNELLY. I have agreed to yield with the Indian tribes, the power to establish Mr. Speaker, I now yield five minutes of my five minutes of my time to the gentleman from post offices and post roads; but this is a pritime to the gentleman from New York, [Mr. Connecticut.
vate enterprise, as I understand it, and I canDODGE.]
Mr. HCBBARD, of Connecticut. I do not not think that there are any lawyers in this Mr. DODGE. Mr. Speaker, I propose to propose to detain the House with any extended House who have given attention to the subject examine this question for a very few moments remarks.
who will venture to give an opinion that the as a business man and with reference to its Mr. CONKLING. My colleague would like power to regulate commerce and establisha post influence upon the business of the country and to continue his remarks, and I hope the gen- offices and post roads confers upon Congress the interest which the Government has in the tleman from Connecticut will yield to him for the authority to bring the Governinent in as a completion of this road. that purpose:
guarantor of a private enterprise. I presume, sir, that when the Congress of Mr. H'UBBARD, of Connecticut. The gen- This, then, is my first objection to the bill. 1864 granted the charter for the construction of tleman can continue his remarks after I have I wish I could see my way clear to vote for it, this road it was in view of the fact that the closed.
for I am in favor, as I said before, of the concompletion of the road was calculated to ad- Mr. CONKLING. That will interrupt his struction of this road as warmly as any man vance the interests of the country. At that remarks, and I hope he will be permitied to time a bargain was made, such as railroad men finish them at this time.
Then I have another objection to the bill. often make with sections of the country that Mr. HUBBARD, of Connecticut. I yield It was not my good fortune to listen to the deneed the completion of railroads. Those who for that purpose, with the understanding that bate upon this subject yesterday. Perhaps if hare been familiar with the construction of rail- I shall have the floor when he is through. I had been here my doubts would have been roads know how often, for the sake of securing Mr. DODGE. I do not ask for more than | swept away. But, sir, this bill involves an the building of a single spur or branch through five minutes.
appropriation ultimately. It cannot be ques. an unimproved and undeveloped portion of the Mr. Speaker, I will come directly to the point tioned that if the Government becomes a guarcountry, those who own the land are ready to which I had in view when I rose. I believe the antor and loses by the failure of the company, come forward and offer to the railroad com- interests of the country demand not only the then an appropriation must be made, and that, pany one half, or any fair proportion of the land completion of the Central but the completion too, without its being considered in Committee which they own, and which is entirely unmarket- of the Northern Pacific railroad. I differ of the Whole. It will be necessary for some able, if the company will build a railroad which entirely with the remarks of some gentlemen future Congress to make an appropriation to will give value to the land.
here that the demand upon the Government on save the credit and the honor of the nation. In this case the Government not only had the part of the Northern Pacific railroad will So that in this way we are forestalling the acunproductive land which it was desirous of shake the credit of the country. I have no tion of this House as in Committee of the rendering productive, but it had other objects. hesitation in saying that the aid granted by the Whole. I object to our taking action now It looked to the vast population settling on the American Congress to the Central Pacific rail- which will coinpel some future Congress to Pacific coast. It looked to Oregon, a thou. road has done as much as any other thing to make an appropriation to save the credit and sand miles north of San Francisco. It looked give credit, substantial credit, to Government the honor of the nation. to the vast mineral resources of the country, issues both in our own country and in Europe. [Here the hammer fell.] which this road would open to development | Why? They know well there is in the center The SPEAKER. The gentleman from Minand settlement. Looking at all this, a bargain l.of this continent an immense deposit of the nesota [Mr. Donnelly] has two minutes of his was made, which, for the Government, would ecious metals, and they know if we build this time left. have been a good bargain if those with whom railroad that instead of producing as we have Mr. DONNELLY. I yield it to the gentle. the bargain was made had had the ability to done in the last ten years $1,000,000,000, forten man from Kentucky, [Mr. Smitu.] carry it out.
years to come we will produce $2,000,000,000, Mr. SMITH. I offer the following amend. They came for this charter under the full and will have the precious metals as the basis ment expectation, probably, that obtaining a charter not only for the circulation of our own country The SPEAKER. It can only be done by the with such liberal grants of land they would be but to pay the bonds not only in this country gentleman from Illinois [Mr. WentwoRTu] able to find capitalists with the necessary money but in Europe. I believe if it were known to- withdrawing his motion to refer. to build the road. The moment they presented | day that by some magic the Central Pacific Mr. WENTWORTH. I do not propose to the charter to men of capital, from whom they railroad and the Northern Pacific railroad withdraw it, but I propose to offer the amend. must have the money, they saw at once there could both be completed in a couple of years ment myself, in order that the gentleman may was to be an expenditure of from twenty to and the Government had to pay $100,000,000 i get it in. thirty million dollars before this land could be for it, it would strengthen rather than diminish Mr. SMITH. How do you know you will made available. The consequence was, when
the credit of the country. they went to capitalists here and elsewhere, These gentlemen that have now taken hold Nr. WENTIVORTH. I do not care what it they failed to find those who were willing to of this thing expect to put their hands in their | is; if gentlemen want to offer their amend: take this immense grant of land, this wild and own pockets down to the elbow and bring out ments, I want to let them, so that they may all mountainous land-land, as the gentleman from the money that will build this road. They will go to the Committee on Public Lands. Minnesota [Mr. DONNELLY] has truly said, complete the first twenty-five miles before they The SPEAKER. The gentleman will havo entirely unavailable, and which could not be ask for the guarantee of a dollar. And when to withdraw the motion to commit and offer the sold to any capitalists in the world for five that is done, $750,000 to $1,000,000 more. amendment hinself. cents an acre.
They do not expect simply to spend the money Mr. WENTWORTH. Can I offer it, and They failed to find the capital, but they did they receive liere, and they cannot think of then renew the motion ? not fail to find those who, if they could control going forward to build the road, relying for The SPEAKER. Yes, sir. this charter, would be glad to make it acces. their pay upon the proceeds of the sale of lands Mr. WENTWORTH. Then I will do it by sory to great works through the British North until the road itselt shall be remunerative. unanimous consent. [Laughter.] American Provinces. They found British cap- Sir, I believe that the country generally and The Clerk read the amendment, as follows: ital could be obtained to build this road. I believe that members of this Congress honestly At the end of the second section insert the following
I will say to the House that I have not been feel that this road ought to be built. I know provizo: interested to the extent of one dollar in the the men in whose hands the enterprise is. They
Providel, That the land on the south side of tho
said railroad, tho proceeds of which are also to bo Northern or Central Pacific railroad; but when I are some of the best railroad men of the conn
pledged to the payment of the interest guarantied by found, a few weeks ago, a gentleman with whom try, and it is not for speculation that they have the Governinent, shall not be sold except on terms to I have been acquainted for years, and whom I embarked in it. They are just the men that the
bo agreed to by the Sccretary of the Treasury. have looked upon as the best railroad man in United States Government can trust to com.
Mr. SMITH. I now propose to say what I the country; when I found that he and his 28- mence it and carry it on to completion,
desire to say
The SPEAKER. The time yielded to the voted for or against that Pacific railroad bill, here under these circumstances and demand of gentleman has expired. [Laughter.]
but you will find no vote by yeas and nays; us to guaranty the interest upon $57,000,000 Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois, obtained and I can find but few gentlemen here who for twenty years, amounting to the sun of the floor.
were members of the last Congress, in view of $69,000,000, which the Government is to asMr. SMITH. I hope the gentleman from what is already seen and known in regard to sume; and I want also to call the attention of Illinois will yield me ten minutes of his time. the actions of that company, who are willing | members to the bill itself. I want them to
Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I will to concede that they were for the bill. I know examine its provisions and to discover for yield the gentleman the residue of the even- I put myself on the record against it, and by themselves its extraordinary provisions. I ing if the House will agree to adjourn after that record I stand to-day. The ground upon know something about the manner in which he gets through.
which it was urged that we should pass that these things are got up, these bills for railroad Mr. WENTWORTH. I hope the previous bill was this: that we must have a Pacific companies, and for other companies and corquestion will not be seconded to-night.“ A great railroad; one Pacific railroad. I was willing porations. It is not what the Government many members have gone home, not expecting to admit that. I was willing to do everything shall exact from the companies, but what the a vote.
which it was proper for a Representative of companies will exact from the Government. The SPEAKER. How much time does the the American people to do to secure such an They make their bills and present them to us gentleman from Illinois yield to the gentleman object; but I was unwilling to vote for the and we are to pass them. Now, I ask my disfrom Kentucky?
extravagant bill proposed. But the cry for tinguished friend from Iowa (Mr. Price] to Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I cannot the road, without regard to the means, overbore | give me his attention while I consider the secyield to him at all unless it be the understand- every consideration, and the bill passed. ond section of this bill. ing that the House shall adjourn when he con- What then happened? So great a success There is a portion of the second section to cludes. With that understanding I am willing had been achieved in the passage of that bill, which I desire to call the attention of members to yield to him indefinitely.
that a short time afterward any distinguished of the House, and particularly my friend from Mr. SPALDING. Will the gentleman from friend from Pennsylvania, [Mr. STEVENS, ] Iowa, [Mr. PricE.) A great deal has been said Illinois yield me the floor to allow me to make brought in another bill from the Committee on to prove that eventually the Government will a motion to lay this bill upon the table? the Pacific Railroad, for the construction of not be called upon to meet any part of the lia
Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. No, sir; the “Northern Pacific railroad." And I | bility which it is to assume; that ultimately I cannot yield the floor forethat purpose now. recollect well the discussion upon that bill. everything will be paid by this company. Now, I will proceed with the few remarks I have to As it was stated it was an enormous bill; giv- ) sir, there is one thing that we know. We know make.
ing a breadth of twenty miles of the public the extent of the obligation which we are to I know, Mr. Speaker, the disadvantages lands on the line of the road in the States, and assume; that is certain. Everything else must, under which I undertake to address the House | forty miles of the public lands in all the Terri- of course, be uncertain, so far as reimburseat this late hour of the session, fatigued as it tories through which it was proposed the road ment is concerned. But I ask, where in this must be by the speeches which have already should pass; granting for the construction of bill is there any binding provision upon the been made upon this question; but I would not the road a number of acres running up to un- part of the company by which the Government dare to return to my home and face the incor- told millions; indeed, so great that you can shall be certain to receive anything? The obruptible, honest, and patriotic constituency | scarcely state it.
ligations are not mutual and dependent; they that have so long honored me with their sup- And what were the arguments that were used are all on one side. When this company shall port and confidence if I did not oppose, not when this bill was brought forward? It took the have built a certain amount of the road, then only by my vote, but by my voice, feeble and Hlouse by surprise, as I well recollect. But the the obligation becomes complete that the Govuninfluential though it is, this last, greatest, | gentleman from Pennsylvania, with that ability ernment shall guaranty this stock to å given and most gigantic scheme which has ever beeni and ingenuity and influence which he so justly amount. Then, what does the Government brought into the House of Representatives of exercises, convinced the House that it would | get-I ask the chairman of the committeethe United States.
be proper to pass the bill for the reason that what is the absolute certainty that the GovernSir, we had a night session the other night. such a road might be built and that the grant ment will get anything in return for this? W did not come here to inaugurate some of land that we made was sufficient to build it. Mr. PRICE. Mr. Speakerlegislation by which we might relieve our tax- And what did my friend from Pennsylvania tell Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. Let the ridden and overburdened constituents. We the House in that respect? I beg leave to call gentleman reply in his closing argument. I did not come here for the purpose of consid- his attention to an extract I will read from his ask, where is the security that this company ering any bill to reduce their oppressive taxes. speech on that occasion. He said:
will ever pay one dollar into the Treasury of But we gathered here, with unwonted alacrity, “But I have looked a little into this matter, in the the United States ? to vote sixty-nine millions of the people's money
fulfillment ofiny duties as chairman of this cominit- Mr. PRICE. I would like to answer that out of the public Treasury to a private railroad
tee, and I satisfied myself, first, that these men would
question now. corporation. And, sir, I consider it a species Government. I do not call the grant of this land Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. No, sir ; of good luck that this scheme, so well lobbied giving away anything."
the gentleman can answer me hereafter. He and so well planned, was not put through, as Notwithstanding all this, when we came to will have the privilege of closing this debate. it was intended to have been put through, on vote upon the bill, the House voted it down by Now, sir, I want gentlemen to look at the that night under the screws of the previous a vote of 55 to 66; and the bill was lost. But nature of what is called the "security, which question, without
any chance being afforded to afterward my distinguished friend brought in this company offers. What is the security, I discuss and expose its enormities.
another bill, and under the pressure of the again demand? Does the Government retain Sir, I have some little knowledge of the his- previous question—the proceedings occupying its title to the lands? No, because in the tory of this legislatiom in regard to these rail- but little more than a column in the Congres. | original charter it is stipulated that the comroad matters. I recollect how the supplemen- sional Globe, I think -- the bill was finally pany shall receive patents for the lands when tal Pacific railroad bill was put through the passed. But that was not done without the they shall have finished a certain number of last Congress. And I desire gentlemen here, House being satisfied, not only by what was miles of the road. As soon as that is done, who were sent here by their constituents to said by the gentleman from Pennsylvania, but the company gets the absolute title to the lands, protect their interests, and who intend to vote by what was put into the bili. In reply to the and the Government has no further control for this bill, to look for themselves and see argument that this company, as the Central
over it. what obligations have already been fastened Pacific Railroad Company has done, would Now, sir, what does this bill propose that upon the country in regard to these railroads. come here and demand some more aid from the company shall do? The second section
In the first instance, the Pacific railroad bill the Government, he incorporated into the very contains the following provision: contained an enormous grant of land from the text of the bill that “no money shall be drawn And for the further security of the Government Missouri river to the Pacific coast; and that from the Treasury of the United States to aid
for the pledge of the payment of interest as aforesaid,
over and above the deposit of twenty-five percent. of grant was wade upon the ground that the Cen- in the construction of the Northern Pacific
the gross receipts, as above provided, the proceeds tral Pacific railroad could be built under it. railroad." That was considered a sweetener; of the sales of all the lands granted by the charter of And yet, at the last session of Congress we that was a pledge to the country by Congress,
the said company, situated on the southerly side of
the line of said railroad, shall, as often as the sales passed a supplemental bill doing, what? Why, il and a pledge by the company to Congress, that of'the same shall be made, be held as security for the incurring an obligation of $95,000,000, grant
this road would never come here to get any- payment of the interest so paid by the Government ing more land in addition to all tlie land that | thing more from the Government.
als aforesaid, and shall be deposited in the Treasury had been voted theretofore; and further than
of the United States by the treasurer of said company
Now, how is the fact? By the nineteenth on thelst days of April and October in each and every that, as you will see if you look at the bill, section of that bill there were certain things to year, to be applied by the Secretary of the Treasury subordinating all our securities to these se- be done in two years from the 2d of July, 1864,
to reimburse ihe Government for any money's paid curities of the railroad company. That bill
for interest as aforesaid, and also as security for the in order to save the charter; yet since the 2d future payment the Government of any interest was passed at a night session, too; and so of July, 1864, now nearly two years, these par- aceruing under said pledge, until the Government great was its popularity that we could not even ties have never, so far as it appears, struck a
shall be fully reimbursed for the payment of the obtain a vote upon it by yeas and nays.
interest as aforesaid; and to secure the payment of spade into the ground along the whole line of said percentage of the gross receipts, and the deposit of More than that, sir, that Central Pacific this proposed road, have never done a day's the proceeds of the sales of the public land as before Railroad Company, in addition to these grants, work on the road, or made any preparation provided, the Secretary of the Treasury of the United has come here this session and demanded of
States, whencver in his judgment it shall be neceswhatever-in fact, have done nothing at all sary for the safety of the Government to do so, is us something like sixty thousand dollars more, toward commencing the work. Now, I call hereby empowered to appoint an inspector, whoshall I believe, to pay expenses which it is bound to upon the American people to take notice of have authority to examine the books and accounts
of the company, and to direct the application of the pay itself. Look to the record to see who what is going on here. These parties come said percentage of the gross receipts and the deposit