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Constitution. I belong to that, and stand by trust of my ability to do those subjects and the of the representatives from these States so that it to-day.
people who honored me with a seat here that the dominant party here can have time to make The resolution which was offered by the justice which is perhaps demanded of me. But, such amendments to the Constitution and pass gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. Stevens) sir, the present unsettled and unfortunate con- such laws as in their judgment will secure their in 1862 reflected my ideas then, and it ex- dition of our country demands that every one party in power, and which they know that they presses my ideas now. If he and his friends who loves the American name; every one who
could not do if all the States were represented? have departed from it, it is not my fault. I loves the Government and the Union of the Sir, is this calculated to inspire the people with choose to stand by it now, as I did then. Let United States; every one who loves the Con- confidence that this Congress intends to do me read it:
stitution that is the basis and foundation of equal justice to all? “ Resolved, That if any person in the employment
our Government and Union should do some. Mr. Speaker, the idea of being taxed without of the United States, in either the legislative or ex- thing, if possible, to calm and unite the feel- the right of representation is one that has ecutive branch, should propose to make peace, or should accept or propose to accept any such proposi
ings and sentiments of the people, so that we always been abhorred and detested by the tion, on any other basis than the integrity and entire may all once more have full confidence in the American people, and accordingly we find in unity of the United States and their territory as they justice, integrity, and perpetuity of our Gov- the Declaration of Independence one of the existed at the timo of the rebellion, he will be guilty of a high crimo." crnment.
strongest reasons for rebelling against the King
Sir, it is said that our Government can only of England was that he had refused to pess We then declared that it was a crime for a
be maintained by the consent of the governed, | laws for the accommodation of large districts man to believe that this Union was dissolved,
and if this be true-as I apprehend all will of people unless those people would relinquish and to-day the gentleman from Pennsylvania
agree that it is—the proper question for us now the right of representation in the legislature; is guilty of that very crime; and I stand her
to settle is, what course should this Congress a right, they say, that is inestimable to them to-day to assert it. I am sorry that he is not
pursue in order to restore confidence in the and formidable to tyrants only. The Constiin his seat. If he were, I presume he would
ininds of the people, to convince them that it tution of the United States also declares that answer me as he did on a foriner occasion when
is the intention of the Congress of the United representation and direct taxes shall be appormy mouth was shut, and I was not permitted
States to treat all the citizens of this country tioned among the several States, which may be by the rules of the House to respond, in lan
with equal justice, no matter whether they live included within this Union, according to their guage which no gentleman would utter. I
in the North or South, or whether they live in respective numbers. Sir, I may safely say that suppose he would inake a similar response to
the East or West? Sir, if this can be accom- the sentiment that there should be no taxation day; but let me say that anything that falls from
plished all of our differences will at once be at without representation has become so deeply such a mouth falls harmless at my feet, as its
an end; the soldiers that are now kept in the impressed in the minds of the people of the utterer is old, decrepit, and powerless.
various States may at once be disbanded and United States that every effort to change it Now, I want to say, as my time is nearly out, that I believe in the Union of these States; I
returned to their homes, and the people in all will but be the means to hurl from place or
the States would at once, as in times gone by, position every man who makes it. Sir, the believe in the punishment of treason as a crime;
be constituted into a wall of defense against President has fixed a plan for the restoration I believe in the perpetuity of this Government; I believe in the Constitution and laws of my
any and every enemy against the United States of those States, the people of those States have
no matter where they might make their appear- sacrificed a very large amount of property and country; I believe it is the best, the purest, the
Sir, can we not do this? Can we not also their own political views in order to bemost beneficent Government that God ever
sacrifice our prejudices, our anger, and resent- come the recipients of the President's plan. gave to man; and I rejoice with men of all colors, that this to-day is recognized as a free
mnent, our party feelings, yes, and our parties, || They are willing and anxious to do it, and why Government. I am glad that ihe shackles of
too, if necessary, in order to accomplish such should we object?
a noble purpose? Sir, we have already sacri- Sir, we have no sacrifice to make; we have slavery have been stricken from the limbs of four million people, and that they are in the ficed millions of money and oceans of blood maintained the Constitution and the Union;
the flag of our fathers floats undisturbed over the full stature of manhood. I would throw no
after the people have sacrificed all this cannot this nation; and I appeal to this House and to
we lay aside our differences and determine, at the country, I appeal to every lover of this obstacles in their way; I would do all I could
least for the present, that we will adhere to the to elevate them, and secure to them those rights
Union, to come up like men and support the to which they are entitled under the Constitu
Constitution as it is, and require only that it President in his noble and manly efforts to
shall be maintained, and the laws obeyed? tion and laws of my country,
restore these erring people and States to Sir.look for one momentatourcondition. The maintain the Constitution and the Union, that But I want to see this Union restored; I want to see the States restored to their original || ity of the United States have all acknowledged | happiness.
who were in rebellion against the author: people
we may once more have peace, prosperity, and
Sir, it may be said that we have positions in that Union. I want to see these seats filled; I want to see representatives both
their defeat; they have surrendered to Federal had some foreshowing of a plan, or rather here, and on the floor of the Senate, from all
authority. Yes, sir, they have done everything the conditions upon which these States are to the States, so that we may be once more a
that has been required of them in order to their be allowed to be represented in the Congress
admission to seats in this Hall, and still we of the United States. It is true that the maunited people, and united for good. Let us
refuse them, notwithstanding they were told | jority of the committee of fifteen did report maintain the integrity of the nation, the Union
time after time by the highest authority that all that the people of Tennessee were in a conof the States, the supremacy of the Constitution, and the enforcement of the laws. Then,
that was necessary was for them to lay down dition to exercise the functions of a State shall we transmit to posterity the liberties which
their arms and submit to the laws. Sir, is this within this Union; but they then assert that we have enjoyed, based upon the rights of man,
calculated to give confidence to these people they can only exercise the same by the consent the liberties of the people, and in a country
that they will be treated with equal justice by l of the law-making power of the United States.
this Congress? They have, by State convenwhoge resources have scarcely begun to be
Now, sir, if the people of the State of Tennesdeveloped. We shall go on and upward to
tions, amended their constitutions so as to abol- see are in a condition to exercise the functions
ish slavery in each State; they have declared of a State, I ask, by what means or by what greatness and glory. Then, can we invite to our shores the people of all nations, opening | diated all debts created on account of rebellion,
their ordinances of secession to be void, repu- | authority are they in tlmt condition? It must to them the doors of civilization; educating and most of them have ratified the amendment || ted States; and if so, I would like to know by
be by authority of the Constitution of the Uniand elevating them, and providing them with
to the Constitution of the United States abolcomfortable homes; then shall we be the center
what authority these people are required to of civilization, a great, grand, glorious, and
ishing slavery everywhere in the United States; || obtain the consent of the law-making power of Christianized people, whose rule shall spread
and now, sir, they are submitting to taxation the United States before they do exercise those from one end of the continent to the other;
while we are refusing to allow them to be rep: functions which they admit themselves that
resented in this Hall. Sir, is this course cal- they are in a condition to exercise. nay, throughout the world--instructing man in the paths of truth, virtue, and equal liberty.
culated to give confidence to the people that Now, sir, I affirm that when a State is in a
this Congress intends that all of the citizens of condition to exercise the functions of a State LEAVE OF ABSENCE.
the United States shall be free and equal? that Congress has no right or authority to reMr. F. THOMAS asked and obtained leave But, sir, it is said that we must have guaran. || quire anything more than to judge of the legality of absence for his colleague, Mr. J.L. Tuomas,
tees. What do we understand from this? Sir, of the election and qualification of its members, for Monday and Tuesday of next week. who has told what these guarantees are to be? | and to require that they shall take the oath pre
Mr. RITTER asked and obtained leave of All of the dominant party in this House are scribed by the Constitution. But they then absence for Mr. HOGAN for two weeks.
asking for and claiming that we should have declare that Tennessee is one of the United
guarantees, yet no plan of restoration setting States of America upon the express condition FREE AND SLAVE LABOR, ETC.
forth the guarantees demanded by them has that the people shall do certain things, and Mr. RITTER. Mr. Speaker, I arise to-day | been presented to this House. Sir, why have the that they shall not do certain other things. with much diffidence; and if I were to consult | people in the lately rebellious States abolished These conditions are all very remarkable, and my own feelings I certainly would have re. slavery, pronounced their secession ordinances are required without even a shadow of authormained silent. The fact, sir, that so many gen- void, repudiated their war debts, &c., unless ity. But, sir, there is one of then that strikes tlemen of great ability have so ably discussed it has been to conform to the requirements of me as being more remarkable than all the rest, most of the important subjects that are now the conquerors, and thereby give assurances, or for the reason that in requiring it they make a agitating the public mind, together with a due guarantees if you please, that they will obey demand, as I understand it, in direct opposiappreciation of the great importance and mag. the laws of the United States? Sir, is not this tion to an express declaration of the Constitunitude of these questions, is well calculated to cry for guarantees merely an excuse for the tion. The condition alluded to is in the words, throw over one ot' my humble pretensions a dis- purpose of postponing the time of the admission " Nor shall the said State ever in any manner
elaim from the United States, or make any The argument is that as Ohio has a larger pop
The assessed value of real estate and per. allowance or compensation for slaves eman: ulation and makes more in the aggregate than sonal property was in 1860, $411,042,424; makcipated or liberated in any way whatever." Kentucky, therefore free labor is more profit- ing an average to each person in the State of Now, sir, these slaves were the property of some- able than slave labor. I suppose, however, about $305. body, or else they could not have been slaves, that the hard-working farmer in Ohio would The population of the State of Tennessee and the Constitution expressly declares that not be much comforted by a knowledge of the private property shall not be taken for public | fact that his State made more in the aggregate White..
826.782 use without just compensation. than the State of Kentucky if he is at the same
Free colored persons
7,300 Sir, I have heard a great deal said by gen
Slaves.... time informed of the additional fact that each
275,719 tlemen upon this floor about the importance | individual, white, free colored, and slave-in Total population
.1,109,801 and propriety of the Government complying the State of Kentucky did make more on an with its plighted faith and solemn promises | average than did each individual in the State The assessed value of real estate and permade to the colored people. This is all very of Ohio. What gratification can it afford to sonal property in the State of Tennessee was well; but, sir, a great Government like ours a citizen of Ohio to know that his neighbor- in 1860 $382,495,209. The average value to should never place itself in such a condition hood is very densely populated, and that be- each person including slaves is about $343, that the fulfillment of one promise is the direct ca
cause of that fact, together with the difference and if the average is made only among the violation of another. Sir, what stronger pledge, in their system of labor, that he makes less on white and free colored persons it will be found what more solemn promise, has this Govern- an average than does each individual in the to be about $453 to each one, against $305 to ment ever made than the pledge to the white State of Kentucky?
each person in the State of Indiana. people of these United States that their lives, To prove that this is true, I beg to call the Mr. KELLEY. Are all the people of Kenliberty, or property should not be taken with- attention of this House and of the country to tucky embraced in that calculation-slaves and out due process of law; and then added the that most valuable document, the Eighth Cen- all ? clause above quoted, that private property sus, made in 1860. By an examination of that Mr. RITTER. Every one; white people, should not be taken without just compensation? || document it will be found that the State of free colored people, and slaves; if there are any Sir, no stronger promise or pledge has ever been Ohio had in 1860 a population of
other kinds there, if the gentleman will point made to any people. It is true that this prom- Whites.....
..2,302,838 them out, I will include them. ise was made to white people; but that does
Free colored persons..
36,673 Mr. KELLEY. And the property equals not make it less obligatory upon us.
..2,339,511 $500 to each one of them? would have owned a slave if the Constitution
Mr. RITTER.' Three hundred and fortyand laws of the country had not authorized it? The assessed value of real estate and personal || three dollars to each. Being thus authorized, the people of Tennes- property in Ohio was $959,867, 101. The aver- Mr. KELLEY. Slaves and all? see vested their money in slaves, relying upon age value of property assessed in Ohio, to each Mr. RITTER. Yes, sir ; if you exclude the the pledges and promises of the Government || individual, white and free colored, is about slaves it will be $459 to each. to protect them in it. Really, sir, it does seem $410.
In Indiana in 1860 : to me to be most remarkable that we do not Kentucky had of
Wheat raised 15,219,120 bu., at $1 83 bu. $15,219,120
400,226 only disregard the pledge of the Federal Gov- Whites.....
69,611.591 bu., at 50cts. 31,820.792 ernment, but they also require the State of Free colored persons.
2,514.387 Tennessee to violate her own pledges made to
225,483 Tobacco, 7,246,132 lbs, at 10cts......... 754,613
Cotton, her own people.
..1,155,684 Value oflivestock, including horses, mules, But, Mr. Speaker, it is not my purpose to
asses, milch cows, working oxen, other day to discuss the important subject of the The assessed value of real estate and personal cattle, sheep, and swine
50,116,964 restoration of the seceded States further than property in Kentucky was $528,212,693 ; mak
.$103,796.105 I have done. My object is to ask attention to ing an average to each individual, white, free another subject of perhaps but little less im- || colored, and slave, of about $157; and it made This makes an average to each person in the portance. It is, sir, to one of the most im- to each white and free colored person, the aver: State of Indiana of about $77. portant sources to which we are to look for age is about $567 to each one.
The products of Tennessee in 1860 were as revenue to enable us to meet the vast demand To ascertain which had the most profitable follows: that is now continually pressing upon us in the system of labor, the people of Ohio, or those Wheat raised, 5,409,863 bu., at $1 ba...... $5,409,863 item of interest, as well as to supply the ordi- of Kentucky, I deem it necessary only to call Rye,
265,314 bu., at $1
Corn, 50,748.266 bu., at 50 cts. 25,374,133 Dary demands of the Government, and ultimately || attention to the most important products raised
2.313,122 bu., at 50 cts. 1,171,561 to pay the enormous debt that we now owe. in each State, and estimate their value, and Tobacco, 38,931,277 lbs, at 10 cts... 3,893,127 To be more explicit, it is my purpose to speak make the average to each person, thus:
Cotton, 227,450 bales, counted at
400 lbs. A balc and 20 cts. 3 lb, is...... 9,098,000 of the agricultural interest of the country, and
In Ohio in 1860 :
Live stock, including horses, mules, and to show, if I can, the difference in the different
Wheat raised, 14,532,570 hu., at $1 7 bu..... $14,532,570
asses, milch cows, working oxen, other
70,637,140 ba., at 50 cts. 35,318,570 systems of labor as, practiced in this country
61,257,374 Rye, 656,146 bu., at $1 per
cattle, sheep, and swine....... heretofore, and what may be expected from the
.$106,469,402 laborers now in portions of this country under
Tobacco; 25,528,972 lbs at 10 cts. 1 D.... 255,297 the system of labor now being inaugurated. Cotton,
This makes an average to each person in Sir, the agricultural interest of this country is Valuo of live stock, including horses,
the State of Tennessee, including slaves, of one of far more importance than any other one
mules, and asses, milch cows, working
$95. And if the average is made between interest, and perhaps of many others put to
the white and free colored person only, it is gether, and if the agriculturists should fail for Total value............
$138,935,929 about $127 to each person, against $77 to only a few years together, our whole country would be ruined, and no other interest or branch
This gives on an average to each person in
each person in the State of Indiana.
But as it may be thought that a comparison of industry could save us; but let the agriculi | the State of Ohio about $59.
between these four States is not sufficient to turists sứcceed, and with proper legislation the
In Kentucky in 1860: country is safe. Now, sir, if this be true, we Wheat raised, 7,394,811 bu., at $1 bu..... $7,394,811
satisfy every one, we will go still further, and Corn, 61,043,633 bu., at 50 cts. 32.021.866 introduce the great and rich State of Illinois see at once the great necessity of fostering and
1,055,262 and compare it with the State of Alabama. protecting that important and worthy class of
The population of the State of Illinois was Rice,
24,407 lbs, at 10 cts. b... 2,440 our fellow-citizens. Tobacco, 108,102,437 lbs, at 10 cts. Ib... 10,810,243
in 1860: Sir, in making our calculations for revenue Cotton,
4,092 bales, at 10 cts.
..1,704,323 to meet the vast demands against us, it will not
ib, counting the bales at 400 lbs....
7.628 Value of live stock, including horses, do for us to suppose that the revenue from the
mules, asses, milch cows, working oxen,
.1,711,951 States heretofore known as slave States will be other cattle, sheep, and swing
61,868,237 increased by this great and sudden destruction
The assessed value of real estate and perof slave labor, but that the products of those
sonal property was $389,207,372. This makes States will be greatly diminished, and to the
This gives an average to each person in the an average value to each person in the State extent of that diminution must be the increase
State of Kentncky, including slaves, of about of about $221. of taxation in the free States. The Govern
$100; and if the average is made only among The population of the State of Alabama was ment, therefore, must look to the free States to the white and free colored persons, the amount
in 1860: make up the deficiency caused by the destruc- to each one would be about $125, more than White persons
..526,431 tion of slave labor in the former slave States.
2.000 double the amount made to each person in
435,050 I know, sir, that this statement, if true, dis
Ohio, the people of Ohio making only $59 to proves the truth of an assertion long and loudly each person. But to test this matter further, Total........
.961,201 made by a certain class of politicians in our
we will take the most important of the prodcountry, to wit, that free or hired laboris more ucts of the States of Tennessee and Indíana:
The assessed value of property, real estate profitable than slave labor, and in order to
and personal, was in 1860 $432, 198,762, mak
The State of Indiana has a population of prove this assertion to be true, a comparison White persons...
..1,339,000 || ing an average to each person in the State, has often been made between the States of Free colored persons..
11,428 including slaves, of about $448, and if the Ohio and Kentucky, Ohio being a free State
average is made between the white and free and using free labor, and Kentucky slave labor.
colored persons of the State only, it will be
found to be about $800 to each person in of these will be found to be about $1,624, those who are so persistently endeavoring to the State of Alabama, against $221 to each || against $631 in the State of Massachusetts. bring on an equality here? What is there in this person in the State of Ilinois.
In Massachusetts in 1860:
plain and clear historic fact that gives hope for Mr. KELLEY. Will the gentleman allow Wheat raised, 119,783 bu., at $1 7 bu....... $119,783 a better result here if these wild and fanatical
388,085 me to put a brief question to him right here?
1.078,531 2,157.063 bu., at 50 cts.
schemes are pressed upon the people of these Mr. RITTER. A short one.
590,037 United States? Do we not know, sir, that his. Mr. KELLEY. Does that calculation emRice,
tory will repeat itself, and that if they continue Tobacco, 3,233,298 lbs, at 10 cts. Ib.... 323,319 brace the appraised value of the slaves in Value of livestock, including horses, mules,
to press and force upon the people this equal. Alabama and Kentucky?
asses, milch cows, working oxen, othercat
ity that similar results will be the consequence Mr. RITTER. Yes, sir; I believe the Gov. tle, sheep, and swine....
12.737,744 here? ernment always went upon the principle that
But, sir, let us follow our author a little they were worth something.
further, and see what has been the result of Mr. KELLEY. Does the calculation also embrace the appraised value of the laboring | State of Massachusetts of about $13.
This gives an average to each person in the the emancipation of these people upon the
industry and prosperity of the island. He people of the free States ?
South Carolina raised in 1860:
informs us that the universal freedom of the Mr. RITTER. That has nothing to do with
Wheat, 1,295,631 bu., at $1 #bu.
blacks was proclaimed on the 3d of June, 1793, it, because the free colored people in the slave
89.091 bu., at $1
89,091 and then gives us the following table, which he States are upon just the same footing in that Corn, 15.06),606 bu., at 50 cts.
7,532.803 says contains the comparative wealth, produce,
Oats, respect with the free laboring population of the
and trade of St. Domingo in 1789 and in 1832, North.
Tobacco, 101,412 tbs, at 10 cts.
10,141 after forty years of nominal freedom: The people of the State of Illinois made, in Cotton, 353,413 bales, counted at 400 lbs
1789. 1860, the following products :
to the bale, and 20 cts. a 1b, is about..... 28,273,010 Value of livestock, including horses, mules,
600,000 Wheat, 24,159,500 bu., at $1 bu.. $21,159,500
.672,000,000 asses, milch cows, working oxen, other
Sugar exported, pounds. Rye, 981.322 bu., at $1 981.32
Cofree, pounds... cattle, sheep, and swine.....
86,780,000 Corn, 115,296,779 bu., at 50 cts. 57,618,389
27.000 Tobacco, 7,014,230 lbs, at 10 cts. Ib 701,423
Exports to France
£6,720,000 Rice, none.
Imports from France...
280.000 Valucoflivestock, including horse, mules,
about one hundred and four dollars; and if Sugar asses, milch cows, working oxen, other
32,000,000 cattle, sheep, and swine..... 73,434,621 the average is made between the white and
Ships employed. free colored persons only, it will be to each
167 Total value..........
about two hundred and forty-three dollars, Exports to France....
Here sir, we have a very sad but very inState of Illinois of about $96.
It may be said that Massachusetts is not structive account of the result of suddenly . I would like to have the attention of the
an agricultural State, and that her wealth and emancipating large numbers of the colored race. gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. KELLEY] || profits arise from her manufactories. This does Sir, is history to repeat itself in this instance? to this, because I suppose he will attempt to
not alter the case, as her property is certainly | Is it not most rational for us to suppose that it disprove these calculations, if he can.
all included in her list of property assessed for will? What reason have we to believe that the Mr. KELLEY. I think they are disproved taxation, and the same difference exists there. colored people will do any better here than
But we are told that the negro will work they have done under similar circumstances in Mr. RITTER. I have no doubt they are as
better and produce more as a freeman than they other countries? Sir, can any gentleman supmuch as they ever will be.
have ever done as slaves. To ascertain what | pose after being informed of these plain historThe people of the State of Alabama made,
is true, or what we may expect from the col- ical facts that those large and rich plantations in 1860, the following products :
ored people that have been lately made free, in the former slave States will ever (for generaWheat, 1,222,487 bu., at $i 3 bu.......... $1,222,487 we have only to ascertain what has been the tions to come) be made to wave and almost Rye, 73,912 bu., at $1
73,912 Corn, 32,761,194 bu., at 50 cts.
result where any large numbers of that race to groan with or on account of the rich harvests Oats, 716,435 bu., at 50 cts.
358,217 have been suddenly emancipated; and in order of former years? No sir. But on the contrary Rice, 499,559 tbs, at 10 cts. 8.tb.
49.965 that there shall be no cause for contradiction | these broad and fertile acres will be uncultiTobacco, 221,284 it, at 10 cts.
22,128 Cotton, 997,978 bales, at 400 tbs to the bale,
on this point as to the facts of the case I will vated, the fences that once inclosed them rotted and at 20 cts. th...
79,838,240 || give them in the language of that eminent his- and gone, and the land which once sent forth Value of live stock, including horses,
torian, Alison, who, in his History of Europe, such large and heavy crops of grain, tobacco, mules, asses, milch cows, working oxen, other cattle, sheep, and swine.... 43,061,805
and cotton will be covered with brambles and "St. Domingo, the greatest except Cuba, and be- other wild growth that will afford no profit to Total ......
.$111,007,371 yond all question the most flourishing of the West either man or beast.
But, sir, we have other evidence to prove that This gives an average to each person in the
hundred milcs in length and its average breadth about
ninety miles. The Spanish possessed two thirds and whenever large numbers of colored people are State of Alabama, including slaves, of about the French the remainder. In the French portion the suddenly emancipated the result is the destruc. $146; and if the average is made between inhabitants consisted of about forty thousard whites,
tion of labor, and consequently a very large. the white and free colored persons only it is
sixty thousand mulattoes, and five hundred thousand
negro slaves. This French colony was immensely pro- falling off of the products of the soil. about $266, against an average of $96 in the ductive, exceeding all the British islands together. I will call the attention of gentlemen to the State of Illinois.
Its exports, including the Spanish portion, were These facts, it seems to me, are sufficient to £18,400,000, and its imports £10,000,000 sterling. Eigh
facts as they have occurred in the island of teen hundred vessels and twenty-seven thousand Jamaica, where the negroes were emancipated satisfy the most prejudiced partisan as to which sailors were employed in conducting the vast colonial under the most favorable circumstances; their is the most profitable, free or slave labor; but traffic. It was this splendid and unequaled colonial
freedom was not said to be the result of war. as some persons are never satisfied unless ex
possession which the French nation threw away and
destroyed at the commencement of the Revolution, No, sir; the Parliament of Great Britain hontremes are made to meet, I beg to ask attention with a recklessness and improvidence of which the estly made an appropriation to pay the owners to a few facts in relation to the States of Mas- previous history of the world had afforded no examsachusetts and South Carolina. ple. Hardly had the cry of liberty and equality been
for their property, and full equality, as it is raised in France,says our historian, when it responded desired here, was granted to the negro race. Massachusetts had a population in 1860 of, warmly and vehemently from the shores of St. Do- Parliament passed the act liberating the slaves White persons...
1,221,161 mingo. The slave population were rapidly assailed Free colored persons..
on this island in 1833. Their population at 9,602
by revolutionary agents and emissaries, and the work
shops and fields of the planters overrun by heated that time was, of whites, 15, 776; mulattoes, Total..........
missionaries, who poured into an ignorant and ardent 68,527; and of blacks, 293,125. In the year
1810 Jamaica imported to the amount of The assessed value of real estate and per- empowered the colonies to make known their wishes £4,308,337, and her exports were £3,305,579. sonal property in Massachusetts in 1860 was on the subject of a constitution by Colonial Assem
In twenty years after the emancipation of the $777,157,816, making an average to each per
blics frecly elected by their own citizens, and on the
slaves her imports had fallen off to the sum son in the State of about $631.
conferred by the same authority on all persons of of £864,094 and her exports to the sum of South Carolina had a population in 1860 of
color born of a free father and inother. The plant- £837,276; and in 1864 her exports were only White persons
£403,520, and her imports £932,316. There Free colored....
war was preparing, when, on the night of the 26th Slaves.....
has been some increase in her black and mu.402, 406
of August. 1791, the negro insurrection long and
silently organized, at once broke forth and wrapped | latto population ; but the white population have Total.....
the whole northern part of the colony in flames.
decreased to the amount of 1,960, and during population of the island. The cruelties exercised the period between 1832 and 1847, 605. Sugar The assessed value of real estate and per
exceeded anything recorded in history. The negroes and coffee plantations containing 356,432 acres Bonal property in South Carolina was in 1860
marched with spiked infants on their spears instead
of land were entirely abandoned ; and from $489,319, 128, which makes an average to each and violated the females on the dead bodies of their 1848 to 1853 573 other plantations, containing pengon in the State, including slaves, of $695; || husbands."
391,187 acres, were totally or partially turned and if the average is made between the white Here, sir, we have the result of an attempt to waste. These facts were recently stated in and free colored persons, who were the owners to put the negro on an equality with the white a specch delivered in the other end of this of the property, the average value to each one man. Sir, does it afford any consolation to Il Capitol by oue of the Senators from Kentucky
the mover of the proposition undehot thought has the gentleman from Ohio (Mr. Snella
[Mr. Davis] as being verified by Mr. Carey, || facts as they now exist, and make the best we Mr. SHELLABARGER. I will exercise my and a statement made by the West India Asso- can of them.
right to resume the floor if I find that too ciation of Glasgow and other documents.
Mr. Speaker, I affirm that in my judgment | much time is to be taken. Mr. Bigelow, in his Notes on Jamaica, says: one of the most important things that can now Mr. ELDRIDGE. I object to the question “Shipping has deserted her ports, her magnificent be done in order to restore this Government being put to the gentleman from Kentucky plantations of sugar and coffee are running to weeds, her private dwellings are falling to decay, the com
and give confidence to the people in its justice [Mr. RITTER] unless he is allowed time to forts and luxuries which belong to industrial pros
and integrity, is for those who are now con: reply. perity have been cut off, one by one, from her inhab- trolling it to pay all loyal persons for all the Mr. KELLEY. He will have time. The itants; and the day is at hand when there will be no property of every kind that has been taken | gentleman from Kentucky stated the assessed one left to represent the wealth, intelligence, and hospitality for which the Jamaica planter was once
by the Government or its agents in order to value of the property of the slave States in so distinguished.”
enable it to put down the rebellion. Sir, no comparison with the assessed value of the propThe same writer, on page 53, says:
man can have confidence in the justice or erty of the free States. I want to inquire whether "It is difficult to exaggerate, and yet more difficult
integrity of a Government when he knows that that embraces the assessed value of the increase to define, the poverty and industrial prostration of it has taken the proceeds of his hard earnings, of slave population from year to year. Jamaica. The natural wealth and spontaneous pro- and then delays or refuses to make just com- Mr. RITTER. I believe the gentleman ductiveness of the island are so great that no one can starve; and yet it seems as if the faculty of accumu
pensation in some way. Sir, a very large asked that same question while I was upon lation were suspended. All tho productive power of number of loyal men in these United States the foor, with the exception of the part in the soil is running to waste: the finest land in the world may be had at any price, and almost for the
have had property of different kinds taken regard to the increase of slave population. Of asking;laborreceives no compensation, and the prod
from them, and in many cases it was property course slaves were regarded as valuable, and uct of labordoes not seem to know the way to market. upon which they mainly depended for a sup. were required by the laws of the State to be Families accustomed to wealth and every luxury havo witnessed the decline of their incomes until now, with
port, and yet payment is withheld or refused. assessed at what they would bring in the market, undiminished estates, they find themselves wrestling
Now, sir, what effect is this course to have and were taxed as property. with poverty for the commonest necessaries of life. upon the minds of the people? Does not every Mr. KELLEY. "I believe that branch of And on page 54 he says:
gentleman know that if the Government fails manufactures did not appear in the list of “Since the year 1833, when the British slave eman
to pay the citizen his just claims, and at the assessed property of the free States. cipation act was passed, the real estate of the island same time forces these same citizens to pay Mr. RITTER. That has nothing to do with has been rapidly depreciating in valuc, and its pro- taxes to support these men in office, that it the productions of the soil. ductiveness has been steadily diminishing to its present comparatively ruinous standard."
will have a tendency to alienate the minds of Mr. KELLEY. I wanted to point out the And on page 55 the same writer gives us a
the citizens and all love for the Government distinction. The gentleman's calculation of table, which he says is from official returns,
or its stability will be destroyed ? Sir, what property was made by appraising the value of showing the amount of exports for three years
other course could be adopted that would be each working man in the South at from three previons to the emancipation act with the ex
so well calculated to bring on a repudiation of hundred to one thousand dollars, and then credports for three years preceding the month of
the entire debt, and thus to prostrate and de- || iting him with a portion of that in the average October, 1848. He then adds that
stroy the credit and honor of this nation? Sir, | possession of property. “By this contrast it appears that during the last
only a few days since there was a proposition Now, I desire to ask the gentleman whether three years the island has exported less than half the
made in this House by an honorable member, it be true, as he states, that all have been on an sugar, rum, or ginger, less than one third the coffee, [Mr. Lawrence, of Ohio,] to amend the Consti- l equality in Jamaica. He stated that all, black less than one tenth the molasses, and nearly two million pounds less of pimento than during the three
tution so as to prohibit the payment by the and white, were equal in Jamaica. years wbich preceded the emancipation aet.'
Government or by the States for slaves that had Mr. RITTER. I gave my authority for the And on pages 62 and 63 of the same author been emancipated by it. Now, sir, why is such statement. we have this statement:
an amendment as this asked? Surely if the Mr. KELLEY. The right of suffrage there * The value of fixed property-sugar estates-before
Constitution and laws of our country give no is not possessed by one in ten of the populaemancipation was estimated at £20,000,000 sterling,
claim to those who formerly owned these slaves, tion; suffrage there is not as liberal as it is in but that the same property then could not be sold
England. for more than £600,000 sterling."
Mr. Speaker, can any gentleman suppose, that these people had a claim founded upon | BARGER] wants the floor, I will forego the other with this exhibition of facts before him, that the Constitution and laws he would not have questions. the former slave States will, at any time for || proposed such an amendment.
Mr. RITTER. I think any other day will generations to come, be able to pay one half the If, then, these people have this claim, and to do just as well. amount of revenue that they would have done avoid it this amendment is sought and forced Mr. KELLEY. I will ask one other quesif their system of labor had not been destroyed? | upon these people without their consent, I ask, tion: if taxation with representation be the true If so, I contess it is more than I can do. But, sir, will not this be repudiation, so far as it goes, | principle, and its disregard must lead to revosir, whatever the deficiency may be, it must be of the deepest dye, and what other effect do lution, ought not that principle to be applied clear to every one that those who did not own gentlemen suppose that such a measure can to the majority of the people of the two States slaves will each one have to pay their propor- have
of South Carolina and Mississippi? tionate part to make up that deficiency. alienate them from the Government and pre- Mr. RITTER. The gentleman makes that
But, sir, admitting that what I have said.is pare them to vote for the repudiation of the a matter of assertion. true, the great question of what is the best whole debt of the United States? Sir, I warn Mr. KELLEY. I ask the gentleman a coarse for us to adopt under the present state of | gentlemen, if they do not desire such a repu- question. He argues that the correct princiaffairs, still presses itself upon us and demands | diation, to stop in their wild and mad career ple is that taxation and representation should our serious and carnest consideration.
and to cease their efforts to force their peculiar | be equal, and that the disregard of that prinSir, it is the duty of all patriots to take facts views upon the people.
ciple would justify revolution. Now, I ask as they exist, and make the best out of them Sir, let us imitate the noble example set us whether the disregard of that principle in that we are able to do, without regard to party || by our President; let us unroll the Constitu. regard to the majority of the people of the considerations. We all know that we were tion, as he has done, and be governed by it ; two States of South Carolina and Mississippi once the most happy and prosperous people | let us open the doors of this IIouse to the Rep. would in his judgment justify revolution ? upon this globe. We also know that that is resentatives duly elected and qualified from all Mr. RITTÉR. I am in favor of taxation not the case now, but that our happiness and the States; let each State regulate and control and representation going together. In South prosperity as a nation is, to say the least of it, their own affairs in their own way, subject to Carolina they have always gone together, for greatly diminished. What, then, I ask, is neces- the Constitution and laws of the United States. the people have all been represented. sary for us to do in order again to be prosper- | This, sir, in my judgment, is the only way that Mr. KELLEY. The gentlemın stated that ous and happy? I know, sir, that some plain, we can ever have a restored Union. We may | the census of 1860 showed that there were common-sense people would think the question have a Government kept together by military | 291,000 white people in South Carolina, and easily answered, and that all we have to do power, but it will not in that way ever give us 412,000 colored people. Now, I ask whether would be to retrace our action and return to a restored Union.
the principle which he regards as so sacred and the condition we were in when we were pros- Mr. SHELLABARGER obtained the floor. inviolable should be applied to that State, and perous before, with all the laws and customs Mr. KELLEY. Will the gentleman from whether its disregard would in his judgment that we then had, and we would be so again. Ohio [Mr. SHELLABARGER] permit me to ask | justify revolution?
But, sir, these people forget that politicians one or two questions of the gentleman from Mr. RITTER. The gentleman forgets that are now ruling and leading the people of the Kentucky [Mr. Ritter) which he stated his the people of the State of South Carolina and United States, and their minds are filled with || willingness to answer after he should have con- the other southern States have always been the ideas of progress and reform, and that cluded his speech?
represented in the State Legislature, and until although these progressions and reforms may Mr. SHELLABARGER. If I knew how the last two or three years have always been be alone for the sake of maintaining a particu- | much time it would take I might be willing to represented in Congress. He appears to have lar party, yet rather than acknowledge that yield.
the idea that there were some persons in that they have failed in their attempts at reforma- Mr. KELLEY. It will not take five minutes. section of the country who were not repretion, they will press forward to something in Mr. SHELLABARGER. If it will not take sented. advance, even if they bring ruin upon all. Now, more than five minutes, I will yield.
Mr. KELLEY. Does the gentlemen, then, sir, under this state of case the people will Mr. KELLEY. I will propound the first mean that the person shall have no voice in have to regard all that has been done as fixed question with the leave of the gentleman from | electing his representative, but that an olifacts, at least for a time, and look to these Ohio.
garchy, an aristocracy, or a monarch Day
designate the representative; or does he mean that the representative shall be the choice of the person represented?
Mr. RITTER. I do mean to say that there are a good inany persons in the country who do not vote, and yet they are represented ; and I presume that such will be the case all time
I do not understand that any gentleman here proposes that everybody shall vote.
Mr. KELLEY. Then I will modify my question. Does the gentleman believe that a majority of the free adult male inhabitants of a State ought to have a voice in electing its representatives?
Mr. RITTER. Mr. Speaker, it seems to me we are consuming time here altogether unnecessarily. As I am trespassing upon the time of the gentleman from Obio, [Mr. SuellaBARGER,] I will make this single remark, that I do not regard this as the proper place to discuss the question in regard to the qualifications of voters. The Constitution has, in my opinion, placed the control of that question with the States.
Mr. KELLEY. It is not often that a gen tleman from Kentucky declines to answer a question or evades it.
DISFRANCHISEMENT OF REBELS. Mr. SHELLABARGER. Mr. Speaker, some wecks ago I introduced a resolution, which was adopted by this body, referring to the Judiciary Committee of this House the inquiry whether it is competent, under the American Constitution, for Congress to declare by law the forfeiture of citizenship where that citizenship has been voluntarily abandoned by acts of disloyalty. Since that resolution was adopted the distinguished gentleman who occupies the chair of this House has been, I am glad to find, speaking, in the same direction in which that resolution points. Since that, again, one of the most distinguished lawyers of the House has introduced a set of resolutions bearing upon the same subject, and expressing with more distinctness a plan for putting in application that power of the Government, if it be one of the powers of the Government.
I am most glad, therefore, to find these and other evidences that the mind of the country is being directed now toward this important practical inquiry, as one, not all, of the means that may be resorted to for the purpose of relieving us from these questions of terrible embarrassment by which our Government is surrounded. To that great question, I desire to direct the remarks which I am about to make.
Mr. Speaker, your country, not yet twelve moons ago, went out from the presence of dangers so terrible and deadly as that their merest statement mocks at all the resources of human speech; and it went into a triumph and joy as indescribable as its recent sorrow was. And now again the people stand appalled under the shadow of some buge calamity, and before grim-visaged war haih smoothed his wrinkled front" men of stoutest heart start back aghast at the damned portent of civil war which they deem they see grim and manifest before them, and they look into each other's faces and inquire--why? In “the breach” between the President of the United States and Congress touching the method of restoring the States in . recent revolt to controlling power in the Union,
and in the causes for that breach, most men find the occasion for this alarm. I go not at all to-day into the consideration of these, and allude to them now only for the purpose of saying, as I do here and now, that if any faith can be placed in the sincerity or truth of the most solemn utterances of the Congress and of the President then they do not differ, but do most precisely agree, upon at least one of the most, if not the most, important and decisive principles and means for the restoration of these States to power which can enter into that great work. Nay, I go further, and solemnly aver here upon the awful responsibilities of one of the legislators of this my country that if the President and Congress
have the constitutional right to employ this be trusted let them bring forth the fruits of repentmeans to which I allude for the restoration of
"Treason must be made
odious, and traitors must be punished and impover: the States, and if they will in good faith unite
ished. Their great plantations must be seized and to apply and put in force the principle which divided into small farms and sold to honest and both solemnly profess to hold, then the work
industrious mon." of restoration of these States will be, if not Mr. Speaker, the argument I now enter upon is easy at least ultimately certain, and at once all aimed to show that the traitor ceased, so far secured.
as his Government may so elect to treat him, to The principle to which I allude is, that in all be a citizen” and “forfeited his right to vote" these States the truly loyal alone shall have when, by persistent rebellion against his Gov. powers of government, either by the holding ernment, he "renounced his citizenship,'' and of office or by the exercise of the elective fran- | that he “should be subjected to a severe ordeal chise, and that “the conscious and responsible before he is restored to citizenship,” and that leaders of the rebellion" shall be tried, con- “ he should be required to bring forth the fruits victed, and executed.
of repentance before he shall be trusted." And If, indeed, it be so that you may exclude from
these are the solemnly defined grounds upon all powers of government, in the States recently
which Mr. Johnson's acceptance of the nomin rebellion, those who really desire to destroy
ination was based." (Lile, 298.) These are the Government, and if we may secure to the
not merely the excited utierances of a stump loyal people alone all control of the States speech, but were again carefully and solemnly and their l'ederal representation, then I see no
repledged as principles in his letter to the presreason why every State so governed would not
ident of the convention that nominated him. be welcomed to-day to the embraces of the Upon them he went to the American people. parent Government with an acclaim_of joy The people by an overwhelming voice approved almost like that which angels gave at Bethle.
them. They cannot be now retreated from hem.
without both dishonor most shameless and foul The avowals by the President of the United
and moral treason most deep and infamous. I States of his desire for this exclusion of rebels
cannot and will not believe that the President from all powers of government, and for their means to retreat from them; or that he purcondign punishment, have been so frequent, so
poses to seek refuge from the scorn and indig. recent, and so explicit, that to doubt their sin- nation of a betrayed and outraged people in the cerity would be to attribute to the President
embraces of them whom he called the “pertreachery to his professions and an infidelity to jured fellows who take the oath merely to save all the instincts of honor and manhood. their property.'' (See Lise, 294.) And, first, I reëxhibit to Congress and to the
He has again and again repledged himself country a most explicit avowal of his prin. to this same thing since his election. In his ciples upon this subject, made by the Pres- recent speech to the Virginia delegation headed ident at Nashville on the 9th of June, 1864, by Mr. Baldwin, (late of the rebel congress,) in accepting the nomination of the Union
he used these words: party for the Vice Presidency. The avowal “If there were but five thousand loyal rien in a is an emphatic and complete assertion of
State, or a less number, but sufficient to tako charge
of the political machinery of the State, these fivo all the constitutional power, at least by State thousand, or the less number, are entitled to it if all action, and also of the expediency and duty the rest be otherwise inclined. I look upon it as being of exercising the power, for which I shall con
fundamental that the exercise of political power
should be confined to loyal men, and I regard that as tend. It was upon this explicit avowal that implied in the doctrines laid down in these resolutions Mr. Johnson was elected. In his formal let. and in the cloquent address by which they have been ter accepting the nomination, he refers to
accompanied. this speech as one “in which I indicated my
In the recent speech of Colonel Stokes, of acceptance of the distinguished honor conferred Tennessee, made to the Legislature of that by that body, and defined the grounds upon
State, he is represented to have made the folwhich that acceptance was based, substantially lowing statement touching the present views saying what I now have to say. (See John
President upon this important question: son's Life, by Savage, 298.) No pledge to prin
· As President Johnson said the other day before I
left Wasbington, 'If you don't disfranchise the rebels ciple could be more solemn, therefore, than
they will disfranchise you.'" this one is. None could be more signally ratified by a great people than was this in Mr.
Such, then, are the views of the President. Johnson's election. In speaking of the con
To say that they are not his views, or that they vention to be convened to restore the govern.
are put forth as mere lures to insnare a generment of Tennessee be uses the following lan
ous and confiding people into his support guage, which will be found in his Life, pages
mere “ springs to catch woodcock," which he 295 and 296:
deems neither constitutional nor capable of
being practically applied and enforced, nor fit “But in calling a convention to restore the State, who shall restore and reëstablish it? Shall it be the
to be so applied-is to attribute to him pur. man who gave his influence and his means to destroy
poses and conduct which would be disgracethe Government? Is he to participate in the great ful to the most vulgar political harlequin, but work of reorganization? Shall he who brought this misery upon the State be permitted to control its
which, in the ruler of a great and generous destinies? If so, then all the precious blood of our people who have so honored and trusted him, brave soldiers and oflicers so freely poured out will would be utterly disgusting and infamous. I have been wantonly spilled. All the glorious victories won by our noble armies will go for naught,
will neither say nor believe this; and I there. and all the batile-fields which have been sown with
fore shall assume that the President deems it dead heroes during the rebellion will have been made both practicable, constitutional, and fit to enact memorable in vain. Why all this carnago and devas, tation? It was that treason might be put down and
that the traitor forseited his right to vote with traitors punished. Therefore, I say, that traitors loval men when he renounced his citizenship should take a back scat in the work of restoration. and sought to destroy the Government,'' and If there be but five men in Tennessee loyal to the Constitution, loyal to freedom, loyal to justice, these
" that he shall be subjected to a severe ordeal true and faithful men should control the work of
before he is restored to citizenship." reorganization and reformation absolutely. (Loud I need not say that Congress has already and prolonged applausc.) I say that the traitor has
indicated its belief in the same thing. ceased to be a citizen, and in joining the rebellion has become a public enemy. He forfeited his right It is obvious, then, that either they who hold to voto with loyal men when he renounced his cit- the two political departments of this Governizenship and sought to destroy our Government. Wo say to the honest and industrious foreigner who
ment are most false and insincere, or else they comes from England or Germany to dwell among us agree that the disloyal should be sternly exand add to the wealth of the country, 'Before you can cluded, by “severe ordeals," from Governbe a citizen you must be hore five years. If we are so cautious about foreigners who voluntarily re
ment until they “bring forth fruits of repentnounce their homes to live with us, what should we say to the traitor who, although born and reared among us, has raised a parricidal hand ngaints the
I now proceed to inquire whether this which Government which always protected him? My judg.
both Congress and the President favor is per. Inent is that he should be subjected to a severe ordeal mitted by the Constitution. before he is restored to citizenship. A fellow who And to guard myseis, at the very threshold takes the oath merely to save his property and denies the validity of his oath is a perjured man and
of these remarks, from misapprehension, I not to be trusted. Before these repenting rebels can state, that should the Government be found to