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Middle and West Tennessee it is disreputable to have
The rebels desire that the United harbor, or secrete any person who shall leave been a Union man, or, as a southern man, to håve served in the Union Army-and matters are growing
States troops shall be withdrawn, and their his employer without his consent shall be liable worse-the reconstructed traitors openly cursing loyal places supplied by State troops composed of to a fine or imprisonment; thus reviving, as men, and threatening them with shooting or hang- officers and men from the rebel army, who far as possible, the principles of the old slave ing: boasting that they have the President on their would sooner protect the rebel oppressor than code. These facts might be multiplied indefiside, while we all feel that the President's policy is
the loyal men. ruinous to us."
nitely, but enough have been presented to show Every rebel in all this country, every McClellan While important service in the rebellion is a that, while these people accept the fact of man, and every ex-guerrilla chief, are loud and enthusiastic in praise of the President. The men who
sure passport to political and social position | emancipation, they believe the principle is but a few months since were cursing him for an ab
and distinction, a systematic effort is made to wrong, and intend to make the condition of olitionist and traitor, and wishing him executed, are brand every man with disgrace who has been the freedmen as near that of slavery as possi: now for executing all who dare oppose his policy or
ble. true to the Government, thus openly and deeven doubt its success.
There are, to be sure, very many good "There is twice the amount of bitterness and intol. fiantly rewarding treason and punishing loy- || and loyal men in the South, and had they the erance in the South to-day toward the Union and alty. It is a fact, to which I challenge con- control of the States all would be well; but everything northern that thoro was at the time of Lee's surrender. Abuse of Union men, of the radical
tradiction, that in spite of all the caution, || the unwelcome truth is the rebels are in the majority in Congress, and self-assumed superiority on
expostulations, arguments, and demands of the ascendency. Loyalty is the exception and disthe part of the southern chivalry have arisen to such President in regard to the election of loyal men loyalty the rule. a height that loyal mon cannot travel on a steamboat in the States he is attempting to reconstruct, or in a railroad car without being insulted. As it was
Governor Cox, of Ohio, in his report of the during the war, so it is now; all concessions fromethe with every consideration of policy urging them | President's conversation on the 21st of FebruNorth or from the majority in Congress are regarded to a decent regard, for the time being at least, ary last makes him speak of what he is doing as evidences of fear. All the old rebel presses of 1861
to the loyal sentiments of the country, the men in those States for the purpose of "stimulating and many new ones are in full blast, threatening Congress and the North with ultimate vengeance and
who have been the most active and efficient in loyalty'' no less than six times in that short boasting of southern prowess. The most popular men the rebellion are the most popular at the polls, conversation. I fear that too much of the litin the largest portion of Tennessee to-day are the men and receive the largest vote. It is very true most distinguished for their hostility to the North
tle loyalty we see manifested by these men is of and what they are pleased to term the radical Con
that some good men, under the pressure of the "stimulated" kind; that it is a sickly plant gress, and they are the class of men selected to fill circumstances, have been elected. A few such at most, and will die out as soon as the stimuoffices, as the late county elections show. The same have been sent here as claimants of seats in lation shall cease. I have no confidence in is true of the entire South, only to a greater extent. In a word, they are resolved on breaking up the Gov- this House-men who would honor the position this “stimulating'' business. My own obserernment, and they expect to carry out their scheme they claim, and with whom we should all be | vation proves to my mind that, though you may through the ballot-box, and how men of candor and intelligence can represent them as loyal and kindly
most happy to be associated as members of this get a little more out of a subject for a day by disposed is a mystery to me, even in this age of rebel
Congress, could we feel that they had a loyal administering stimulants, in the end he will lion and treachery.
constituency, able to maintain a loyal govern- sink just as much below his natural condition "Why, sir, many of them are expecting the Presiment.
as he has been raised above it. The facts in dent to disperse Congress with the bayonet, as Cromwell dispersed the Long Parliament. The southern
In many instances the disloyalty of the per- this case show that the President's southern breast is being rapidly fired to deeds of valor; and all sons voting, or the persons elected, has been || patient has been stimulated too long, that the this, and more, as I believe, has been caused by the so notorious that the President has been com- medicine has ceased to have any effect, and he mistakes of the President. His plan of trusting rebels with their State governments has had an effect ex- pelled to declare the election void, and with- is rapidly sinking, and is now even lower than actly the opposite of what he intended. It has ruined hold the certificate of election, or forbid their when the first dose was administered. the prospects of the Union men, and they feel that there is no safety for them unless Congress shall choose
entering upon the duties of the office. The This is a sad picture, but it represents the to protect them. Even three days ago General Thomas Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster spirit of the men who rule a large portion of had to send troops into Marshall county, some sixty General both declare that they are unable to the eleven seceded States to-day, and but for miles distant, to protect loyal men and freedmen who
find loyal men enough in those States, who were fleeing for safety and coming to the city."
the presence of the military force wonld rule North Carolina has been regarded one of the
are willing to take the prescribed oath, to fill them all. Mr. Lincoln held that those States
the offices under their Departments, and we out of their practical relations with the most loyal of the rebellious States; but, judg
are called upon to repeal or modify the oath Union," and no one will deny that this state ing from the following from the Raleigh Stand
so as to allow these men, just out of the re- of things exists at the present time. The great ard, this State, too, is following her sisters in
bellion, to accept some of the most responsible work before us is to restore these States to rebellion in the work of rewarding rebels and
and lucrative offices under the same Governpunishing loyal men:
their "practical relations with the Union at ment they have been laboring for four long the earliest moment consistent with the future “The town of Wilmington, in this State, has recently passed by popular election from the hands of
years to destroy. To a proposition so flagrantly security, peace, and perpetuity of the Governloyal Union men into the hands of original secession
wrong and perilous I will not consent by my ment. ists and latter-day war men. The same is true as to vote. If there are not loyal men enough in On whom devolves the duty of deciding when the county courtof New Hanover, under the appoint- the South who have been true to the Union to these States are in a condition to be reprement of magistrates made by the Legislature. It is considered disreputable in Wilmington to be an out
fill these offices, I would appoint some of the sented here? Not the Executive. Nosuch power spoken unconditional Union man. General Robert heroes of the war, and bid them take part in has ever been delegated to him. Not the House Ransom, lately of the confederate service, has been the administration of the government in the chosen marshal of the town, with a salary of $2,000.
of Representatives or the Senate acting indeGeneral R. is, we presume, still unpardoned." States they have saved by their valor.
pendent of each other, but the law-making power Colonel Stokes, one of the true men elected
A communication from Colonel De Gress, of the Government alone is competent to perto this House from Tennessee, in a recent
addressed to General Howard, and dated at form this important duty: In confirmation of speech said:
Houston, Texas, December 15, 1865, says: this view of the subject I add the express dec“We know that admission now would destroy tho
“I have the honor to respectfully report that in larations of the President himself, through the Union element of the States. Congress is doing right
some portions of this State the negrocs are not yet Secretary of State. On July 24, 1865, Mr. Sewin holding them back. When the rebel armies first
free; that the pass system is still in force, and when surrendered, there was everywhere a disposition toa freedman is found at large without a pass he is
ard telegraphed to the provisional governor" ward loyalty: but I stand here to-night to say that taken up and whipped."
of Mississippi: there is now a feeling as bitter toward the Union mon Lieutenant Eldridge, writing to the same “The government of the Stato will be provisional of the South as there was in 1860-61. And the facts bare proved that Congress, in its cool and deliberate officer, from Vicksburg, Mississippi, on the
only, until the civilauthorities shall be restored with
the approval of Congress." treatment of the matter, deserves the thanks of all
28th of November, 1865, says: Union men, in giving an opportunity for these rebels "I havo the honor to inclose herewith, for your
So, on September 12, 1865, he wrote to Gov. to show their hands. Time will show that Congress consideration, the freedmen's bill, which has just be- ernor Marvin, of Florida : was right." come a law in this State, and would respectfully ask
“It must, however, be distinctly understood that This view of the spirit of the South is con
your attention to the following points therein: the restoration to which your proclaination refers Section one prohibits the holding, leasing, or
will be subject to the decision of Congress. firmed by the necessity which prompted Gen- renting of real estate by freedmen.” eral Grant to issue an order, on the 12th of Section four excludes freedmen from testifying Thus it is seen that, as late as September, January last, directing the military power to in cases of whites.
1865, both these distinguished men agreed with
“Section five authorizes mayors and boards of poprotect the loyal citizens of the rebellious States lice, by their sole edict, to prevent any freedmen
the majority of Congress that the readmission from the prejudice and violence of their rebel from doing any independent business, and to com- of these States is to be subject to the approval neighbors, and further to protect colored
pel them to labor as employés, with no appeal from per
of Congress." such decision.. sons from prosecutions charged with offenses 'Section seven gives the power to any whito citi- In accordance with the President's and Mr. for which white persons are not prosecuted or zen over the person of a freedman unknown to any
Seward's original plan, I hold that it is the punished in the same manner and degree.
other law, and denies the right of appeal beyond the
duty of Congress to take the whole subject into All the accounts we receive from loyal sources, from Grant, from Schurz, from the agents of
Major General Terry, in an order issued at consideration, as it is now doing, and decide the Freedmen's Bureau, from every loyal man
Richmond, Virginia, January, 24, 1866, refer. || just what guarantees it is absolutely necessary from the North who has visited the South, from ring to a statute passed at the present session
to require to secure equal and exact justice to every truly loyal man in the South, by peti- || providing for the punishment of vagrants,'' of the Legislature of Virginia entitled “A bill
all the citizens, and to prevent the recurrence
of another rebellion in the future. This shonld tions and entreaties, all agree that, if the mili
be secured by such constitutional amendments says: tary force should be removed, it would be
"The ultimate effect of the statute will be to reduce
as cannot fail to accomplish the object; and, impossible for Union men, black or white, to the freedmen to a condition of servitude worse than
on the ratification of these amendments by a remain tliere. And yet the reconstructed Gov- that from which they have been emancipated-acon- vote of the people of these States, as a pledge ernor of Mississippi says they (the Union
dition which will be slavery in all but its name.' of their sincerity and loyalty, I would allow soldiers) are not needed, that they are "a dis- A law recently passed by the Louisiana Lo- them to be represented in Congress on an turbing element, a nuisance, and a blighting Il gislature provides that any one who shall feed, ll equahfooting with the other States.
I venture to suggest some of the guarantees | of this Congress to have been elected to the spective of race or color. The loyal men, white which, in my jodgment, would best secure the Congress of the new government. Our Dem- and black, who have always loved the old tlag well-being and mutual interest both of the Northocratic friends on the other side, who liave and were true to it in the darkest hours, can and South.
always sympathized with the rebels in their now be trusted to aid in the administration of 1. The leading intelligent traitors who know- treason and now regard them truly loyal, would the Government. ingly and willingly went into the rebellion- find themselves very much at home, and might Right here it is objected that by placing the those denominated by President Johnson "icon- very properly coöperate with the confederate colored people on an equality before the law with scious traitors''--should be deprived of all statesmen and ex rebel generals in the work of the whites you will bring about a war of races. political rights for the present at least, and such a Congress. But an unconditional Union And this cry has been heard from the lowest until they shall have brought forth fruits meet man who liates slavery and treason and loves groggery in the land up through all the grades of for repentance, or the loyal sentimentopf the liberty could only go there for the purpose of society to the White House. Do not these peoStates shall have become so strong as to render | molding the Government in accordance with his ple understand that the measures they propose them powerless for evil. Aside from a few own views. Just so will it be with these ex- are the only measures that can possibly bring leaders, who by their official position or infernal rebels if we admit them to legislate for a Gov: about a war of races in this country? What creconduct have been the representatives of trea- ernment for which they have no sympathy. It ates a war of races? It is the application of one son, on whose heads should be visited the will be like taking to our bosoms and warming | law to one race and another to another race in extreme penalty of a violated law as a vindi- into life the scorpion whose sting is death. If the same community. It is granting privileges cation of the supremacy of law and order, and we should err in this matter and keep the States to one race which you withhold from the other, a notice to coming generations that henceforth in question out (or in the position they volun- thus engendering jealousy, hatred, revenge, and "treason is a crime to be punished and made tarily assumed) a little longer than is absolutely | terminating in open hostility. I admit that one odious," I would allow them to live in the necessary, the error can be corrected; but if hundred and fifty thousand men, trained to war, country if they desire, and would heap coals they are admitted with treason in the hearts representing four or five million people stung of fire on their heads by securing to them full of the governing classes of the people the evil to madness by the refusal of the Government and complete protection of their persons, and may be irreparalıle.
to recognize their manhood, would be a danthe enjoyment of the fruits of their labor. In this view of our duty in regard to the treat- gerous element in any Government. But give This is all they expected when they laid down ment oi leading traitors I utter no new declara- the colored man the common rights that belong their arms; and, it appears to me, is all a rebel tions. These are the settled convictions of a to man, give him an equal opportunity with the possessed of common decency would ask. || large portion of the Union men of the country. whites, subject him to the same laws, award to Even Lucifer himself never had the presump- | They were the principles boldly advocated by 1 him the privileges you claim for yourself, bid tion to insult the Almighty by going back after President Johnson in his better days, before his him God speed in his efforts to raise himself the overthrow of his rebellion and asking to head became giddy with power, and southern from his degraded condition, and a war of races be permitted to assist in the administration of rebels and northern copperheads led him cap. will be impossible. the government he attempted to destroy, much tive at their will. In the Senate of the United Our fathers gave the right of suffrage to free less to claim the privilege as a right. There is | States, March 2, 1861, he said:
colored men in nearly all the States in the no evidence that these men love the old Union "Show me who has been engaged in these conspir- Union, and without any evil results. The idea any better now than when they were openly acies, who has fired upon our flag, who has given in- that the black man has no rights that white men fighting against it. Their arms have been
structions to take our forts and custom-bouses and
are bound to respect is of modern invention. broken, but they are defiant still. They may tor. Were I President of the United States I would We have paid dearly for our refusal to do accept the fact of emancipation, but they still do as Thomas Jefferson diil, in 1806, with Aaron Burr. justice to the colored race. Had we emancibelieve that slavery is the best condition for the
I would have tbem arrested, and, it convieted within
pated and enfranchised the colored men when colored race, and it is but reasonable to sup: eternal God I would execute them.”
Mr. Seward declared the "irrepressible conpose that as far as possible this idea would, if
In a speech made in Nashville, Tennessee,
flict,'' secession would have been impossible. they were allowed to govern, be embodied in June 9, 1864, indicating his acceptance of the
These four years of blood and anguish have law, and carried out in their intercourse with nomination made at the Baltimore convention,
been the fearful punishment for our refusal to the colored people.
If I believed slavery to be right, and the relation of master and slave two days before, he said:
obey the demands of God's eternal justice.
The sins of the fathers as well as our own have
“Treason must be made odious and traitors must the best condition for both whites and blacks, be punished and impoverished. Their great planta
fallen upon us with terrible consequences, and I should use my influence to make the condi- tions must be scized, and divided into small farins, are to be visited upon coming generations in tion of the colored population as near that of and sold to honest, industrious men. The day for
the shape of an enormous debt. And now, slavery as possible, and if I disliked the form
protecting the lands and negroes of these authors of
though we have given the colored man--what of Government under which I live as those
we had no right to withhold from him--his lib. men professed to hate the old Union, I should
“But in calling a convention to restore the State,
erty, if we fail to give him the common rights who shall restore and reestablish it? Shall the man not cease my efforts to supplant the hated Gov
who gave his influence and his means to destroy the of citizens we may depend on still further ernment and establish one more in accordance Government? Is he to participate in the great work judgments from Him who made the black men with my own idea. Nothing less than this of reorganization? Shall he who brought this misery
black, and the white men white, and stamped could be expected of me. Is it reasonable to
upon the State be permitted to control its destinies?
If this be so, then all this precious blood of our brave upon both His own image. suppose that the recent rebels would do less? soldiers and officers so freely poured out will have When Mr. Lincoln, on the 1st day of JanuDo not the acts of the Legislatures of many of
been wantonly spilled. All the glorious victories won
ary, 1863, proclaimed liberty to the bondmen, these States just quoted answer the question battle-ficlus bich have been gown with dead heroes freedom to a race in slavery, and invoked with alarining significance?
during the rebellion will have been made memorable upon the act “the blessing of God and the The disloyal leaders who vacated their seats in vain."
considerate judgment of mankind,'' he meant in this Hall in 1861, after having spent four I quote further from the same speech in proof | something more than the mere form of free: years in an infamous attempt to destroy the of my statement :
dom. That act was intended to carry with it Union by force of arms, and in vilifying the " Why all this carnage and devastation? It was the common rights of manhood. And when Constitution of our fathers without so much as that treason inight be put down and traitors punished. we called on the black men to assist in saving professing to love the “old Government
Therefore I say that traitors should take a bick seat
any better than when they were fighting against it, in the work of restoration. I say that the traitor has
our imperiled country, we did not intend to ceased to be a citizen, and in joining the rebellion avail ourselves of his services on the field of with the blood of four hundred thousand mur- has become a public enemy. He fortcited his right danger and then abandon him to the tender dered patriots still unwashed from their hands,
to vote with loyal men when he renounced his citi-
mercies of his former master, made doubly ask to come back into the Halls of Congress; say to the most honest and industrious foreigner who malignant because of his efficient aid to the and they and some others in high and low places comes from England or Germany to dwell among us, Union cause. seem to think it very strange that they are not and to add to tho wcalth of the country, ‘Before you
Unless we protect him in his can be a citizen you must stay here for five years.
civil rights his liberty is but a solemn mockery, permitted at once to become the guardians of If we are so cautious about foreigners, who volun- The colored man, by rallying to the standard the institutions they so abhor. Before such tarily renounce their homncs to live with us, what of a nation which had given him no rights excool affrontery Satan's rebellion in heaven
should we say to the traitor, who, although born and
cept those of a slave, and bearing aloft our flag falls into insignificance. They have been here the Government which always protected him? My in the thickest of the fight, has earned his rights before and basely violated their oaths and took
judgment is that he should be suhjected to a serere to all the privileges of a man. And if we deny advantage of their official position to overthrow
ordcal before he is restored to citizenship. A fellow
him those privileges a God of justice will frown the Constitution and Government they had denies the validity of the oath, is a perjured man, upon us, and mankind will curse us for our sworn to protect. They are no better now, and and not to be trusted. Before these repenting rebels we should be false to our high trust to allow can be trusted, let them bring forth the fruits of re
perfidy. pentance. He who helped to make all these widows
The practical question presented is, whether these men to come back again to renact the and orphans, who draped the streets of Nashville in we will restore the government of the States scenes of 1861.
mourning, should suffer for his great crime." recently in rebellion to the loyal or disloyal Suppose in this contest the rebels had suc- These are precisely the doctrines I advocate men. Will you trust the men who were hunted ceeded, the old Government been overthrown, || to-day, and, in the name of the people I repre- down by dogs, plundered of their property; and the confederate government, based on the sent, I call upon the President to cooperate | imprisoned in loathsome dungeons, compelled divinity of slavery and the right of secession, with Congress in giving them practical appli- to see their wives and little ones cruelly treated, had become the government of this nation, what cation.
exiled from their homes, driven to the mountwould have become of us here? If we had been 2. All the civil and political rights belonging ains, to caves, and rocks, compelled to see their permitted to live, we inight have thought our- to citizenship, including the right of suffrage, loyal associates shot down like dogs, dragged selves fortunate. But suppose the members should be guarantied to all loyal citizens, irre- to the scaffold and hung as felons, and sub
jected to all the outrages and indignities that 3. We should forever prohibit the payment | coöperate with their representatives in securing devils could invent, and still stood true to the of the confederate and State debts contracted such amendments as the changed condition of old flag, faithful among the faithless, or the || in aid of the rebellion, and prohibit the nation things demand; and to conform “to the remen who were the authors and active perpe- and the States from making payment for eman- quirements and progress of the people and trators of all these cruelties? Shall we give || cipated slaves. Already the less cautious reb- enlightened spirit of the age," and to "fix the heed to the entreaties of the men who have els are talking about being able, by the aid of foundation of the Government on principles of always been true and never faltered, and who northern Democrats, when they shall be rep- eternal justice which will endure for all time." now implore us to protect them from the rage resented in Congress, to compel the General Because of the enunciation of such princiof their rebel neighbors, or the recent traitors Government to assume their debt or repudiate ples as I bave quoted, and others correspondin arms who come to us with their hands still the whole. James L. Orr, the so-called Goy. ing thereto, the true men of this country rallied reeking with the blood of our murdered broth- ernor of South Carolina, says:
around Andrew Johnson, and triumphantly ers, and, without any evidence of sorrow for "I therefore cherish the hope that Congress will, as elected him to the second office within their what they have done, or the least signs of re- soon as the public debt is provided for, make some
gift. gret for their stupendous wickedness, demand
just and cquitable arrangement to make the citizens
I have quoted to some extent the declaraan opportunity to accomplish by the ballot and umitted by the United States authorities."
tions of the President to show that when a candiother civil influences what they have failed to General Schurz, in his report to the President, date for the suffrages of the people, and even do by the sword? says:
later, he favored every proposition that the Some say if you give the ballot to the negro
“In fact, there are abundant indications, in news
majority of Congress desire to adopt. If he his old master will control it. So when we paper articles, public speeches, and electioneering will now, in his high position, carry out the talked about putting them in the Army it was
documents of candidates, which render it eminently principles he then avowed, a confiding people
probable that on the claim of compensation for their said they would turn against us and fight for emancipated slaves, the southern States, as soon as
will rally around him and hold up his hands their old masters; but when were soldiers truer readınitted to representation in Congress, will be in the great work, and future generations will than they?. Go ask at Port Hudson, at Milli- almost a unit. In the Mississippiconvention the idea
hold his name in grateful remembrance. Failwas broached by Mr. Poiter, in an elaborate speech, ken's Bend, and Fort Wagner, where their to have the late slave States relieved from taxation
ing to do this, the terrible judgment of popuspirits went up from their black bodies to their
' for years to come, in consideration of debts due lar condemnation awaits him. God in defense of liberty, the Constitution, them for the emancipated slaves;' and this plan I
Mr. Speaker, I am no alarmist. I believe in have frequently heard advocated in private converand the Union, and tell me whether these men sations."
a glorious future for this country, but on the can be depended on. The men who will peril Hon. John Covode, in his account of an express condition that we prove ourselves their lives on the field of battle in defense of
interview with Governor Wells, of Louisiana, || deserving such a future. The day of our our Constitution will vote for it if you will says:
peril is not yet past. Already in the North a give them an opportunity.
* He began to make demands with regard to what | large, and in some States a powerful, party It is objected that the colored people are too Government should do. lle said that Government who from the ginning of the war have symignorant to be intrusted with the ballot, but it must pay for slaves that had been emancipated, for
pathized more with the rebellion than the Govis an objection that applies only to color. The
it had taken or destroyed property enough for that
ernment, are coming forward to meet their most ignorant foreigner that ever landed from an emigrant ship, the most benighted poor
This is the programme now shadowed forth, | southern friends, and over the graves-not yet
covered with the verdure of a single seasonwhite in all the South, is deemed a safe depos
and which, if not put to rest forever, will be a
of the nation's fallen heroes, whom one has itary of this important trust, providing he has no shade of African blood in his veins. Scarcely owe it to the loyal tax-payers North and South
branded as murderers and the other has slain, to provide that they shall not be taxed to pay
they propose to shake hands, and pledge thema black man can be found in the whole country the expenses of a war to destroy the nation's
selves to place this Government in the hands who was so ignorant that he did not know and life; and we owe it to the holders of our national
of those who but yesterday were striving to choose the right side during the war, while his intelligent master was generally on the wrong securities, as well as our own credit and finan- | destroy it, and threaten revolution if their
demands are not acceded to; and," tell it not side. I would sooner trust a loyal black man
cial stability, to provide by amendment to the
in Gath,'' they claim a President elected by with the ballot than a disloyal white man. The
claims shall ever bę paid. argument that would exclude a poor or igno
4. The doctrine of secession should be repu
Senator rises in his place and declares that rant colored man from the right to vote would diated and branded with everlasting infamy.
“it is the duty of the President to ascertain also exclude the poor or ignorant white man. The more this question is discussed the stronger This proposition is too plain to need argument
who constitute the two Houses of Congress,''
and calls upon him to “recognize the Opposiare the convictions of the people that the only
The experience of the last four years,
tion here and the southern members as a maway to secure and perpetuate our Government the graves of four hundred thousand fallen
jority of the Senate.” Another Senator, at a in its purity is to confer upon all the races of heroes, the emblems of mourning all over the country, all speak in thunder tones, demand
recent meeting in this city, is reported to have men equal rights, or such opportunities as will prepare them for the enjoyment of equal rights." || place among the possibilities of the country, ing that this doctrine hereafter shall find no
said that “he believed to-day that a revolution
is pending, and President Johnson would have And the time is not far distant when the peo- The Union members of Congress carnestly
better work for southern men than hanging ple of this country will acquiesce in this princi
them. ple as fully as they now do in the constitutional They will have none except so far as he repudesire to avoid any conflict with the President.
He believed to-day that when Jeff.
Davis left the Senate he was a better Union amendment abolishing slavery, which our Dem
man than Abraham Lincoln. This he would ocratic friends so strenuously opposed.
diates the principles which gave him the elec
tion in 1864. They ask nothing that the prinIn these views I also find myself sustained
say on the floor in Congress before he got by the declarations of the President. In his
ciples heretofore expressed by him, and enforced | through,”'
The New York World suggests that the Nashville speech, before referred to, he said: recently in rebellion, do not absolutely justify
present national Legislature should be put “If there be but five thousand men in Tennessee and require.
down by force," and the Constitutional Union loyal to the Constitution, loyal to freedom, loyal to
talks about the second advent of Cromwell justice, these true and faithful men should control the But it is objected that our plan contemplates work of reorganization and reformation absolutely.” amendments to the Constitution, and the Pres
of England, or of Napoleon of France;" while In August, 1865, the President recommended ident says, “Amendments to the Constitution
the Macon Telegraph echoes back from Georto Governor Sharkey, of Mississippi, the ex- ought not to be so frequent that their effect gia the sentiment of its northern allies, and tension of the franchise to all persons of color would be that it would lose all its prestige and declares that the ballot-box is too slow a who can read the Constitution of the United || dignity." The President lost sight of this remedy for existing grievances," and adds: States in English and write their names, and idea when, in the Senate of the United States
"Let the President put down the rebellion in Con
gress and appeal to the ballot-box to sustain that." to all persons of color who own real estate in December, 1860, he proposed no less than valued at not less than $250 and pay taxes nine amendments to the Constitution in one
And continuing further in the same strain, it thereon."
says: day. He repudiated this idea when speaking
“We prefer peaceable means; but, these failing, In October last the President was in favor for the votes of the American people in Nash
the President should issue his proclamation declarof negro suffrage. He then said to Major | ville soon after his nomination for Vice Pres- ing the Union fully restored, and inviting the southStearns: ident. He said :
crn members of Congress to enter tho Capitol and
take their seats. If refused admittance, a regiment "My position here is different from what it would
"I hold, with Jefferson, that Government was mado
of United States troops should be sent to put tho be if I were in Tennessee. There I should try to for the convenience of man, and not man for Govern
southern members in their places." introduce negro suffrage gradually: first, those who
ment. The laws and constitutions were designed as had served in the Army; those who could rend and
instruments to promote his welfare. And hence, from The proclamation has been issued, but the write; and perhaps a property qualification for oth
this principle, I conclude that Governments can and southern members and the regiment of United ers, say two hundred or two hundred and fifty dolought to be changed and amended to conform to the
States troops have not yet appeared. lars."
wants, to the requirements, and progress of the peo-
The Chicago Times says:
“We do not hesitate to declare that it is thesolemn Andrew Johnson addressed a gathering of
And let me say that now is the time to secure duty of the President to follow his words hy deeds.
thcsc fundamental principles, while the land is rent We do not hesitate to declare that it is the solemn colored people in Nashville, and said:
with anarchy and upheaves with the throcs of a duty of the President to command the arrest of Thad"I. Andrew Johnson, hereby proclaim liberty, full, mighty revolution. While society is in this disor- deus Stevens, Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, and broad, unconditional liberty, to every man in Ten- dered state, and we are seeking security, let us fix their confederates in Congress and all over the counnessee. I will be your Moses, and lead you through the foundations of the Governnicnton principles of try, for the crime of treason. In no other way can the Red Sea of struggle and servitude to a future of cterpal justice which will endure for all time." this nortlern rebellion be promptly quelled and tho liberty and peace. Rebellion and slavery shall no
public quirt restored. more polluto our State. Loyal men, whether white
And now, in 1866, the loyal people of the ** And if the rump Congrces shall not speedily abanor black, shall govern the State."
country say amen, and call upon the author to don its seditious, revolutionary, and lawless prac
i roll so, that the Senate had agreed to the amend.
tices, if it shall persist in excluding the representa- | ghastly wounds, bows her head before Him who right to break off from the bargain than the others tives of eleven States from their rightful seats, and in exercising the powers of the Congress of the United has given us the victory, she makes the sol
have to hold them to it, and certainly there is noth
ing in the Virginia resolutions of 1798 adverse to this States, we do not hesitate to declare that it will be- emn pledge that justice and equal rights to all
principle, which is that of common sense and comcome the solemn duty of President Johnson to constitute himself the Cromwell of the time, and dissolve
her people shall be the rule of her conduct, mon justice. The fallacy which draws a different the rump by military power."
and that every element which tends to injustice conclusion lies in contounding a single party with the and oppression shall be removed from the ba
parties to a constitutional compact of the United C. C. Burr, a Democratic orator and writer,
States; the latter having made the compact may do in his paper, the Old Guard, in the issue of sis of the reconstructed Union, and that our what they will with it, the former, as only one of the
parties, owes fidelity to it till released by consent or January, 1866, in eulogizing General R. E. glorious banner with every star restored, shin
absolved by an intolerable abuse of the power creLee, says: ing forth with a brighter luster then ever be
ated. It is high time that the claim to sccede at will fore, with liberty written in letters of living should be put down by public opinion.' ." It is a question which impartial and inexorable history will have to settle whether a success on his light on its ample folds wherever it
Also Mr. Madison, in his letter to Mr. Ever. part would not have proved a benefit to his country."
on land or sea, shall be the symbol, not merely ett in 1830, said: He further says: of might and power, but of justice, and the "It (the Constitution] was formed by the govern
ments of the component States, as the Federal Gov“When every Democratic editor will speak out his || highest civilization of human governments, in
crnment for which it was substituted was formed; real thoughts and say boldly and defiantly that he spiring the great heart of universal humanity believes men like General Robert E. Lee to be patri
nor was it formed by a majority of the people of the with better hopes, and prompting to nobler United States as a single community, in the manner ots, and men like Stanton and Seward to be traitors, there will be more honest men in the land than there endeavor.
of a consolidated Government. It was formed by the
States--that is by the people in each of the States are now, and there will be better hope for liberty
MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE. for our country's lasting peace and honor."
acting in their highest capacity, and formed conseWhen I remember that those “Democratic
A message from the Senate, by Mr. McDon- quently by the same authority which formed the
State constitutions. ALD, its Chief Clerk, informed the House that editors” have never uttered a word in condem
“Being thus derived from the same source as the the Senate had passed House bill No. 238, to constitution of the States, it has within each Stato nation of the action of General Lee from the amend an act relating to habeas corpus, and
the same authority as the constitution of the State, time he ignominiously betrayed the confidence regulating judicial proceedings in certain cases,
and as much a constitution in the strict sense of the of General Scott and the country, and basely approved March 3, 1863, with amendments,
term, within its prescribed sphere, as the constitution
of the States are within their respective spheres, but drew his sword against the Government on
in which the concurrence of the House was with this obvious and essential difference, that being whose patronage he had lived, to the present requested.
a compact ainong States in their highest sovereign time, and that they have never ceased to apply
capacity, and constituting the people thereof one
people for certain purposes, it cannot be altered or the vilest epithets to the other two distinment of the House of Representatives to the
amended at the will of the State individually, as the guished men named, I cannot avoid the conamendment of the Senate to the amendment
constitution of a State may be at its individual will." viction that Mr. Burr speaks what he knows
of the House to the bill (S. No. 89) to issue General Jackson, in his letter to Colonel on this subject. American registers to the steam vessels Michi
Hamilton, of November 2, 1812, and the one For myself, standing in my place in the American Congress, representing a people who gan, Despatch, and William K. Muir.
to Mr. Crawford, of May 1, 1833, takes strong
Also, that the President of the United States | grounds against the right of secession. In the have freely poured out their treasure and their blood that this nation might live, and speaking of the Senate. had approved sundry acts and joint resolutions
latter he uses this patriotic language:
"Takecare of your nullifiers; you have them among for thousands of homes made desolate by the
you; let them meet with the indignant frowns of
RECONSTRUCTION. war, with the dust of the bravest and best of
every man who loves his country. Haman's gallows my constituents sleeping in patriots' graves, Mr. J. L. THOMAS. Mr. Speaker, I yield | ought to be the fate of such ambitious men. almost within sound of my voice, I am ready a few moments to the gentleman from Penn- Mr. Lincoln very properly said in his inauto swear, by all the sanctity of this free-will sylvania, [Mr. Muller.]
gural address of March 4, 1861: offering, that I will never consent, by my vote,
Mr. MILLER. Mr. Speaker, much has been Physically speaking, we cannot separate; we canthat the Government of this country shall be said in regard to reconstruction, and as it is one
not remove our respective sections from each other,
nor build an impassable wall between them. A hustaken from the loyal citizens who have saved of the most momentous questions that has ever band and wifo may be divorced and go out of the it by their blood and given to traitors. Could devolved upon Congress since the formation of presence and beyond each other, but the different I be so false and base as to do so, I should our Government, it is well that it has attracted
parts of our country cannot do this. They cannot
but remain face to face.' expect the gory dead to rise up in judgment || the serious consideration of both Houses of
And in his first message to Congress on the against me.
Congress. We have emerged from the greatest military
The wicked rebellion having been crushed,
4th of July, 1861, he stated that, struggle on record, and now a moral contest the next great question for us to legislate is, to
"The Constitution provides, and all the States have
accepted the provisions, that the United States shall has commenced. Already we have had seem- try to prevent a similar outbreak; and to this
guaranty to every State a republican form of goving defeat. Already our enemies boast that Congress the nation looks for a guarantee of ernment, but if a State may lawfully go out of the our chosen leader is in sympathy with them permanent security. The Union, in legal con
Union, having done so, it may also discard the re
publican form of government; so that to prevent its and against us. God grant that the experience templation, is perpetual. It is much older than going out is an indispensable means to the end of of the war may not be repeated; and that we the Constitution formed by the Articles of Asso- maintaining the guarantee mentioned." may not be subjected to three years of political || ciation of 1774, matured and continued by the And finally, in his message of 2d of March, McClellanism and Chickahominy anguish, be
Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776. 1862, he repeated thatfore a Grant shall be found to lead us on to It was further matured, and the faith of the
“The Union must be preserved, and hence all victory.
then thirteen States expressly plighted and en- indispensable moans must be employed." There is a grandeur in the contest we are gaged that it should be perpetual, by the Arti- I need not, however, consume time in citing entering amounting to the sublime. Our peo
cles of Confederation of 1778, and finally in authorities against the right of secession, for ple have stood unawed and invincible in the 1787 the declared objects for ordaining and even Mr. Buchanan, under whose administramidst of the thunder and smoke of terrible establishing the Constitution were "to form a tian the rebellion was matured, in his last mes. battle, when carnage and death held high car- more perfect union, establish justice, insure
sage, delivered on Tuesday the 4th day of Denival. It remains for us to show to the nations domestic tranquillity, provide for the common cember, 1860, denied that “secession” could of the earth that we can stand erect in this defense, and secure the blessings of liberty to be justified as a constitutional remedy, and moral conflict, and, with hearts strong and
ourselves and our posterity." Thus the ori- asserted that the principle is wholly inconsistundaunted, meet every responsibility incident ginal thirteen States were by solemn compact ent with the history as well as the character of to the great work which devolves upon us. The cemented together. And the third section of the Constitution, but said he could not find result of this conflict is not doubtful. We may the fourth article of the Constitution provides | anything in the Constitution to coerce a State not now be worthy to enter the promised land that new States may be admitted by Congress into submission which is attempting to withof peace and prosperity which lies before us. into this Union.
draw from the Confederacy, (notwithstanding Months and years even of severe conflict may Has any State which formed a part of this the Constitution which he had sworn to sup-, intervene, but we shall surely win at last. Union a right, under the Constitution, to se- port required him to take care that the laws be While God sits on His throne, right and justice | cede? That right is nowhere admitted in that || faithfully executed,) and for this dereliction are indestructible. Men may attempt to raise
sacred instrument, but the very contrary is of duty his country, on which his administheir puny arms and fight against His purposes, inculcated.
tration inflicted so much misery, will hold him but they will be paralyzed. The man who
Chief Justice Marshall, in the case of Cohen responsible. expects to turn the Union party of this country vs. Virginia, 6 Wheaton, 390, says:
But again, the seed of secession, for many, from its convictions of duty by executive influ- "The people made the Constitution and the people years sown broadcast in the then slave States ence, will soon find he has mistaken the men
can unmake it: it is the creature of their will and
and especially in South Carolina (which was who compose it. They have written their prin
power to make or unmake resides only in the whole the nest of treason) has been eradicated by the ciples in letters of blood and will not abandon body of the people; not in any subdivision of them. blood of more than three hundred thousand as them. The equal rights of all men before the The attempt of any of the parts to exercise it is usur
brave men pation and ought to be repelled by those to whom the
as the world ever saw who fell law in this country is foreordained of God;
people have delegated their power of repelling it." battling in defense of the flag of this great Reand he who puts himself in the way of its accomplishment will find that the terrible “ground|| 1822, says:
Mr. Madison in his letter to Mr. Trist, in public; and another great moral victory was
achieved by this bloody conflict, which was the swell of popular judgment,” referred to by the President in his speech of the 22d of February,
“I partake of wonder that the man you name should
overthrow of a system conceded by every true view secession in the light mentioned. The essential patriot to be incompatible with a republican will open a chasm beneath his feet in which he difference between a free Government and a Govern- form of government, and that is slavery. will be buried out of sight.
ment not free is that the former is founded on comWhile the nation to-day, in her tears and pact, the parties to which are mutually and equally
There are eleven States that the leaders of bound by it; neither of them, therefore, have a groater the rebellion claim to have seceded, and the
question has been raised in the discussion as by adopting the doctrine of the rebel States press insurrection, punish treason, and confisto the present status of these States. The hon- || having been out of the Union.
cate property of rebels. The most important orable chairman of the committee on recon- Considerable has been said as to what is bill on that subject that passed Congress is the struction (Mr. STEVENS) in an able speech de- || required to constitute a State and attempt to one approved July 17, 1862, entitled: livered in the House on the 18th day of Decem- show that the rebel States, as ihey are called, “A bill to suppress insurrection, to punish treason ber last, takes the ground that these rebel cannot be “States." In Wheaton's Interna- and rebellion, to seize and confiscate the property of .States severed their original compact and broke
rebels, and for other purposes.' tional Law, pages 57 and 58, it is said: all ties that bound them to the Union, and are "A State, as to the individual me nbers of which it
The so-called southern confederacy certainly to be treated as conquered provinces, or, to is composed, is a fluctuating body, but in respect to was not a Government de jure; all its actions ase his languagesociety it is one of the same body of which the ex
were a gross violation of rights. It was nowhere istence is perpetually kept up by a constant succes"Unless the law of nations is a dead letter, war sion of new members. This existencecontinues until a recognized Government. It was never adbetween two acknowledged belligerents severed the it is interrupted by some change a fecting the being mitted into the family of nations. Every rebel. original compact and broke alltics that bound them of the State. If this change be an internal revolutogether; the future condition of the conquered Power
lion or insurrection is in reality a war, and it tion, merely altering the municipal constitution and depends on the will of the conqueror. They must form of government, the State remains the same; it
becomes more evidently such when it brings come in as new States, or remain as conquered prov- neither loses any of its rights nor is it discharged hundreds of thousands of men into the field; inces."
from any of its obligations.
still, it is only a rebellion, and the citizens of And he again remarks in the same speech- || political society to n superior authority must have
the rebellious portion are only rebellious citi"I cannot doubt that the late confederate States once existed in order to constituto a sovereign State. zens, over whom the Government possesses not are out of the Union to all intents and purposes for But the temporary suspension of that obedience and which the conqueror may choose to consider them"
only all its legal rights, but all those powers of that authority in consequence of civil war does not necessarily extinguis the being of the State,
which a state of war confers upon it. and cited several authorities which he claims
although it may affect for a time its ordinary relation As regards the United States, all the ordito sustain his position, among which are Vat- with other States.'
nances of secession were null and void, and the tel, Phillimore, and 2 Black's United States And in Vattel, 423, one of the cases cited so-called southern confederacy was an entire Supreme Court Reports, and in a great meas- and relied on by my colleague, [Mr. STEVENS,] || and complete nullity, and the rebellious people are assumed the same positíon in his speech it is said:
may very properly have been treated as rebels of the 10th of March,
"A civil war breaks the bands of society and gov- and enemies. They may be tried as traitors Though I have great respect for the learn- ernment, or at least suspends their force and effect." and punished. The Supreme Court, in the prize ing and statesmanship of my distinguished colleague, I cannot subscribe to all the doctrines
There is no doubt that the civil operations | cases, decided no more than this, that being enunciated by him. It may, however, be proper
of the Government were for awhile suspended | engaged in a war with rebels the President had
as regards the rebel States, but that would not a right, jure belli, to blockade ports in possesto state here that the honorable gentleman did
prevent the Government from exercising that sion of States in rebellion, which neutrals were not pretend to express the views of the Repub
right as soon as the rebellion was crushed, nor bound to regard. There is no intimation of an lican party, for in the speech first delivered he, with his usual candor and fairness, says:
would it be any acknowledgment that these | abrogated Constitution or an outside status.
States were separated from the Union. Much Had this question been before the court no "I trust the Republican party will not be alarmed has been said and authorities cited in regard
doubt Justice Grier would have adhered to his at what I am saying; I do not profess to speak their sentiments, nor must they be held responsible for
to ancient Governments which have but little own opinion in case of the pirates, in which them. I speak for myself and take the responsibility
application to a Government like ours. We that eminent judge said: for them."
may look in vain into ancient history to find “Every Government is bound by the law of selfNor can I agree in all the views of my one constituted like the United States, for even
preservation to suppress insurrection, and the fact
that the number of the insurgents may be so great as learned colleague, (Mr. WILLIAMS,] although in the most enlightened days of the Grecian
to carry on a civil war against their legitimate sovhis speech, forits learning and research, reflects | republic piracy was regarded as an honorable ercign will not entitle them to be considered a State. great credit upon its distinguished author, nor employment.
The fact that a civil war exists for the purpose of
suppressing a rebellion is conclusive that the Govcan I to all contained in the able speech of The law of nations, as understood by the ernment of the United States refuses to acknowledge that distinguished gentleman from Ohio, [Mr. European world and by us, is the offspring of their right to be considered such. Consequently this SHELLABARGER,] in which is displayed much modern times. It is truly said in Phillimore
court, sitting here to execute the laws of the United
States, can view those in rebellion in no other light legal learning, and was delivered with great on International Law, page 138, (33 Law than traitors to their country, and those who assuno force. The authorities, however, cited by him Library, 133:)
by their authority a right to plunder the property of
our citizens on the high seas, as pirates and robbers." do not, in my opinion, sustain his position as "That the United States of North America furapplicable to the so-called rebel States. The nishes us the greatest example which the world has
My colleague, [Mr. STEVENS,] in his speech, yet seen of a Federal Government; that its Consti- recites a few words of what Justice Grier said two latter gentlemen do not profess to go the
tution differs materially from the Germanic Confedsame length as the former. I am certain that eration; the latter is a league of sovereign States for
in the prize cases, when speaking in relation neither of these distinguished gentlemen will the common defense against external and internal
to insurrections against Governments, as fol.
lows: concede the right of secession under the Con
violence, the former is a supreme l'ederal Govern
ment; it is in fact a composite Stat, the constitution stitution to any of the States of this Union.
“When a party in rebellion occupy or hold in hosa of which affects not only members of the Union but Then, if no such right exists to peaceably withall its citizens both in their individual and corpo
tile mannera certain portion of country, have declared
their independence, have cast off their allegiance, draw, can the citizens of any State or number rate capacities."
have organized armies, have commenced hostilities of States by force, short of a successful revo
And the same doctrine is recognized in against their former sovereign, the world acknowllution, take such State or States out of this Wheaton's International Law, page 92. But
edges them as belligerents, and the contest is a war,' Confederacy? it has been said that during the four years
But in the same paragraph that judge con
tinues: I hold that no rebellious act can force a State
of bloody conflict the so-called rebel States out of the Union; that notwithstanding the were acknowledged by the United States as "They claim to be in arms to establish their liberty
and independence in order to become a sovereign rebellion, it still remains a part and parcel of belligerents, and to sustain this theory 20
State, while the sovereign treats them as insurgents it, as much as an arm is an integral part of the
Black's United States Supreme Court Reports, and rebels who owe allegiance and who should bo human body; though, owing to the rebellion, which is known as the prize cases, has been
punished with death." it may for a time be somewhat paralyzed. Í
cited and relied on. It cannot be denied that This does not conflict with the opinion given would accord to the rebels no such honor as
the rebellion against the Government of the by that distinguished jurist in the trial of the having been successful in taking the eleven
United States assumed a gigantic form ; that pirates, but is in confirmation of the fact that rebel States, or any one of them, out of the
the rebel government had enforced obedience the United States did not acknowledge the Union, and now to be treated as conquered || and over many millions of people; that it had to its authority over a large region of country, rebel confederacy as a belligerent.
It cannot be disputed bu that during the provinces. But suppose we should admit these States bad forced themselves out of the Union,
by force excluded temporarily the operation rebellion the civil laws could not be enforced and no constitutional prohibition adopted, how
of the laws of the United States; and that our over those States, and consequently the funcwould we stand in regard to the rebel debt? In
Government has in many ways recognized the tions thercof were in a great measure susWheaton's Elementary International Law, page
contest as a civil war, and from motives of | pended. But this fact, as the authorities here63, it is laid down thatpolicy and humanity could not act strictly upon intofore cited show, did not place those States
out of the Union, or destroy their status as "As to public debts, whethep due to or from the || legal principles, but ex necessitate rei adopted revolutionized Stato, a mere change in the form of
so much of the civil warfare a 3 would prevent | States, and turn them into Territories. government or in person of the ruler does not affect indiscriminate slaughter and the infliction of During all that trying period there was still the obligation. * The essential form of the State-that which conunnecessary pain and hardship.
prevailing (though in a great measure supstitutes it an independent community-remains the
This was done without in any manner recog. pressed) a Union element in those States which same, its accidental form only changed. The debts nizing the rebel leaders or their organization, did much in aiding to crush out the rebellion. being contracted in the name of the State by its
but constantly denying them to be a Govern- If there had been found in Sodom and Gomorauthorized agents for its public use, the nation continues liable for them, notwithstanding the change
ment de facto or de jure. On examination of rah ten righteous men, we are told that those in its international condition. The new Government all the proclamations of the President, begin- cities of the plain would have been saved from succeeds to the fiscal rights, and is bound to fulfill ning with that of the 15th of April, 1861, and destruction, and surely more than that number the fiscal obligations of the former Government. It becomes entitled to the public domain and other
all the principal laws of Congress, I have not of true loyal men could have been found in property of the State, and is bound to pay its debts been able to find a single executive or legisla- ll each of the rebel States, even South Carolina previously contracted."
tive act which conceded a governmental status not excepted. And are we more uncharitable I cite this authority merely to show the in- to the so-called rebel confederacy. The whole than He who holds in his hands the destiny of creased difficulties we might have to encounter Il ground of legislation has been aimed to sup- worlds ?