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That never set a squadron in the field,
Nor the division of a battle knows
More than a fpinster; but the bookish theoric,
Wherein the toged couns lors can propose (4)

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ful a wife, that she was his heaven on earth; that he idolí.
zed her, and forgot to think of happiness in an after stare, as
placing all his views of bliss in the angle enjoyment of her,
In this sense, beauty, when it can fo seduce and ingrofs a
man's thoughts, may be said almost to damn him. Jellica,
speaking of Baffanio's happiness in a wife, says fomething
almost equal to this:

For having such a blefing in his lady,
He finds the guys of heaven here no earth;
And if on earth he do not merit it,
In reason he thould never come to heaven,

Merchant of Venice. Beaumont and Fletcher likewise, in their King and no King, make Tigranes speak of such a degree of beauty sufficient to damn souls;

-had fhe in tempting fair, That she could wish it off for damning souls: i. e. either, for that it did damn fouls, or for fear it should,

(4) Wherein the tongued confuls | So the generality of the impressions read; but the oldest Quarto has it, toged, (which gave the hint for my emendation)

the senators, that aflifted the duke in council, in their proper gowns.comlago, a little lower, says to Brabantio; Zounds, Sir, you're sobbed; for shame, put on your

goun. Now, I think, 'tis pretty certain that lago does not mean, “ Slip on your night.goun, but your gown of office, your senatorial goin; put on your authority, and pursue the thief who has stole your daughter." Belides, there is not that contralt of terms betwixt tingued, as there is betwixt toged and Soldiership. This reading is peculiarly proper here, and the Tame opposition is almost for ever made by the Roman wrie

For instance; Cicero, in offic:

Cedant arnia toge. Idem in Pifonem :

-Set quod pacis est insigne et otii, toga ; contrà autern orma, tumultus atque belli. Vell. Paterculus de Scipione Æmiliano :

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As masterly as he; mere prattle, without practice,
Is all his foldiership-~-he had th' election;
And I, of whom his eyes had seen the proof
At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other grounds
Christian and Heathen (5) must be beleeʼd and calm’d

-paternisque Lucii Pauli virtutibus fimillimus, omnibus
belli ac tige dotibus, &c.
Callius Ciceroni:

Etenim tuo toga omnium arniis felicior. Ovid. Metamo. lib. XV.

Cæsar in urte fua deus eft; quam Marte tog aqui,

Præcipuum, &c.
Idem in Épift. ex Ponto, li. 2. ep. 1.

-Jam nunc hac à me, juvenum belloque togeque
Juvenal, Sat. 10.

-nocitura toga, nocitura petuntur
And in a great number of passages more, that night be
quoted. But now let me proceed to explain, wlry I have
ventured to substitute counsellors in the room of confuls; and
then, I hope, the alteration will not appear arbitrary. The
Venetian nobility, 'tis well known, constitute the great coun-
cil of the fenate, and are a part of the administration, and
fummoped to allist and counsel the Doge, who is prince of
the senate; and, in that regard, has only precedency before
the other magistrates. So that, in this respect, they may
very properly be called counsellors. Again, when the officer
comes from the Duke to Brabantio, in a subsequent scene of
this act, he says;

The Duke's in council, and your noble self,

I'm sure, is sent for. And when Brabantio comes into the fenate, the Duke says. to him ;

We lacked your counsel, and your help to-night. Now Brabantio' was a senator, but no confüle Besides, though the government of Venice was democratic at first, under soxfuis and tribunes; that form of power has been totally abrogated since Doges have been elected ; and whatever confuls of other states may be resident there, yet they have no more a voice, or place, in the public councils, or iis what concerns peace or war, than foreign ambassadors can have in our parliament.

(5) Must be led and calmed] There is no consonance of

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By Debitor and Creditor, this Counter-Caster;
He, in good time, must his lieutenant be, [cient.
And I, (God bless the mark!) his Moorship’s an-
Rod. By Heaven, I would have rather been his

hangman. lago. But there's no remedy, 'tis the curse of serPreferment goes by letter and affection, [vice; And not by old gradation, where each second Stood heir to the first. Now, Sir, be judge your. If I in any just term am assigned To love the Moor.

Rod. I would not follow him then.

lago. O Sir, content you ; I follow him to serve my turn upon

him, We cannot all be masters, nor all masters Cannot be truly followed. You shall mark Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave, That, doating on his own obsequious bondage, Wears out his time, much like his master's ass, For nought but provender; and when he's old, ca

Thiered: Whip me such honest knaves Others there are, Who trimm'd in forms and visages of duty, Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves; And, throwing but shows of service on their lords, Well thrive by them; and when they've lin’d their

coats, Do themselves homage. These folks have some foul, And such a one do I profess myself. It is as sure as you are Rodorigo, Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago:

metaphor in these two terms. I have chose to read with the first Folio, and several other of the old editions.

Bea leea is a sea term as well as calmed; and a fhip is said to be beleed when the lyes close under the wind on the lee-fhore, makes no fail.

In following him, I follow but myself,
Heaven is my judge, not I, for love and duty,
But seeming so, for my peculiar end:
For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart
In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve,
For daws to peck at; I'm not what I feem.

Rod. What a full fortune doth the thick-lips owe, If he can carry her thus ?

lago. Call up her father, Roule him, make after him, poison his delight; Proclaim him in the streets, incense her kiníinen: And though he in a fertile climate dwell, Plague him with flies; tho' that his joy be joy, Yet throw fucin changes of vexation on't, As it may lose some colour.

Rod. Here is her father's house, I'll call aloud.

lagm. Do, with like timorous accent, and dire As when, by night and negligence, the fire (yell, Is fpied in populous cities.

Rod. What, ho! Brabantio! Signior Brabantio, ho. lago. Awake! what ho! Brabantio! ho! thieves!

thieves! Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags: Thieves! thieves !

BRABANTIo appears above at a Window.
Bra. What is the reason of this terrible summons?
What is the matter there?

Ród. Signior, is all your family within ?
lago. Are all doors lock'd ?
Bra. Why, wherefore ask you this?
Iago. Zounds! Sir, you're robb’d: for shame, put

on your gown, Your heart is burst, you have lost half your soul:


Ev'n now, ev'n very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arile, arise,
Awake the fnorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandfire of you.
Arife, I say.
Bra. What, have


Rod. Most reverend Signior, do you know my
Bra. Not I; what are you?

(voice? Rod. My name is Rodorigo.

Bra. The worse welcome; I've charged thee not to haunt about my doors: In honest plainness thou hast heard me say, My daughter's not for thee. And now in madness, Being full of supper and distemp’ring draughts,

malicious bravery dost thou come To start my quiet.

Rod. Sir, Sir, Sir

Bra. But thou must needs be sure,
Ny spirit and my place have in their power
To make this bitter to thee.

Rod. Patience, good Sir.

Bra. What tellest thou me of robbing? this is Miy house is not a grange.

[Venice: Rod. Most grave Brabantio, In fimple and pure foul, I come to you.

Inge. Zounds! Sir, you are one of those that will not ferve God, if the devil bid you. Because we come to do you service, you think we are ruffians. You'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse, you'll have your nephews neigh to you; you'll have coursers for cousins, and gennets for germaus,

Dra. What profane wretch art thou?

lago. I am one, Sir, that comes to tell you, your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs.

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