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those of a tent, Solomon nevertheless adhered as temple, but the tabernacle also, the movable, far as possible to the forms and measurements of wandering sanctuary, had a similar form. It is the tabernacle, not only in respect of the holy of impossible that the latter, the direct opposite of holies, but also of the other portions of the temple; the former, should set forth the distinguishing and he felt himself obliged thereto, while he sim- characteristics of the tabernacle over against thoso ply doubled them-a sufficient proof that they were of the temple; the movable can never be the sign to him corresponding, necessary as well as signifi- of immobility and permanence. Still less can we cant for the sanctuary. Besides, in the description adopt the view of Kurtz and Keil, who regard of nearly all buildings and spaces which, in a nar- the square as "the symbolical form or signature rower or wider sense, were God's dwelling-places, of the kingdom of God," and its adjustment to when apparently weightier matters are passed over, the four points of the compass as an intimation the measure and disposition, according to size and that this kingdom was designed to comprehend number, are presented, and oftentimes when one and include within itself the entire world. The least expects it, as, e. 9., in the visions of Ezekiel "dwelling of Jehovah,” which is square in its and of the apocalyptic seer, as we have already ground-form, is not the kingdom of God itself, but noticed. Vitringa rightly explains the measuring a plan to which the form is given which correof a space or of a building as the yvoploua, that it sponds with lieaven, the peculiar dwelling-place is KATOLKTÍPiov toj vegū. This especially follows of God, with its “four corners. Supposing, from Rev. xi. 1, 2, where the seer holds a measur- moreover, that the temple were "an image of the ing-rod, and is commanded: "measure the temple kingdom of God under the old covenant," this of God, and the altar, and them that worship covenant was designed only to embrace the people therein; but the court which is without the tem- Israel and not the entire world. This is the scope ple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given of the new covenant. Witsius, to whom one apunto the Gentiles," &c. That which is not meas- peals besides, rightly remarks that the atrium sig. ured is ungodly and profane.-If we turn now to nifies separationem Israelitarum a reliquis gentibus. particular forms and measurements of the temple, It is impossible that the same symbol should sig. we find them like those of the tabernacle and of nify opposites—the separation of one nation from the temple of Ezekiel.

all others, and also the comprehending of all na(a) The form of the square, which is adhered to tions. with palpable rigor, and dominates everything. It (6) In measurements the number ten dominates. is the form of the forecourts, of the house in whole It marks the entire building, as well as its parts, and in its parts, also of both altars. Nowhere is be it simply ten or its hall, be it doubled or trethere the form of the triangle (pyramidal) or of bled. This was the case with the tabernacle; but the pentagon, nowhere the form of the circle or since the temple, as house or palace, necessarily of the half-circle. Even the porch and the side- required larger dimensions than the tent, so in structure with its fiat roof preserve this square place of a simple ten the double-ten or twenty was form. In Ezekiel it is given even to the great cir-employed, and this is the clearest proof of purcuit around the temple, and to the holy city and pose in respect of the number ten. The dwelling its domain (Ezek. xlviii. 8–35); so also in John, instead of ten cubits is twenty wide, and instead in respect of the heavenly Jerusalem (Rev. xxi.). of thrice ten cubits long is thrice twenty. The From this it follows indisputably that the square holy of holies measures twice ten cubits upon all was considered as the appropriate form of every sides, the holy place twice ten cubits doubled in dwelling-place of Jehovah, and generally of every length, and as the great apartment, three times sacred space and place, whether tent or house, ten cubits in height. The porch is twice ten cualtar or city. It is well to bear in mind, also, that bits broad and ten deep. The side-structure, i. e., this square appears always to have been adjusted each of its three stories, is in height half ten, that (oriented) to the points of the compass, and thereby is, five, and is thereby designated as something (inasmuch as this constant arrangement was merely subordinate. The cherubim in the holy of neither necessary nor especially convenient), re- holies are ten cubits high, each of the wings ferred to the proper and original dwelling- and measures five cubits, " so that there were ten curevelation-place of Jehovah, while the square bits from the end of one wing to that of the other” shape of the earthly dwelling corresponded with (ver. 24). The high altar in the forecourt is ten "the four corners of heaven "—the upper dwell. cubits high, and twice ten cubits long and broad (2 ing (Jer. xlix. 36; Matt. xxiv. 31; comp. Zech. ii. Chron. iv. 1): "the bases” [gestühle, seats) which 10; vi. 5; Ps. xix. 6; Job ix. 9). In conformity belong to it are ten (1 Kings vii. 27). The brazen with this view, the space which had the throne in sea is ten cubits wide and five high (1 Kings vii. the midst thereof and was the highest place of 23). In the holy place are ten candlesticks and also Jehovah—dwelling and self-revealing, the holy of ten tables, five on the right hand and five on the holies—had the most complete form of the square; left (2 Chron. iv. 7, 8). În the holy of holies the it was a cube. The holy place, on the other "ten words " (Exod. xxxiv. 28; Deut. iv. 13), which hand, was not a cube but an extended square, but are named absolutely “ the witness" and " the cove its length was not wilfully or indefinitely ar- enant," and which form the root and heart of the ranged; it was double that of the holy of holies, sanctuary, are preserved in the ark (Exod. xxv. since it served as vestibule to this latter and with 16, 21; xxxiv. 28). Since the dwelling of Jeho. it formed the entire dwelling. The square, as the vah amongst His people is the result, as also the ground-form of the temple, has often been ex- sign and pledge of the covenant (see above, 1, a) plained as the symbol of regularity, and especially without doubt the number in the covenant (ten of firmness and immobility, appeal being made to commandments] dominates the number of the Suidas, who says: Tetpåywvos ; ciotolins édpatos dwelling-place. That the covenant consists of (Grotius, Vitringa, Hävernick). This is contra- ten words has its reason, not, as Grotius supposes, dicted from the consideration that not only the in the ten fingers of tho hands (to be able to count

them more easily), but in the significance of the , of the heavenly. The three kinds of wood, cedar, number ten, which comprises all the cardinal num- cypress, and olive, before others have the quality bers and completes them, so that thereby the cov- of durability and hardness (comp. Winer, i. 8. 215, enant is designated as a perfect whole, comprising 238; ii. s. 172). Cypress, the least valuable all the chief words or commandments of God.-|(Ezek. xxvii. 5, and Hävernick on the place), was Besides ten, the number three is everywhere con- used for the floor, the more valuable cedar was spicuous in the building. It is divided into three used for the beams and wainscotings, the olive, sacred spaces (Heiligungs-stütte), which differ from the noblest and firmest, was used for the eneach other by way of degree-forecourt, holy place, trances, and in such way that the entrance to the holy of holies, with three expiatory objects which holy place had only door-posts, that into the holy are related to each other, the altar of burnt-offer- of holies, in addition to such posts, doors also. In ing, the altar of incense, and the kapporeth (mercy- the gold, more than in stone and wood, there is a seat). The dwelling itself is measured and divided more direct reference to the significance of the according to the number three; three times the building. It was used exclusively only in the indoubled ten, i. e., three times its width, is the terior of the dwelling. In the forecourt there was measure of its length—the holy of holies being no gold: repeatedly and as emphatically as possione-third, and the holy place two-thirds. The lat- ble it is stated that “the whole house" was overter, as the large compartment, is three times ten laid with gold (vers. 21, 22). The vessels of the cubits ligh, and has three articles of furniture, dwelling were wholly either of gold or covered candlesticks, the altar of incense, and the table with it, while those of the forecourt were all of for shewbread. The forecourt also has three kinds brass. The interior of the dwelling also was of articles for use, viz., the altar of burnt-offering, golden. This was not for the sake of mere ostenthe stools, and the brazen sea. The side-structure, tatious parade, for this gilding could not be seen finally, has three stories. The reason for this prom- from the outside. The people were not allowed inence of the number three is not to be sought for to enter within the dwelling, this was the preroga. directly in the divine Trinity, for the revelation of tive of the priests ; but into the darkened yet the Trinity belongs to the New Testament. But wholly golden holy of holies, the high-priest alone in the Old Testament, the number three is the could enter once a year. That in the ancient East signature of every true unit complete in itself, a symbolical use was made of the noble metals, and so, closely resembles ten, with which it is here and especially of gold, is a well-known fact (comp. frequently connected. What happens thrice is the Symbol. des Mos. Kult., i. s. 272, 282, 295). In genuine once: what is divided into three is a true the primitive documents of the persic light reliunity. The one dwelling, by its division into three gion, "golden” stands for heavenly, divine. To parts, is designated as one complete whole, and the Hebrews, also, gold is the image of the higlie the three kinds of articles of use which are in the est light, of the light of the sun and the heavens three parts, or in one of them, again form a com- (Job xxxvii. 21, 22). The apocalyptic OKIVI TOU plete whole, and belong under it to the one or the begū which descends from heaven, is of "pure other relation. While the number ten gives the gold” (Rev. xxi. 18, 21). God "dwelleth in light" impress of finishing and completing to multiplicity, (1 Tim. vi. 16; comp. Ps. civ. 2) is equivalent in the number three is the signature of perfect unity, meaning to God dwelleth in heaven; and if now and thus also of the divine being. (Comp. Symb. His earthly dwelling were all golden, it is thereby des Mos. Kult., i. s. 175 sq.).

designated as a heaven- and light-dwelling. The 5. The significance of the building material, conception of purity in the moral sense of the since the choice and use of it is determined by word is associated likewise with gold (Job xxiii. necessity, convenience, greater or lesser artistic 10; Mal. iii. 3); the golden dwelling is hence also skill, and other outward conditions, is not imme- a pure, i. e., holy, sanctuary (Ps. xxiv. 3, 4). diate and direct, but must be recognized in so far 6. The significance of the carvings is explained as the material employed in any structure im- at once by their form. Upon all the walls of the parts to it a certain definite character. In the dwelling, and even upon the doors, there are three tabernacle, wood was employed; its ceilings were kinds of carved figures which are always assoof leather and hair, it had woven hangings such ciated together-cherubim, palms, and flowers. as the nature of a "tent" required. But when Diverse as they may seem, one and the same relithe period of the tent was passed, and in the place gious idea nevertheless lies at the bottom of them, of a movable, wandering dwelling, a firm, im- namely, the idea of life, which is only expressed in movable dwelling, a "house," was to be built, in them in differing ways. the construction of it everything must be excluded (a) The cherubim are not actual, but, as is eviwhich could be a reminder of a mere tent. In dent from their component parts, imaginary bethe place of wooden walls consisting of planks ar- ings, and this requires no further proof that they ranged side by side, there were thick storie walls; are significant. A Jewish proverb says of their in place of the ceilings and hangings and the like, composition, "four are the highest things in the there were beams, wainscotings, and doors. The world: the lion amongst the wild boasts, the bull stones which were used for the walls were not amongst cattle, the eagle amongst birds, the man dried or burned, such as were used in ordinary is over all, but God is supreme." (Comp. Spencer, houses, but large, sound, costly stones, cube. De Leg. Hebr. Rit., ii. p. 242; Schöttgen, Hor. Hebr., shaped (chap. v. 31), such as were used in palaces p. 1108.) God, on the other hand, is common to only (comp. Winer, R.-W.-B., i. 8. 466)—and Je- these four, and the life uniting them, which they hovah's dwelling should be a palace. The wood have not of themselves, but from Him who is the was in the highest degree durable, and not liable source of all life, the Creator, and hence stands to decay and corruption, which with the Hebrews and is enthroned above them all. Creaturely bewas a sign of impurity, and were, therefore, es- ing reaches its highest stage in those which havo pecially appropriate for the sanctuary, the patter- | an anima, and amongst these animated creatures

with souls, the four above named again are the branches of palm-trees should be at the booths highest and most complete, the most living as it (Lev. xxiii. 40). They are the known symbols of were. By their combination in the cherub, he ap- salvation, of joy, of peace after victory (Rev. vii pears as anima animantium, as the complex and 9; 1 Maccab. xiii. 51; 2 Macc. x. 7; John xii. 13). representative of the highest creaturely life. (c) The flower-work finally, in its connection with Upon this account, and this alone, could Ezekiel the significant representations of cherubim and of name the cherubim absolutely ni'nit, i. e., the palm-trees, can by no means be regarded as destiliving beings (Ezek. i. 5, 13, 15, 19, 22). He em

tute of meaning, as a mere affair of ornamentation. ploys, in fact, the collective -singular minn, i. e, empty decorations, like our so-called egg fillets

High antiquity knows nothing in general of the living, to denote the unit-life of the four (chap. and arabesques. In the ancient temples in par. x. 14, 15, 17, 20. “ This is the living creature that | ticular, there were no kinds of forms which had I saw under the God of Israel, by the river of not a religious meaning. From that time down to Chebar;" comp. chap. i. 20, 21.) So, also, Jolin our own, flowers and blossoms have been the names the four rà sữa over-against God tỏ GÜVTL usual symbols of life-fulness, and in all languages ɛic tous aiūvas, to whom, as such, they ascribe the age of the greatest life-fulness has been called praise, honor, and thanks, because He has made its bloom. So then by the flower-work, as by the all thi

and all things are and have been created cherubim and the palm-trees, by which on all by His will (Rev. iv. 9–11). In so far as all crea- sides the dwelling of Jehovah was decorated, was turely life is individualized in them, they are the it designated as an abode of life. It should not most direct, immediate evidences of the creative be left out of mind here, that the Israelitish reli. power and glory, the definite, highest praise gion did not conceive of "life," after the heathen thereof, and they surround the throne of God. In natural religions, as physical, but essentially as the fact that they are represented upon all the moral. The Creator of the world, who as such is walls of the house, does it first rightly acquire the the source of all life, and is the absolutely living, character of the dwelling of Jehovah, and espe- is to it also the all-holy (Is xliii

. 15), who dwelis cially that of a life-residence testifying to His power in the midst of Israel to sanctify the people and and glory. Hence it is apparent how unsatisfac-by them to be hallowed (Exod. xxix. 43-46; Ezek. tory the view of Riehm is, that the cherubim are xxxvii. 26-28). All true divine life is in its nature merely witnesses of the divine presence, and that an holy life, and hence the symbols of life in the they have no other purpose beyond that of over- sanctuary are eo ipso symbols of an holy life. The shadowing or covering holy places and things. cherubim are not merely upon the walls of the Certainly this latter was not their design upon the dwelling, but above all in the holy of holies, they walls of the dwelling, and if they did nothing form the throne of the "holy One of Israel," and more than bear witness to the presence of God, they are inseparable from the kapporeth (Exod. how could Ezekiel have ever named them simply xxv. 19), i. e., from the article of furniture where "the living creatures ?” The underlying idea of the highest and most embracing expiatory or the cherub is specifically wholly Israelitish, and is sanctification rite is consummated. In the apocarooted in the cardinal dogma of God, the creator of lyptic vision, the four living beings stand around all things, which separates it sharply from all the throne, and day and night they say, "Holy, other pre-christian religions. This idea is com- holy, holy Lord God Almighty” (Rev. iv. 8), like pletely destroyed, if, with Riehm, we tear apart the seraphim in Isai. vi. 2 sq. As the righteous the four types which together constitute the who lead an holy life are compared generally with cherub, and make the cherub simply a man with trees which perpetually flourish and bring forth wings, and regard the bull and the lion as an ar- fruit (Ps. i. 3; Jer. xvii. 8; Isa. lxi. 3), so esbitrary addition upon the part of Ezekiel, occa- pecially with palm-trees, with an unmistakable sioned by his observation of the Babylonian- reference to the palms "which are planted in the heathen combinations of beasts.

house of the Lord” (Ps. xcii. 12–15; comp. Ezek. (0) The palms to the right and left of the cheru- xlvii. 12; Rev. xxii. 2; Ps. lii. 8).' So also are bim have a relation to vegetable life, like that of blossoms and flowers, especially lilies, symbols of the cherubim to animal life. The palm-tree unites righteousness and holiness (Eccl. xxxix. 13). So in itself whatsoever there is of great and glorious | also the plate worn upon the forehead of the highin the vegetable kingdom. The tree, first of all, priest, with the inscription, “Holiness unto the surpasses all other plants; but amongst trees there Lord,” was called simply my, i. e., flower (Exod. is none so lofty and towering, none of such beautiful majestic growth, so constantly in its verdure xxviii. 36). The budding of Aaron's rod was the casting, by its luxuriant foliage, such deep shad- sign of an holy estate (Numb. xvii. 10). The Ows,—while its fruit is said to be the food of the crown of life (Rev. ii. 10) is likewise the crown of blessed in Paradise,-as the palm. Its attributes righteousness (2 Tim. iv. 8). If now the three are so manifold, that men used to number them by kinds of figures are represented upon the gold tlle days in the year. Linnæus named the palms with which the dwelling was overlaid, the two "the princes of the vegetable kingdom, and conceptions of light and life, the correlatives of Humboldt "the noblest of plants to which the na- the conception of revelation (Ps. xxxvi. 9; John i. tions have accorded the meed of beauty." The 4; viii. 12), are symbolically united. But the land, moreover, in which Jehovah had His dwell- conception of revelation recurs with that of the ing, the land of promise, was the true and proper dwelling (see above, under 2. a). The seat of the habitat of the palm. Hence, subsequently, the dwelling and of revelation is necessarily, in its na palm, as the symbol of Palestine, appears upon ture, a seat of light and life. coins (comp. Celsius, Hierobotanicon, ii. p. 444–579; (d) The statues of the cherubim in the holy of my treatise, Der Salom. Temp., 8. 120 sq.). The holies were not in the tabernacle, and we are auaw required that at the feast of tabernacles I thorized to suppose that the reason of this is to be

tent.

found in the relation of the temple to the taber 7. To show the significance of the teinple in its nacle. Their design is stated in 1 Kings viii. 6, 7: relation to the history of redemption, the question "Azd the priests brought in the ark of the cov- presents itself finally: as to the manner in which it enant of the Lord unto his place, into the oracle of was related to the temples of heathen antiquity, whether the house, to the most holy place, even under the it was more or less a copy, or an original. K. O. wings of the cherubims. For the cherubims Müller (Archæologie der K., i. s. 372, Eng. trans. p. spread forth their two wings over the place of the 276) remarks strikingly of the heathen temple that ark, and the cherubims covered the ark and the it was "at first nothing more than the place where staves thereof above." It is also remarked in 2 an image, the object of worship, could be securely Chiron. iii. 13: "and they stood on their feet," set up and protected.”. Every place enclosing the which would have been in the higliest degree su- image of a god, if only set off with stakes, was perfluous, if it were not meant by this expression called a temple (Servius defines templum by locus, that they were firm and immovable, like D'719y, palis aut hastis clausus, modo sit sacer). Without e e., pillars. The ark of the covenant with the kap- not conceive of a temple. Half in wonder and

the image of the divinity, heathen antiquity could poreth and the cherubim then placed there, like half in derision, Tacitus exclaims over the temple its "staves,"—the evidences of mobility and transport show,—was a movable, wandering throne, at Jerusalem (Ilist.

, 5. 9), Nulla intus Deum effigies

, just as the entire dwelling was a transportable Hebr. Rit., iii. 5, 6) rightly says: Seculi fide receptum

vacua xedes et inania arcana! and Spencer (De Leg. As the peculiar original pledge of the covenant, it was not, when the house was built, erat, templa açava Numine et religione vacua et plane

nulla esse.

A temple was not first built, and then made anew, but it was taken from the tent and

an image of the god made to erect within it, but lodged within the house, that it might forever have its abiding-place and cease to be transport- which then became, in a proper sense, the house

a temple was built for the already existing image, able. To this end it was placed under the fixed, or dwelling of the represented deity. Forth from immovable cherubim, whose wings completely cove the image the heathen temple proceeds. This is ered it, covering the “ staves,” the very witnesses its principle. . And as the gods of heathenism are of its movableness, and with it one entire whole was formed. As the cherubim in general, in their nothing more than cosmical powers, their temples being and meaning, belonged to the throne (see lations (see examples in Der Salomonische Tempel

, s.

in plan and contrivance refer only to cosmical reabo so the firm fixing of the tlırone was repre- 276 sq. and Symb. des Alos. Kult., i. 8. 97 99.); But sented by means of the permanent, large cheru- the principle of the Israelitish temple is the rebim-statues. It is entirely wide of the mark to explain, as Thenius does, on the pretended analogy ment of the religion declares: "Thou shalt not

verse, in so far as the chief and great commandof cherubim with the guardian griffins and dragons make unto thyself any graven image," &e. The of heathen religions, our cherubim in the holy of erection of a dwelling of Jehovah” did not proholies, as the watchmen and guardians of the throne ceed from any need of enclosing and preserving an of Jehovah. For, apart from every other consideration, nothing is more contradictory to the Is- image of God, but only from out the covenant of raelitish idea of God than that Jehovah stands in Jehovah with His chosen people (see above, under need of guardians of His throne. The cherubim in- 2. a). The tables of the law, which are called simdeed are the supporters and vehicle of His throne, ply the covenant” (1 Kings viii. 20), and as the but never as the watchmen thereof (comp. Ezek. i. proclamation of the covenant were preserved in and x.); they belong rather to the throne itself, and the ark, represented, first of all, this invisible coveare, as such, witnesses and representatives of the nant relation. Hence this ark was the central

point of the covenant. There was concentrated glory of God, but they do not guard Him. When the indwelling of Jehovah; there, too, was His in our text here, we think especially of their wings throne. But since Jehovah dwelt within Israel to spread over the holy of holies (from wall to wall), sanctify the people and by them to be hallowed and that with them they overshadow the ark, the reason for this is in the fact that He who is (Exod. xxix. 43 sq.; Ezek. xxxvii. 26 sq.), His here enthroned in His glory (7127) is invisible, or forth from this its supreme and final design, its

dwelling-place was essentially a sarctuary, and rather is unapproachable and removed, for He entire plan, division, and arrangement proceeded dwells in an unapproachable splendor; no man (see above, under 2, 6, and 3, a). The entire temple can “see ” Him and live (1 Tim. vi. 16; Lev. xvi. rests, consequently, upon ethico-religious ideas, 2 ; Judg. xiii. 23). But it does not follow from which are specifically Israelitish, and which do not this, as Riehm would have it, that the design of recur in any other of the ancient religions. It is the cherubim consisted only in veiling and cover- as unique as the Israelitish religion itself; its ori. ing the present God, and that their significance ginal is the tabernacle, from which it differs only was like that of the "enwrapping” clouds (Ps. because there is necessarily some difference bexcvii. 2; xviii. 11, 12; Exod. xix. 9, 16; xxiv. 16); tween an house and a tent. Its originality outfor the cherubim upon the walls between the wardly is shown in the fact that no ancient people palm-trees had nothing to cover or veil. This was possessed a temple like it in plan, arrangement, only their special duty in the holy of holies, by and contrivance. Men still refer to the Egyptian the throne. When it is expressly added that they temples, only these are "aggregates which admit of did not turn their faces like those already upon indefinite increase" (K. O. Müller, Arche., 8. 257, the kapporeth, and towards it, but towards the Eng. trans. p. 191), and the common feature of house, i. e., towards the holy place, we can find a their arrangement was that “they were not comreason for it in their special functions: as the pleted, but were constantly undergoing enlargeheralds, messengers of that which is not to be ap- ment,” and “they had no given measurements.” proached, they should direct their gaze towards The “single portions are in themselves finished, the outer world

and can last, but other portions can be added, and

others yet again. The band which holds these and in this the dwelling of Jehovah necessarily single, different parts together is slight” (Schnaase, participates. As the people Israel, the people of Gesch. der bild. Künste, i. s. 393, 424). Quite the re- Jehovah, is limited by natural descent ('iopan verse holds in respect of the dwelling of Jehovah, katà cápka, 1 Cor. x. 18), so the dwelling of Jeho. the plan of which is in the highest degree simple- vah therein is conditioned by the corporeal and an house consisting of two divisions surrounded outward, especially in the way of the local and by a court. An indefinite extension is just as im- the visible. But therefore, as imperfect, it looks possible as a contraction, without the destruction forward to the perfect which is to come, and of the whole, and precisely in this respect the Is- hence upon this account is called a okià perraelitisli sanctuary is more like all other ancient | λόντων or των επουρανίων (Heb. viii. 5; Χ. 1). The temples than those of Egypt. Besides this, the perfect first appeared, when the time was fulfilled, style of architecture in the Egyptian temples, to in Him who was the oua in contrast with the which the truncated pyramidal form essentially be- okią, i. e., in Christ (Col. ii. 17). What the dwell. longs, is entirely diverse in that of Solomon, as ing typifies, that He is, in reality and truth. In also the stone ceilings and pillars, while on the Him “dwells" the whole fulness of the Godhead, other hand they do not have wooden wainscotings omatikus (Col. ii. 9). He is the kóyos, tlie true and overlaying of metals. As Solomon availed revelation of God, and in Him is life and light: Ho himself of Phænician workmen, occasion has been dwelt among us (tokivwoe), and we beheld His found to institute a comparison with Phoenician temples (Schnaase, 8. 238). But the accounts re

glory, (Sósa, i. e., Tian) full of grace and truth specting these temples are so scanty and general, (John i. 1, 4, 14). He named himself the "temthat the attempt has been made, upon the suppo- ple” of God (John ii. 19), and the chief complaint sition that the temple of Solomon was a copy of against Him was, that “He said, I can destroy the Phænician, to fill out and complete the defect- the temple of God, and build it again in three ive descriptions of them from the scriptural delin- days" (Matt. xxvi. 61). With this real temple eation of our temple (comp. Vatke, Relig. des Alt. came consequently the end of the merely typical, Test., s. 323 sq.; Müller, Archæol., Eng. trans. p. 214). outward, and local temple. With Him, the dwell. The little that we know of the Phænician temples ing of God hitherto amongst the 'lopaia kata of a later date, does not exhibit the remotest like-cápka ceased, and proceeding from Him, who with ness to that of Solomon (comp. my treatise, s. 250 one sacrifice "hath perfected forever them that 89.). In this matter modern criticism pursues a are sanctified " (Heb. x. 14), the true "abode" of very partisan course. It is compelled to acknowl. God now is here (John xiv. 23). Through Him edge that each ancient people had their own pe- indeed God dwells now in the collective believers culiar religious ideas, which were expressed in in Ilim, in the congregation, which is His body, their sacred structures, but that the people Israel the fulness of Him that filleth all in all (Eph. i. alone built their only temple, not according to 23; Col. ii. 9, 10). Now is the declaration, “ I will what was peculiar to themselves, but according to dwell in their midst," realized, for the first time, foreign, lieathenish ideas. Originality is conceded in its full truth. The congregation which is filled to all other temples rather than to the temple of by Him, is the true temple of the living God, the Solomon.

habitation of God in the spirit (2 Cor. vi. 16; 1 [The justness of our author's observations here Cor. iii. 16; Eph. ii. 21, 22; 1 Pet. ii. 5). But if is indisputable. We cannot reconstruct the tem- Christ appear also as the antitype of details even ple as we can reconstruct any building, essential of tlie sanctuary, such as the veil before the holy features of which are remaining. Doubtless as its of holies (Heb. x. 20), and the throne of grace architect was a Phænician, it bore the impress of (Rom. iii. 25), the ground of this is not, as the old the Phænician genius. Tre "originality of the typology supposed, in the circumstance that these temple was in its arrangements and its design and objects were immediate types of Christ, but in its significance; but in its outward form, as it that through these, truths and divine-luman restruck the eye of the beholder, we fancy it must lations were signified, whiclı

, like " the dwelling" have had Phænician features. The Jews were itself

, first in Christ and through Him reached its singularly deficient in their conceptions of beauty full realization (comp. my treatise : Der Salom. of form. The cherubim may be cited in proof; Tempel, s. 81 sq.). In so far now, in the New Tesand the temple, architecturally, probably was left tament economy, as the congregation of the faithto the Phænician artist under the conditions which ful is itself the dwelling of God, it no more needs the exigencies of the building itself required. The a temple; and if Christendom still build houses of reader may consult Dean Stanley, Jewish Church, God, it is not with the notion that God dwells second series, New York, Chas. Scribner & Co., within them. The Christian church-building is 1870, p. 225-236. There is no evidence, however, not a temple, but the congregation-house, and that it suggested in the least degree an Egyptian God's house only in this respect. It is not, low temple.-E. H.]

ever, only that, protected from wind and weather 8. The typical significance of the temple, which, men can worship God undisturbed, but that the like that of the tabernacle, is distinctly expressed faithful may assemble as one body, and exercise in the New Testament, rests upon those symbol their fellowship as members of the body of Christ, ical features which they have in common. Both and build themselves up as individual stones into are "a dwelling of Jehovah," and in this respect a spiritual house, in Jesus Christ the chief cornerthe place of the revelation and presence of the holy stone. Thence it follows that it is a great perand sanctifying God, an abode of light and life, forth version to regard the temple of Solomon as the from which all well-being for Israel proceeds. model for a Christian church, and to plan one But the entire Old Testament economy, especially like it. It was not the design of this temple uc its cultus, bears the impress of the bodily and of gather the congregation within itself. They stood the outward, and consequently of the imperfect, in the forecourt. The church, on the other band,

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