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people, have increased his authority, and estab Vers. 19–25. Bath-sheba before the king: (a) lished his rule.
How she was received by him (vers. 19, 20), but 4. The establishment of Solomon's kingdom (ver. (6) was refused her petition (vers. 22–24). —Ver. 46) is the result of all that chapters i. and ii. re- 19. Solomon, when on the throne, did not forget late, and is therefore expressly stated again at what he owed his mother. How often do childrer their close. Our author evidently does this, not forget their parents and nearest relations, and only from purely historical, but also from religious even become ashamed of them, when they attain and theocratic grounds. In fact, throughout the to great riches and honor; but no position or rank whole of the genuine Old Testament history of dispenses with our observance of ihe fourth conSolomon's succession to the throne, the guiding mandment, the first with pronse (Ephes. vi. 2; hand of the living God is made apparent, far Prov. xix. 26).— Ver. 21. STARKE: Even pious above the ferment of human passions and inclina- Christians are often ignorant of what they ask tions. He knows how to fulfil his threatenings, (Rom. viii. 26), and are therefore often unheard and to lead the way which each chooses for him- (Matt. xx. 22).- Ver. 22. Kings and princes should self, to a goal where he shall find retribution of not grant even an apparently small petition, that his deeds (Job xxxiv. 11).
interferes with the welfare of the kingdom and people committed to their charge. Seeming se
verity is in such cases sacred duty.-HALL: Con. HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL.
siderations arising from personal relationship must
be laid aside in the official acts of rulers. Vers. 13–25. Adonijah's repeated attempt to Ver. 25. Punishment of Adonijah, how far it gain the throne : (a) Wherein this attempt con was (a) according to law, (6) just and deserved. sisted (vers. 13-18); (6) how it ended (vers. 19-25). Vers. 26–46. Solomon's treatment of his ene-Yers. 13-18. Adonijah before Bath-sheba : (a) mies (see Historical).— Vers. 26, 27. Ecclesiastical The feigned sentiment, in which he comes (vers. 13- office can be no protection from just punishment 15); (b) the request he brings (vers. 16, 17); (c) of crime (see Luke xii
. 47; 1 Cor. ix. 27).—Former the answer he receives (ver. 18).–Ver. 13. Ambi- fidelity cannot efface later treachery. It is most tious and power-loving people do not scruple to lamentable that a man who was faithful in times reach the ends which they cannot obtain by open of trouble should end his career as a sinner (1 force, by means that are mortifying to their pride; Cor. x. 12).—[BP. HALL: No man held so close to when they can no longer demand, they beg.—Those David,
yet now is he called to reckon are least to be trusted who have proved themselves for his old sins, and must repay blood to Amasa enemies, and suddenly appear with tokens of peace. and Abner.-E. H.] When circumstances permit, Joab met Amasa with the words: Peace be to thee! mildness and forgiveness should go hand in hand and while kissing him, ran him through the body with justice.—Children should not forget kindness (2 Sam. xx. 9). Judas betrayed the Lord with a shown to their parents, but look on it as done to greeting and a kiss (Luke xxii. 48).—Ver. 15. Ado-themselves; this is fulfilling the fourth command. nijah's boast and hypocrisy: (a) He boasts, like ment.—The promises of God are yea and amen; most rebels, of having all the people on his side, but so are also His threatenings, which are often but his few adherents were some faithless men, executed when men have forgotten them. who were won over by good eating and drinking, Vers. 28–34. The terrible end of Joab: (a) He and who would desert him with the first change of dies conscious of his guilt, without peace and parthe wind (chap. i. 41, 49). (6) He speaks and acts don; (b) even in the very jaws of death he is as a pious man, who humbles himself under God's defiant, rough, and proud; (c) he does not leave hand (Job i. 21), while he resists His will in his the world like a hero, but like a criminal. How heart, and seeks to overthrow His purpose (Matt. differently David dies ! (ver. 2).— Ver. 28. An evil vii. 21; Prov. xii. 22).–Ver. 16 sq. The most pre-conscience can put to flight a hero who never sumptuous character is often hid under the mask of yielded to the enemy in a single bloody field.unassuming deportment.–Ver. 17. He who has an STARKE: It is thus the wicked act when they get honest and just request to make seeks no rounda- into danger; though they never before cared bout ways, but goes openly and courageously with about God and His children, they will seek their it to the person who can grant it. The serpent ad- protection then.-Ver. 30. What good is there in dresses the woman first, in order to gain the man, dying in a sacred place if one has not a sanctified in paradise (Gen. iii. 1, 6; 1 Tim. ii. 14).–Ver. 18. heart and pure conscience? Prov. iii. 21–26.— Ver. Bath-sheba's consent to Adonijah's request shows 31 sq. STARKE: God has no sanctuary or city of want of sagacity, experience, and knowledge of hu- refuge for an intentional murderer (Ex. xxi. 14).man nature, but at the same time shows that her Lange: If a ruler leaves shed blood unavenged, heart was free from revenge and bitterness, and was the guilt attaches to himself; through just revenge willing to serve even one who had caused her it is averted.—Ver. 33. Only that throne stands great anxiety and sorrow (chap. i. 21).-Kind and firm upon which justice, without respect of perunsuspicious persons are apt to yield to their first sons, is exercised (Prov. xxv. 5). feelings and impressions rather than reflect calmly Vers. 36-46. Shimei's fate plainly proves the and deliberately; it is therefore the more needful truth of the word Job xxxiv. 11; Ps. cxli. 10; for them to guard against being led away by flat- Prov. v. 22.-Ver. 39. Avarice, i. e., covetousness, tering speeches into promises and actions that is the root of all evil. The loss of two servants may greatly injure themselves and others.-Weled Shimei to disobedience, even to forget his oath ought not to refuse to intercede for others, but to and to risk his life. [Ver. 40 sq. BP. HALL: "Cor. take great care not to do it for the unworthy, thus etousness, and presumption of impurity, are the injuring those who are deserving.-Those who are destruction of many a soul: Shimei seeks his ser. high in favor with the powerful are often used, with vants and loses himself.”—E. H.]—Vers. 41 sq. out their wish or knowledge, for unworthy ends. I Divine justice at length overtakes those whose
crimes have long been unpunished, and when they realm, and who have shot their poisoned shafts et least expect it. Those also who have cursed the Him, shall hereafter say to the mountains: Fall 03 anointed of the Lord, the eternal king of God's us! and to the hills: cover us! (Luke xxiii. 30).
THE BEGINNING OF SOLOMON'S REIGN.
CHAP. III.-V. 14.
A.-Solomon's marriage, solemn sacrifice and prayer ; first judicial decision.
CHAP. III. 1-28.
1 AND Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's
daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of
building his own house, and the house of the Lord [Jehovah], and the wall 2 [walls] of Jerusalem round about. Only the people sacrificed in high places,
because there was no house built unto the name of the Lord [Jehovah), until 3 those days. And Solomon loved the Lord [Jehovah), walking in the statutes 4 of David his father : only he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places. And
the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there ; for that was the great high place: a thousand burnt-offerings did Solomon offer upon
that altar, 5 In Gibeon the Lord [Jehovah] appeared to Solomon in a dream by night: 6 and God' said, Ask what I shall give thee. And Solomon said, Thou hast
shewed unto thy servant David my father great mercy, according as he walked before thee in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with
thee; and thou hast kept for him this great kindness, that thou hast given him 7 a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day. And now, O Lord [Jehovah] my
God, thou hast made thy servant king instead of David niy father : and I 8 am but a little child : ' I know not how to go out or come in. And thy servant
is in the midst of thy people which thou hast chosen, a great people, that cannot 9 be numbered nor counted for multitude. Give therefore thy servant an under
standing heart to judge thy people, that I may discern between good and bad : 10 for who is able to judge this thy so great a people? And the speech pleased 11 the Lord,' that Solomon had asked this thing. And God said unto him,
Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life;
neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; 12 but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern judgment; Behold I have
done according to thy words:* lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding
heart; so that there was none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall 13 any arise like unto thee. And I have also given thee that which thou hast not
asked, both riches, and honor: so that there shall not be any among the kings like 14 unto thee all thy days. And if thou wilt walk in my ways, to keep my statutes
and my commandments, as thy father David did walk, then I will lengthen thy 15 days. And Solomon awoke; and, behold, it was a dream. And he came to
Jerusalem, and stood before the ark of the covenant of the Lord [Jehovah],' and offered up burnt-offerings, and offered [made]' peace-offerings, and made a feast
to all his servants. 16 Then came there two women that were harlots,' unto the king, and stood 17 before him. And the one woman said, O my lord, I and this woman dwell ir
18 one house; and I was delivered of a child with her in the house. And it came to
pass the third day after that I was delivered, that this woman was delivered also:
and we were together; there was no stranger with us in the house, save we two in 19 the house. And this woman's child (son] o died in the night; because she overlaid 20 it. And she arose at midnight, and took my son from beside me, while thine hand
maid slept, and laid it in her bosom, and laid her dead child (son]" in my bosom. 21 And when I rose in the morning to give my child son] "suck, behold, it was dead:
but when I had considered it in the morning, behold, it was not my son which I 22 did bear, And the other woman said, Nay; but the living is my son, and the
dead is thy son. And” this said, No; but the dead is thy son, and the living 23 is my son. Thus they spake before the king. Then said the king, The one
saith, This is my son that liveth, and thy son is the dead : and the other saith, 24 Nay; but thy son is the dead, and my son is the living. And the king said, 25 Bring me a sword. And they brought a sword before the king. And the king
said, Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the 26 other. Then spake the woman whose the living child was unto the king, for
her bowels yearned upon her son, and she said, O my lord, give her the living
child, and in no wise slay it. But the other said, Let it be neither mine nor 27 thine, but divide it. Then the king answered and said, Give her * the living 28 child, and in no wise slay it: she is the mother thereof. And all Israel heard
of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the king : for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him to do judgment.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.
! Ver. 5.- [The Sept. and Chald. here repeat LORD; the Syr. follows the Hbr. in reading God; while the Vulg. and Arab. avoid repeating the divine name.
Ver. 7.- [Some MSS., followed by the Sept. and Vulg., prefix the conjunction 1. 3 Ver. 10.-[Many MSS. read 717' instead of '978, and are followed by the Chaldee. * Ver. 12.-[Many MSS. and editions, followed by the Vulg., have 7927 in the plural.
Ver. 13.- The Sept. put this clause in the past tense: w ou yeyovev avnş Öpolós gou ev şapidevou, the Vat. ending the clause here; but the Alex., by retaining the last words of the Hbr., tao as tas na ipas oov, makes nonsense.
6 Ver. 15.--[The Sept. add év Luv.
- Ver. 16.– [The Hbr. wyal is the same before “ peace-offerings” and before "feast," and is quite different from the Syay before ' burnt-offerings." The distinction is accurately preserved by the Sept, and the Vulg.
& Ver. 16.--[This translation is sustained here, as in Josh. ii. 1, by all the VV. except the Chald., and is undoubtedly the invariable and distinctly-marked sense of the frequent Hbr. word. The Chald. renders inn-keepers. The author's objection to the sense of harlots seems insufficient.
9 Ver. 18.-- [Many MSS., followed by the Sept. and Vulg., prefix the conjuction 1. 10 Ver. 19.-- it is better to retain throughout
the passage the same rendering of the same Hbr. word. 11 Ver. 22.-One MS., followed by the Vat., Sept., and Arab., omits the second clause of ver. 22.
19 Ver. 27.--The Sept. remove any possible obscurity by paraphrasing, “Give the child to her that said, Givo her," &c.-F. G.]
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.
an Egyptian was not contrary to the law, since it
only prohibited union with the daughters of the Ver. 1. And Solomon made affinity. After Canaanite tribes (Ex: xxxiv. 11-16; Deut. vii. 1-3). the rule of Solomon was established by the re- The supposition of some rabbins, that the Egyptian moval of his enemies from within (chap. ii. 46), he had become a proselyte, is unnecessary; it is cersought to make it outwardly strong, also, by a tain, besides, that Egyptian worship was not infamily alliance with the king of Egypt. After troduced by her into Jerusalem; and even later no David's great victories over the surrounding na trace of it is found (chap. xi. 4-7).-By the city of tions, and especially after the Philistines were Darich we are to understand the ancient and rendered powerless, Egypt was the nearest and fortified Jerusalem, the citadel of David—the most powerful neighbor of the kingdom of Israel. upper city. The dwelling for the queen was but As the latter had increased so much in extent and temporary; when the new palace was built she power, the king of Egypt may also have desired inhabited it (chap. ix. 24).
"He made," says an alliance with the king of Israel (Ewald, Gesch. Josephus," the walls wider and firmer than they Isr., iii. s. 279); but such an alliance secured Solo had been.” David had only fortified the upper mon against other nations, and was even productive city (2 Sam. v. 7, 9). of an enlargement of his territory (chap. ix. 16). Vers. 2-4. Only the people sacrificed in high The Pharaoh named here "belonged certainly, fol. places, &c. Vers. 2 and 3 do not pronounce & lowing the synchronism, to the 21st Tanaitic judgment in general upon the condition of public dynasty, and may have been its last king, Psusen- worship in the beginning of Solomon's reign (Keil), nes or Psusennos, who reigned thirty-five years" | but form an introduction to verses 4–15. Tho (Winer, R.-W.-B., ii. s. 363).—This marriage with connection is this: when the rule of Solomon was
The fundamental - בָּמוֹת stands for גְבָעוֹת where
established from within by the extirpation of his animals possible were collected for sacrifice at foes, and outwardly by an alliance with Pharaoh, great festivals (see below on chap. viii. 62). The Solomon held a great festival for all Israel (2 Chron. feast must have at least lasted more than one day. i. 2, 3), not only to implore Jehovah's further aid to The passage we are considering has very unfairly his successfiu government, but also in gratitude for been selected to prove that the king himself sacri. the past. But as Jehovah's house was not yet ficed, i. e., exercised priestly functions. Even the built, and as the people, for want of a central great number of animals offered contradicts this; sanctuary, still sacrificed on high places here so does chap. vi. 2; where king Solomon is said 13 and there, Solomon followed this custom, but have built the house of the Lord and made winchose the greatest, i, e., the most important height, dows, &c., no more means that he performed masons' that at Gibeon, where the ancient tabernacle and and carpenters' work than that he himself offered the altar of burnt-offering stood. Vers. 2 and 3 the animals in sacrifice. serve then to explain how it was that Solomon, Vers. 5–10. The Lord appeared to Solomon, who loved Jehovah, and, like David, kept the law, &c. celebrated his great inauguration-festival on a Solomon saw Jehovah in any bodily form, but
The expression n$?? does not mean that high place. [Bishop Horsley remarks on ver. 3:
If the This is not mentioned as a circumstance of blame that Jehovah revealed himself to him. either in the people or in the king. For had they reading here and in ver. 10 be not nịn?, but during not sacrificed and burnt incense on high places, they is to be subjoined to it; the last more general could not have sacrificed or burnt incense at all. And it appears by the sequel that the sacrifice at term serves to designate the words which Solomon Gibeon was acceptable.-E.H.}-- The high places are it is evident that the word nin: does not specifically
understood to be really divine communications. For very often used in these books in the same sense; but not always. That 7pa does not mean “ barred belong to the appearing, as Thenius thinks, from entrance," and then “sacred forest” grove (The-examination of the parallel passage in 2 Chron. i. nius, Böttcher), is easy to see from Mic. iii. 12
, 7, where is Op?) occurs.—Solomon grounds where it is synonymous with 77, mountain ; (ver
. 6) his request that Jehovah would grant him gomp. Mic. i. 3, 4; Jer. xxvi. 18, with Amos iv. 1, the gifts needful for a sovereign, upon the mercy
shown his father David, to whom God had per.
formed His promises, and raised up his son to sit meaning is and must be: height, high place. Among upon the throne of Israel. He humbly calls himself all ancient nations, heights and mountains were a little child, not only as if he were just twelve years naturally chosen as the tit places for offering-up to old, as some rabbins say, but because his youth was the Deity who dwells on high, far above earth. unfitted for the great and arduous task laid on But as all prayer to and worship of the Godhead him. Solomon died after a reign of forty years, took the form of sacrifice, for which an altar was and was named before (chap. xi. 4) ipt, which requisite, nina became the expression for high makes him, as is also the general opinion, twenty places upon which altars were erected. By de- years old at least.-Going out and coming in is, grees, however, the use of the term became more like Deut. xxxi. 2; 1 Sam. xviii. 13, 16; 2 Sam. iii. extended, so that places of sacrifices, even if not 25; Ps. cxxi. 8, descriptive of the entire manner on high places, but in towns, and even in valleys, of life. The conclusion, from ver. 8, clearly refers were also called “high places” (2 Kings xvii. 9; to Gen. xxxii. 13 ; xiii. 16.—The you with 35 (liko Jer. vii. 31; xxxii. 35). In heathen worship, besides the altars for sacrifices, they had many Job xii. 3; xxxiv. 10; Prov. xv. 32, the seat of dwellings for the Divinity, not regular temples, thought and knowledge, ver. 9), as is to be seen but cells, chapels, tents, in which the image of the
(ver. 12), must be connected Deity stood, and these also were named niza (Ezek. xvi. 16); hence the expressions niran na
with the following pawis, and is not to be trans(1 Kings xiii. 32; 2 Kings xvii. 29), and ning 747 Vulgate, cor docile.
lated, as Luther has it, obedient heart; or as the
A right sentence depends (1 Kings xi. 7; xiv. 23). Because the worship at upon the hearing, that is, the trial of the parties, the high places so easily became entangled with and for this, understanding and judgment are most idolatry, the Mosaic law commanded that sacri- requisite for the judge (comp. 2 Sam. xiv. 17). fices should only be offered at Jehovah's dwelling- Ver. 7 refers to ruling, but ver. 9 to judging: the place-the tabernacle (Levit. xvii. 3). For the two conjoined forn tho kingly office (1 Sam. viii. unquiet times of the Judges, however, this pre- 6, 20; 2 Sam. xv. 4. Artemid. Oneir., ii. 14: script could not be obeyed; and as the patriarchs xpivelv tò åpxelv 8 heyov oi mažaio). sacrificed on high places before the law was Vers. 11-15. And God said, &c. Instead of given (Gen. xii. 8), their example was followed; the life of thine enemies (ver. `1), ver 13 reads even Samuel did this (1 Sam. ix. 12 sq.). Thus it 7i22; it is, therefore, military glory, victory which happened that this more convenient practice took is meant. upua yaris does not mean : “to ex
, was found possible to abolish it (2 Kings xxiii. ercise divine right” (Keil), but: to dispense jus4-23); it was always, however, an abnormity, tice.-Behold it was a dream, not that he only though unavoidable, so long as an house for knew on awaking that it was but a dream; and Jehovah's name, i. e., a central sanctuary, was not that he remembered distinctly on awaking wanting (for this last expression see below on what he had dreamed (Seb. Schmidt), but: "that chap. vi.).— A thousand burnt-offerings. In the it was more than a dream (an ordinary one) entire ancient world, the greatest number of something really divine; of this he became so
לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְׁפָּט from
convinced on awaking, that immediately after his must, in the providence of God, contribute to the return to the capital, he went to the place where strengthening of the Israelitish throne, and to the the sacred ark stood, and worshipped the Lord increuse of the power and glory of the Israelitish anew with many sacrifices and thanksgiving-offer- kingdom. Thus was this marriage a witness for ings. The thank-offerings were for this extraor- the divine beneficence in the deliverance from dinary proof of divine favor" (Hess). The sequel Egypt, to the goal of which Israel had come in showed that it was not a mere dream.
the reign of Solomon—the period of the richest Ver. 16. Then came there two women, &c. bloom of the kingdom. It was likewise a divine This story is meant to show, by one instance, that seal upon the independence of the people, which Solomon had really received what he had prayed had begun with the exodus from Egypt, and now for, and what God had promised him (Theodoret: had reached its completeness. [We beg leave to επιδείξαι την του βασίλεως έβουλήθη σοφίαν). dissent from the position here taken by our author. Thenius counts the whole among those passages (Comp. Exeget. on ver. 1). Solomon's alliance with which the writer gave from oral tradition; but we the Egyptian princess for political purposes was must not overlook the fact that he did not take it, after the fashion of worldly princes, and in direct like other narratives, from the "book of the Acts hostility with the theocratic spirit. Egypt was of Solomon” (chap. xi. 41). [The writer of the quite as much an * abomination as “Canaan," Book of the Kings refers only at the end of Solo- and we are surprised that our author should apolo. mon's reign to the book of the Acts of Solomon, gize for Solomon in the matter.-E. H.) and not at each step in his career.—E. H.]—The 2. That sacrificing and burning of incense in high rabbins derive nizi from far, to feed, nourish; and places was forbidden in the Mosaic law rests, not explain it thus with the Chaldee, here as in Josh. upon the grounds of outward regulation, but was ii
. 1, by jP7310, 1. e., hostesses, evidently to avoid a natural, necessary consequence of the Mosaic some offence. On this account, it can scarcely side him there is no God. He has chosen Israel,
fundamental principles. Jehovah is one, and beallude to harlots, because they, as Calmet remarks, out of all the peoples of the earth, to be His people; seldom have many children, and if they have, do not usually care much about providing for He has made a covenant with them, and as a sign them. As 779p is generally spoken of intercourse midst of His people. As He himself is one only,
and pledge of this covenant will He dwell in the which is extra-matrimonial, or adulterous, so this so also is and can His dwelling-place he only one. passage refers to "those who have had children, This is the place where He "meets " His people, being unmarried" (Gerlach).
i, e., exercises the covenant relation (Exod. xxix. Vers. 17–28. And the one woman said, &c. 42 sq.). The concentration of the Jehovah-cultus She alleges that the other can persist so obstinate- is connected as inseparably with monotheism, as ly in her denial, because there was no one else is the worship in high places, i. e., in any favorite in the house. The latter probably took the child spot, with polytheism. From the Mosaic standaway to avoid the just and heavy reproach of point, the worship in high places appeared as an having killed her own child, and the consequent ignoring, yea, as a denial, of the dwelling of disgrace she would incur. This is at least more Jehovah in the midst of His people, and, conseprobable than that she wished to continue nursing quently, of the election and of the covenant of for her health's sake (Thenius), or that she thought Jehovah, whereof it was the witness and pledge to inherit something in the future from the child (cf. Josh. xxii.). If the law in question could not (Hess); or, finally, that she intended to sell it be carried out in times of unrest and of convulsion, afterwards for her support (Le Clerc).--In ver. nevertheless, as soon as the period of the undis21, at first the time given is the morning, in a turbed possession of Canaan was entered upon, it general way; but next, the expression is the same would remain the business of every truly theoas clara luce (Vulgate), or, “as it was becoming cratic king, as the servant of Jehovah, to put an brighter and brighter” (Thenius). D'ONT (ver. 26) is elencas far as possible, to worship in high places. the New Testament opháyxva (2 Cor. vi. 12; vii. 15). Israel victory over all enemies, most earnest to Comp. Gen. xliii. 30. Luther: “ for her motherly erect an enduring central sanctuary, for which the heart yearned upon her son.' The words :| old tabernacle, especially since the removal of neither mine nor thine, &c., do not only show want the ark of the covenant from it, was no longer of maternal love, but also envy and dislike of her serviceable. Since this, however, was denied him, accuser. They feared. Comp. Luke iv. 36; viii. 25. he laid the charge of it upon Solomon, his son and The sentence made a deep impression; Dribs is sencerah"; and made the building of a house of here the same as in Ps. lxviii. 16; lxv. 10. reign (1 Chron. xxviii. 2 sq.). After the building of
the temple, sacrificing in high places should have
disappeared totally; but it forever kept emerging, HISTORICAL AND ETHICAL.
even under kings who in other respects adhered
firmly to the worship of Jehovah. Nevertheless, 1. Solomon's marriage with a daughter of it is constantly spoken of as a defect or an abnor Pharaoh was, strictly speaking, a political alliance; mity (1 Kings xv. 14; xxii. 44; 2 Kings xii. 4; xiv but it has, nevertheless, also significance in the 4; xv. 4, 35; xxi. 3). history of redemption. The great and mighty 3. The divine revelation which Solomon re king of the land, which for Israel had been "the ceived, came, as in so many other instances both house oi bondage" in which it had eaten "the in the Old and also even in the New Testament. bread of affliction” (Exod. xx. 2 ; Deut. xvi. 3), through the medium of a dream. In itself the gives now to the king of this once despised and dream is, according to the Scripture, something oppressed people, his daughter in marriage, and I wholly idle and vain (Ecclos. v. 6; Job xx. 8; Is.