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earnestness and courage (Matt. x. 28; see listor. I greater and better for their prince and ruler than and Ethical). How grand is this Nathan, how re- that God, at all times, may be with him.-Vers. proving to all who sleep when they should be 38-40. The typical in Solomon's elevation to the wakeful, who are dumb when they should coun- sovereignty: (a) He is established in spite of all sel, who flatter when they should warn.–Ver. 11. machinations against him (Ps. ii. 2; Heb. v. 5); It is a solemn duty not to conceal what can prove (b) he is anointed with oil from the sanctuary (Is. an injury and evil to an individual or to a commu- lxi. l; Luke iv. 18); (c) he makes his entry as nity, but to expose it at the right time and in the prince of peace amid the jubilee and praise of the right place, so that the injury may be averted. — people (Zach. ix. 9; Matt. xxi. 1 89.).—STARKE: Ver. 12. What Nathan here says to Bath-sheba, My Christian! reflect here upon the trumpetChrist and his apostles, in an infinitely higher sense, sounding and the jubilee-shout, when the heavenly say to us all, especially to every father and to every | Solomon shall take possession of his kingdom mother. He who has come into the world to de- (Rev. xi. 16), and see to it that thou also mayest liver and to save our souls, cries, Come into me, be amongst those who have part in this joy. &c. (Matt. xi. 28, 29), and the apostle advises the Vers. 41-49. The frustration of the schemes jailor, who asks in terror and alarm, What shall I of Adonijah (Job v. 12): (a) The intelligence he do to be saved ? i.e., delivered, Believe in the Lord obtains; (b) the effect produced by this intelli. Jesus Christ, so shall thon and thy house be de- gence. To an evil conscience (Joab) the trumpets livered. How many take kindly the good advice which announce victory and joy are judgmentof a wise man, for themselves and for their child- trumpets, which sound forth, Thou art weighed and ren, in their earthly and outward affairs, but who found wanting. The same message in which Dawish to hear nothing of the best advice which vid expresses himself, Blessed be, &c., ver. 48, shall bring blessedness to their souls.-Ver. 14. works terror and alarm in Adonijah and his party. The purity of the counsel is confirmed by the ac- So still ever sounds the “good message " that the companying result.–Vers. 15–21. Bath-sheba be true Prince of peace, Christ, has won the victory, fore the king. She reminds him of his duty (a) and is seated at the right hand of God, which to towards God, before whom he had sworn (what some is for thanksgiving and praise, so that they one has vowed before God, according to God's support themselves upon it, but to others it is a will, one must hold to under all circumstances; of stoue of stumbling, so that they fall and are conthis one must remind kings and princes); (b) to-founded (Is. viii. 14; Luke ii. 34).—In the intoxiwards the people whose well-being and whose cation of sinful pleasure and of God-forgetting: woe were in his keeping (the great responsibility frivolous jubilation, the holy God sends, oftenof him towards whom all eyes are directed); (c) times, the thunder and lightning of his judgment, towards the wife and son whose happiness and so that the besotted and maddened may thereby life were at stake (woe to the father through whose be rendered sober and made to experience that guilt wife and children, after his death, fall into there is an holy God in heaven who will not allow contempt and wretchedness).–Vers. 22–27. As himself to be mocked. When Adonijah held a Nathan does not hold back from the fulfilment of great festivity he had plenty of friends; but when his holy calling through consideration of the dan- the messenger came with evil tidings, no one, not ger threatening his life, and of the illness of the even the bold Joab, stood by him; they all forsook king, so David is deterred in nothing when it was him (Eccles. vi. 10–12).—Vers. 50–53. Adonijah said, Behold the prophet! from listening to the covered himself with shame (Prov. xi. 2): (a) He man of God, though his word, like a two-edged was afraid of Solomon (he who does not fear the sword, may pierce through his soul. To have a Lord, must at last become afraid of men). How Nathan by one's side, wlio refers at the right time miserable the contrast between the young, haughty and in the right way to the will of God, is the Adonijah and the aged, feeble, but faithful-hearted choicest blessing for a prince. ** He wlio fears God and humble David; (b) he flies to the horns of lays hold of such a friend” (Eccles. vi. 16).--The the altar and begs for mercy: (he who said, I ministers of God and the preachers of His word will be king, calls himself Solomon's servant. Osshould not indeed mingle in worldly business and tentation and boasting, as a r:Je, end in cowardice political affairs, but their calling always requires and cringing. He can bring down him who is them to testify against uproar and sedition, for proud (Dan. iv. 34). In the old ccvenant the horns he who resisteth the powers, resisteth the ordi- of the altar were the places of refuge for those nance of God (Rom. xiii. 2).— With questions who had forfeited life and sought grace; in the which lead to a knowledge of self, he who has new covenant God has directed us to a horn of the care of souls often accomplishes more than by salvation (Luke i. 69), the cross of the Lord, which direct reproaches and disciplinary speeches. all must seize and hold fast to who seek forgive
Vers. 28-37. David's decision: (a) His oath ness and grace, and wish to pass from death unto (vers. 29, 30) is an evidence of his firm faith in the life. That is the only and true asylum; he who divine promise; (b) his command is a living proof flees thither avails himself of the word of the of the truth of the word, Is. xl. 31, and Ps. xcii. great Prince of peace, Go in peace, thy faith 15 sq. (see Histor, and Ethical).- Ver. 30 sq. The liath saved thee. The most beautiful prerogative word of a prince must stand firm and not be of the crown is to do mercy for judgment; but broken. Happy for the king who, under all cir- mercy must never be for a covering of iniquity. cumstances, observes what he has promised. Fi. Hence by the side of the word: Thy sins are fordelity in high places meets with fidelity from those given theel stands the other word: Sin no more! below.-Ver. 36. Where the government is in firm Kings and princes do well when, after Solomon's hands there is found also ling, joyous obedi- example, they begi: their reign with an act of ence. Upon God's blessing all is founded. With- grace. out God's Amen our Amen avails nothing. Loyal [BP. HALL. “Outward happiness and friend. sub.ects know that they can wish for nothing ship are not known until our last act. In the im
potency of either our revenge or recompense it many a confident boast of their prospering design will easily appear who loved us for ourselves, who many a scorn of the despised faction of Solomon for their own ends." Suitable for ver. 7.
and now, for their last dish (ver. 49) is served up BP. HALL, for ver. 41. "No doubt at this feast astonishment, and fearful expectation of a just there was many a health drunken to Adonijah, I revenge.-E. H.]
B.-David's last words to Solomon, and his death.
CHAPTER II. 1-12.
1 Now the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and he charged 2 Solomon his son, saying, I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong there3 fore, and shew thyself a man; and keep the charge of the Lord [Jehovah] thy
God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His judgments, and His testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that
thou mayest prosper' in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest 4 thyself: that the Lord [Jehovah] may continue [confirm]? His word which he
spake concerning me, saying, If thy children (sons]' take heed to their way, to
walk before me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul,' there shall 5 not fail thee (said he) a man on the throne of Israel. Moreover thou knowest
also what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me, and [even] what he did to the two captains of the hosts of Israel, unto Abner the son of Ner, and unto Amasa the son of Jether, whom he slew, and shed the blood of war in peace, and put the
blood of war upon his girdle that was about his loins, and in his shoes that were 6 on his feet. Do therefore according to thy wisdom, and let not his hoar head go 7 down to the
peace. . But shew kindness unto the sons of Barzillai the Gileadite, and let them be of those that eat at thy table: for so they came to 8 me when I fled because of [before] Absalom thy brother. And, behold, thou
hast with thee Shimei the son of Gera, a Benjamite [a son of the Jaminite]' of Bahurim, which cursed me with a grievous curse in the day when I went to
Mahanaim: but he came down to meet me at Jordan, and I sware to him by 9 the Lord [Jehovah], saying, I will not put thee to death with the sword. Now
therefore hold him not guiltless : for thou art a wise man, and knowest what thou oughtest to do unto him; but his hoar head bring thou down to the grave
with blood. 10 So [And] David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David. 11 And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years : seven years
reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three years reigned he in Jerusalem. 12 Then sat Solomon upon the throne of David his father; and his kingdom
was established greatly.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.
1 Ver. 8.– [The Hed. Salon
bears equally well the sense prosper or do wisely; of. Josh. 1. 7. The VV. generally adopt the former.
* Ver. 4.– [Confirm is the proper sense of Dip, as in all the VV.
: Ver. 4.-[It is better here to preserve the masculine form as in all the VV., the reference being undoubtedly to the line upon the throne.
4 Ver. 4.-[The Vatican Sept. omits the words concerning me, and also with all their soul.
• Ver. 4.-[De Rossi rejects as spurlous the word Tors, which is wanting in Kennicott's MS. 170, and in the Valg. and Arab.
• Ver. 5.—[Many MSS., the Syr. and Arab, express the conjunction .
• Ver. 8.—[Heb. ???.719-son of the Jaminite, i. em of the descendants of Jamin, a son of Simeon (Num. Ixvi. 12) The Heb. for the patriarch Benjamin is written in one word; the Gentile name is written separately, but without the article. All the instances cited by Gesenius in verbo, are either without the article, or else refer to this very Shimel. Of the VV., the Sept. and Vuig. have appreciated the distinction; Chald., Syr., and Arab. agree with the A. V.-F. G.)
to Joab and to Shimei (chap. ii. 28 sq.). This EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL
supposition is as unnecessary as arbitrary.-Upon
the double murder of which Joab was guilty, Ver. 1. Now the days of David, &c. The comp. 2 Sam. iii. 27 sq., and xx. 8 sq. The first Chronicles omit the history of Adonijah, but nar- threw a false suspicion upon David (2 Sam. ii. rate instead, that David ordered a solemn act of 37); the second was coupled with scorn and homage of the entire people, in the persons of detiance of the royal authority (2 Sam. xx. 11); their representatives, towards Solomon when he hence what he has done to me (to my injury). was anointed "a second time” (1 Chron. xxiii. 1 D, ver. 5, literally, he shed" blood of war sy., and xxix. 20–25). Such also was the case with Saul (1 Sam. xi. 12-15), and with David him when he killed Abner and Amasa, not as foes, in
peace, i. e., he furnished an unheard of exainple self (2 Sam. v. 1-3; 1 Chron. xi. 1-3). Solomon's first anointing was rather impromptu, called for open, honorable warfare, but murderously 'de.
stroyed the inoffensive. Instead of the second by the pressure of circumstances, upon which "blood of war," Thenius, after the Sept.(aiua adon), account it was proper that it should be fola reads "p3 07, which makes good sense, certainly, lowed by another done with all solemnity before the whole people. It took place also before that but is unnecessary.-Girdle and shoes are not here which is narrated in the section to be considered. introduced as “ especial parts of oriental costume" The words, "a second time," show that the first (Thenius, Keil); nor is it thereby said, " from the anointing was well known to the chronicler. His girdle of his loins, to the latchet of his shoes," je, narrative, besides, does not "rest upon liberty over and over (Ewald); but girdle and shoes he ru with the history” (Thenius), but is a filling out of are rather the marks of the warrior, as in Isai. v. our own, with which it agrees very well.
27 and Eph. vi. 14 sq., for the sword is fastened Vers. 2-4. I go the way, &c. The form of ex- to the girdle (2 Sam. xx. 8), and the shoes serve pression reminds one of Josh. xxiii. 14; 1 Sam. iv. for marching, and provided with both, one enters 9; but especially of Josh. i. 7. The exhortation: upon battle. David also means to say: Joab Be thou strong, therefore, and show thyself a man! has soiled with murder and blood the insignia of does not mean: be consoled on account of my de his rank and dignity as a soldier and general parture, bear it manfully; but it refers to what issimo, and covered his office with shame and disfollows—be strong and brave in the “charge" of grace.-According to thy wisdom.
* David Jehovah, in the fulfilment of His prescripts. The does not wish Solomon to invent a pretext for
taking Joab's life; but he exhorts him to observe expression : 717? nau? 7729 does not convey wisely the right moment and occasion, when Joab the sense : consider what Jehovah wills to have shall furnish a reason, to hold him to account also considered, i. e., His laws (for then the following for his blood-guiltiness, so that no murmuring shall would be pleonastic), but rather custodies custo- arise among the people; but every one can see the diam Jehovae, keep the charge which thou art justice of the punishment” (Starke).—In peace, bound to Jehovah, to accomplish; be a true watch. i.e., so unpunished as if he had done only good, man in the service of Jehovah and for Him (comp. and committed no crime worthy of death. 1 Chron. xxiii. 32; xii. 29; Numb. iii. 6–8, 38). This Vers. 7–9. Barzillai. Comp. 2 Sam. xvii. 27 charge is fulfilled in walking in the ways of God- sq. At thy table, i. e., not that they shall in observing His various commandments. The ex- have the privilege of eating with the king at the pressions which here, as elsewhere, so frequently royal table itself” (Keil); but they shall receive standing side by side, denote the latter (Dent. v. their necessary food from the court, like the royal 28; viii. 11; Ps. cxviii. 5 sq.), do not admit of servants Dan. i. 5). The recollection of the noble sharply-drawn distinctions; but they "denote to service of Barzillai leads to the mention of the gether the totality of the law upon its different crime of Shimei, committed on the same occasion sides and relations to men ” (Keil).—Sann does (2 Sam. xvi. 5 sq., and xix. 21).—797 (ver. 8) does not mean exactly " to have good fortune” (Ge. Bahurin, where Shimnei dwelt (2 Sam. xvi. 5), was a
not mean under thy power (Starke), but near thee. senius, De Wette, and others), but to be skilful, village in the neighborhood of Jerusalem (Joseph. wise. He who in all things stands upon the com- Ant. 7, 9,7), about one and a-half hours' (five miles mandments of God, and governs himself thereafter, is and carries himself wisely. What lie does, and a quarter) distant from it. David does not say will and must have a prosperous issue, and come
simply, he cursed me; but emphatically, he cursed
me with a curse, and adds the epithet, nu???, to a right conclusion (Deut. xxix. 8; Jer. iii. 15 sq.); xxiii. 5; Prov. xvii. 8; 2 Kings xviii. which, according to Thenius, because the primary 7).-In ver. 4 the positive promise in 2 Sam. signification of 172 is, to be exhausted, siek, vi. 11 sq. is expressed in negative form, as also in means "heinous'" in the sense of horrendus. Acchap. viii. 25; ix. 5; Jer. xxxiii. 17. The 737fication is to be powerful, strong, and for this the
cording to Kimchi and Gesenius, the primary signidoes not denote a completely unbroken succes- remaining passages, where the word occurs, decide sion, but only the opposite of a break forever (Mich. ii. 10; Joh vi. 25; xvi. 3; Vu.gate, Jale. (Hengstenberg). Thy house and seed shall never dictio pessima).—For thou art a wise man, asd be exterminated, what catastrophies soever may knowest, i. e., I leave to thy discretion the how happen.
and when of the punishment. An airia £iio; ons Vers. 5, 6. The charge which David delivers in (Josephus), will not be wanting. With blood, rers. 5-9, were not, according to Ewald and the opposite of the “in peace in ver. 6, inas: Eisenlohr, originally made by him; but were first, much as he has deserved it. at some subsequent time, put into his mouth in Vers. 10, 11. In the city of David, i. e., in order to explain and justify Solomon's severity Mount Zion, in which, aves that served as burial
vaults were constructed (Winer, R.-W.-B., ii. | Woe to the land whose king is a child (instead of a s. 736). According to Thenius the entrance into man), Eccles. x. 16. Firmness and manliness, how. these vaults was on the east, in the vale Tyropoeon, ever, are not the fruit of caprice, and of an unin a sloping declivity of the mountain, opposite broken heart. It is through grace that the heart the spring Siloam. The later kings also were is made strong (Heb. xiii. 9). buried here (1 Kings xi. 43; xiv. 31; xv. 8, &c.). 3. The special directions, which refer to indiThe still so-called kings' graves are different, and vidual persons, David likewise communicates, not are situated on the opposite side, to the north of as a private man, but as king of Israel. Joab's the Damascus gate (Robinson, Palestine, vol. i. double murder had gone fully unpunished. At the p. 240 and 357 sq.). David had, without doubt, time of its commission David was not in a condiprepared these burial-places for himself and his tion to be able to punish him; but he felt the full successors. In what high estimation his tomb weight of the deed, and in his horror of it uttered an was held is clear from the circumstance that it imprecation of Joab (2 Sam. iii. 29). In the eyes of was known even during the time of Christ (Acts ii. the people, nevertheless, the non-punishment must 29). According to 2 Sam. v. 5, six months were have been regarded as an insult against law and added to the seven years. Ver. 12 is the transi- righteousness, the charge of which devolved upon tion to the next section, where it is told how the king. “It was a stain upon his reign not yet Solomon's administration was strengthened. blotted out. Even upon his death-bed he cannot
think otherwise than that it is his duty, as that of HISTORICAL AND ETHICAL.
the supreme judge, to deliver to his successor a
definite direction about it” (Hess, Gesch. David's, ii. 1. In the last words of David to Solomon, it is s. 220). It lay upon his conscience, and he denot so much the father speaking to his son, as the sired that this stain somehow (“ do according to king of Israel, the head of the theocratic kingdom, thy wisdom," ver. 1) should be removed. More. to his successor upon the throne. From this over, Joab's participation in Adonijah's revolt stand-point we must view alike the general and must have appeared as dangerous for the throne the special portions of the whole discourse. The of Solomon. As the punishment of Joab was to calling of a king of Israel consisted especially in him a matter of conscience, so also was Barzillai's this: to preserve the “ kingdom of Jehovah compensation. What Barzillai had done, he had (1 Chron. xxviii. 5; xxix. 23); to be not the repre- done for him as king, as the anointed of Jehovah. sentative, but the servant of Jehovah, the true Such fidelity and devotion to the legitimate reigning and proper king, also to observe "all the words of house (Königthum) in a time of great and almost uni. the Law, and all the ordinances of Jehovah " versal falling away, ought to be publicly requited, (Deut. xvii. 14-20); but, before all, that supreme and to be recognized in honorable remembrance and chief command, Exod. xx. 3-6, to observe com- after the death of the king. This compensation pletely the covenant which Jehovah had made with must serve, no less than the righteous punishment His chosen people. With this high calling David's of Joab, to the firm establishment of the throne of soul was completely filled; and as he had con- Solomon. In direct contrast with the action of Bartinually “done what was right in the eyes of zillai was that of Shimei. He did not curse David Jehovah, and had not turned aside from anything as a private person, but he cursed him with the that had been enjoined upon him all his life long heaviest curse as the “anointed of Jehovah," and (1 Kings xv. 5), so, also, in the last moments of therein Jehovah himself directly. For blasphemy his life, it was his greatest solicitude that his suc- against the king was on the same level with blascessor upon the throne should stand upon “the phemy against God (2 Kings xxi: 10). Both were charge of Jehovah” (ver. 3), i. e., should take care punished with death (Lev. xxiv. 14 sq.; Exod. that the law of Moses, with all its particular pre- xxii. 27; 2 Sam. xvi. 9), hence also Abishai thought scripts, in their entire circumference, should be that Shimei should be put to death (2 Sam. xix. maintained. This he earnestly and solemnly sets 22). But David wished on the day when God had forth as the foundation of a prosperous and blessed shown him a great mercy, to show mercy himself, reign, and as the condition of the fulfilment of the and upon that account spared his life. But “it promise made to him in respect of the continuance was no small matter to allow the miscreant to of his "house" (2 Sam. vii.). So David appears spend his life near him (no banishment was talked here, yet once more, in his grand historical signi- of). And to permit him to spend his days quietly ficance, namely, as the type of a theocratic king, under the following reign (which had never been by which the conduct of all subsequent kings is promised him), would have been a kindness that measured (chap. iii. 3, 6, 14; ix. 4; x. 4–6; xi. might have been greatly abused as a precedent 33–38; xiv. 8; xv. 5-11; 2 Kings xiv. 3 ; xvi. 2; of unpunished crimes” (Hess). In fact, Shimei xviii. 3 ; xxii. 2). The throne of David is Israel's was a dangerous man, and capable of repeating model throne; no king of Israel has left behind what he had done to David. As for the rest, Dahim such a testament as David here.
vid left Solomon to choose the manner and time 2. It is worthy of remark, that the man who of his punishment, only he was not to go unpun. reigned forty years, and whose life as ruler was ished. 80 rich in experience, should, amongst the counsels 4. David's conduct on his dying-bed • has fre. he imparted to his successor, have placed this in quently been regarded as a great reproach to him. the fore front; " be thou strong, therefore, and show The latest (secular) history passes the following thyself a man?" He knew what belongs to the judgment upon it: “If David's life and deeds had office of ruler. Moral weaknesses, swaying hither not sufficiently shown his mind, these last words and thither like a reed moved by the wind; un of the dying man would leave no doubt about his seasonable pliability is a greater defect in a ruler characier. We must turn away from such. than if he be overtaken by this or that particular blood-thirsty desire for revenge which, though insin in private life. Rightly says the Scripture, nate with the Semitic races, is united here with a
concealment of purpose and malice that are pecu- sions objected to, to vilify David at the last, as liar to David. His vengeance, even out of the Duncker does, but on the contrary he tells then, grave itself, determines to strike, through the to his honor, to show how entirely king of Israel hand of his son, an insignificant man, to whom he David was, even on his dying-bed. (David) had once promised forgiveness when he 5. Chronicles (I., xxix. 28) relates the death of himself was in a strait. Forgetting all the ser- David with the addition that he died in a good cid vices and victories he owed to Joab, David deter- age, full of days, riches, and honor.” We see how mines, in order to gratify a long-cherished ill-feel- much he was honored even in death, from the fact ing, to have a man, to whom he owed his kingdom that his weapons were preserved as relics in the and whom he himself had not ventured to touch, sanctuary (2 Kings xi. 10). Compare the eulogy in murdered by his son, ostensibly for two acts which Ecclesiasticus, chap. xlvii
. 2–11. For the character Joab did, if not with David's consent, yet by no of the great, and indeed greatest, king of Israel, means against his will; the fruits of which David though now so often unjustly judged, by whose had willingly accepted, and which acts he had not name the expected Messiah was designated by the made the slightest efforts to punish” (Duncker, prophets (Ezekiel xxxiv. 23 ; xxxvii. 24; Hos. iii. 5), Gesch. des Alterthums, i. s. 386). In this view it comp. Niemeyer, Charaktistik der Bibel, iv. s. 107is entirely overlooked that David did not then 358, and Ewald, Gesch. Isr., iii. s. 250–257, which speak as a private man, but as a theocratic king, says, with regard to the "last (poetical) words " and this judgment of him is quite false, no regard of David (2 Sam. xxiii. 1-7): “No prince, especially being paid to the time and the circumstances. The one who did not inherit the kingdom, could close rough, false assassin Joab, who finally conspires his life with more blessed divine peace, or a more with Adonijah, is made to appear as a man of high assured and cheerful view into the future.” merit, and the blasphemer and traitor Shimei, as an insignificant, unfairly-treated man, while David, who departs life without one crime on his
HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL conscience as king, and who desires to fulfil the demands of justice as well as of gratitude, is said Vers. 1-9. David's last words to Solomon (a) to have displayed the whole of his wicked and with regard to the kingdom generally (vers. 1-4), malicious character at the last. "Nothing bui an () respecting some individuals (vers. 5–9; see uncritical confusion, which wished to beliold in Historical and Ethical).- Ver. 2. Various as are David a saint and a complete model of virtue the paths of men from their birth, yet they all, (which the Scriptures nowhere assert him to be), kings as well as beggars, rich and poor, go the could call forth, as contrast, the degradation of tho way to the grave (Ecclesiasticus xl. 1–3). And yet king, which is as one-sided as unpsychological" so many live as if they had not to travel that road (Winer, R.-W.-B., i s. 258). [Yes! but our au- | (Ps. xxxix. 5, 6; xc. 11, 12).-The passing nature thor forgets that David had sworn to Shimei, Thou and vanity of the world, with its allurements and shalt not die! (2 Sam. xix. 23); and "the king” it splendor, is a strong exhortation and warning from was (i. e., David as king) that "swore unto him.” | God to hold fast to the word that lives forever, Clearly David's act of grace to Shimei was an act of and shall not pass even when heaven and earth royal right, royal clemency, and nothing but sophis- pass away (1 Peter i. 24, 25; 1 John ii. 17; Luke try can justify his dying charge to Solomon not to xxi. 33).—Be firm and be a man! What is requilet the unfortunate man die in peace.-E. H.] When site to be one? how shall one become one ? of Bunsen's Bibel-werk says: "The vengeance of Da- what use? (Heb. xiii. 9; 1 Cor. xv. 5–8; xvi. 13). vid can never be justified from the Christian point - Ver. 3. The last and best will of a father to his of view,” it is quite overlooked that that point son: (a) Trust in God's protection of yourself and of view is not the fitting one here. David be- all whom God has confided to your care; (b) walk longed to the Old Testament economy, to the time in His ways; let Him lead and guide you, He will of the law, not the gospel, and his conduct must do it well (Prov. xxiii. 26; Ps. xxxv. 5); (c) keep be judged in the light of the former. It is an His ways and ordinances (Eccles. xii. 13; Ps. i. 1-6; anachronism to measure Old Testament persons Tob. iv. 6). Such an inheritance is greater and by the standard of the sermon on the mount. better than all the gold and land he might leave Besides, the same apostle who exhorts the believ- you.—True prudence and wisdom are not born of ers as follows: Dearly beloved, avenge not your- human thought and much knowledge, but are the selves, immediately after, speaking of authorities-- fruit of the fear of God, and of walking in His and David speaks as such here-tells them that ways and commandments (Ps. cxi. 10; Job xxviii. they are “ministers of God, revengers to execute 28).—God-fearing parents are more anxious about wrath upon him that doeth evil” (Rom. xii. 19; their children keeping close to God and His word, xii. 4). In the kingdom of God in which the law than about leaving them temporal goods.—Ver. 4. of earthly punishments prevailed, such a crime The promises of God only proceed from His grace, (like that of Joab and Shimei) could not remain not our merit; but their fulfilment is always coupled unpunished. He, too, who, when He was reviled, with conditions, which we have to perform if we reviled not again; who, when He suffered, threat- would enjoy them (Heb. xi. 6; 1 Tim. iv. 8).—Vers. ened not (1 Peter ii. 23), announced in a parable 5-9. We cannot go the way of all the world in the final judgment of His enemies : “But those peace, as long as we have anything remaining on mice enemies, which would not that I should reign our conscience, or any debt to justice and grateful over them, bring hither, and slay them before me love to cancel. We should forgive our enemies (Luke xix. 27: v. Gerlach). We scarcely find as from our hearts, as we desire the Lord to forgive many instances of personal love to a foe, gener- us, and especially on our dying-beds. But auosity and goodness, in the life of any Old Testa- thority was instituted to “do justice; to prevent ment hero, as in David's. It is evident that the and punish wickedness; " it commits a sin and author ol our books does not relate the commis. I has a crime to answer for so long as it does not do